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THE PALESTINE FOUNDATION FUND. The Palestine Foundation Fund, known as Keren Hayesod, has already contributed $1,500,000. There is now a campaign in progress to raise $6,000,000 for this year.
AVERICAN ZIONIST MEDICAL UNIT. The American Zionist Medical Unit maintains three hospitals and a dispensary and clinic in the more densely populated districts of Jerusalem, Tiberias, and Safed. The upkeep of the hospital, clinics, and dispensaries approximates $400,000 a year.
The Joint Distribution Committee, which contributes $12.500 a month toward the medical and sanitary work in Palestine, also cares for orphan children, numbering 2,655, at a cost of £5,000, equivalent in American money to $2,300 per month.
AMERICAN ZION COMMONWEALTH. The American Zion Commonwealth is an American corporation with a membership of 5,000 and a total subseription of over $3,000,000. The purpose of this corporation is to buy and develop land in Palestine for its members and their friends, whenever such members can not take personal possession of their lands. The company has already purchased 8,000 dunam land (a dunam of labi is me-fourth of an acre), upon which they expended for buildings and derelooment of land $275,000.
Wishin several months they will be in a position to settle 100 families in the Cology Balfouria, which has been developed by American methods and with American machinery.
AMERICAS PALESTINE FRCIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. This corporation has inrested orer $125.000 in Palestine and has a very large membership. They have erected a fruit packing and canning warehouse in Petach Tikvah and are now considering plans for the erection of another such building in an adjacent colony.
WARBADIA (CARPET COMPANY), The Marbadia (carpet-wearing company) was organized for the purpose of developing the earpet-weaving industry in Palestine. They have invested about $25,000. A number of carpets have appeared on exhibition in New York and Philadelphia.
NATIONAL STRUCTURAL SUPPLY CO. This corporation was organized for the purpose of manufacturing building materials and to construct houses in Palestine. They hare invested over $50,000.
ACHOOZA ALEPH. Achooza Aleph is composed of a group of American Zionists, organized for the purpose of forming a Palestine cooperative colony. They have invested several thousand dollars and own a considerable amount of land.
The Poreah was organized for the purpose of creating a cooperative unit for the colonization of land in Palestine. This is one of the earliest cooperative groups and is composed mostly of American Jews who live in the West. Its center is St. Louis, Mo.
There is an indication that during the coming 12 nouths the amount to be invested will reach several millions The following new concerns will probably be opened during this year: (1) American Herel Corporation. 2) Central Mortgage Bank. (3) Urban Mortgage Bank, (+) Industrial Bank of Zonist Orzanization, (5) Industrial Bank (private).
AMERICAN-DANISH FURNITURE FACTORY, JERUSALEM,
The factory has been started about a year ago.
There are a number of other American corporations in Palestine, and Palestine corporations in which American Jews are interested. There are several thousand American Jews residing in Palestine. The interest of American Jews in the development of Palestine is manifested in their participation in industrial enterprises and in the numbers who reside there.
Mr. FISH. Congressman Larson of Minnesota wants to submit a few telegrams.
Mr. LARSON. I will do it at the session to-morrow morning.
The CHAIRMAN. We will meet again this afternoon and try to finish with everybody.
Mr. CONNALLY. Did the committee intend to resume with the gentleman from Yale again to-day, or on Monday?
Mr. REED. I am here, but there are a few half civilized Arabs here who.would like to speak.
The CHAIRMAN. Very well; we will hear them. STATEMENT OF REV. ISAAC LANDMAN. LAWRENCE, LONG ISLAND.
The CHAIRMAN. The Rev. Isaac Landman is here with a letter of introduction from our colleague from California. You may proceed. Doctor LANDMAN. I live in Lawrence, Long Island. I am a Rabbi.
I am editor of the American Hebrew. I am an American citizen. I was born in Russia. I am here—the best explanation for my being here is the remark that this gentleman made before I had uttered a word. There is an organization, the Zionist Organization, that has been going around the country for some years giving a wrong impression concerning the attitude of the Jews toward Palestine concerning the attitude of the Jews toward the countries in which they live. This is the second time this morning that you were told about certain Jews who were traitors, because they differed in opinion with the Zionists. The first time is in the record. You were also told that there are a number of reform Jews in this country who do not count. Well, I am one that belongs to that class.
Let me say at the outset that no Jew in America or elsewhere is opposed to the restoration of Palestine. When President Wilson left for Paris, there was a document handed to him by Mr. Kahn. This document called forth the ire of a little group of serious politicians who head the Zionist organization of America. This document was signed by about 275 leading Americans. In this document, at the time when the opposition to Zionism among Jews in America was very great and active, though not organized—this opposition is not organized to-day because no Jews want to harm in any way the rebuilding of Palestine-is set forth the thought that the idea which had been conveyed by the Zionist organizations, that the Jews living all over the world form a nation in a political sense, was not in accordance with the thought of the signers of the statement, who, indeed, represent the thought of the majority of Jews in America. We resent the idea that the Jews constitute a nation.
Mr. Fish. Do you maintain that the majority of the Jews are opposed to this proposition?
Doctor LANDMAN. Are opposed to political Zionism, to the idea that the Jews all over the world constitute a nation.
Mr. Fish. Then I would like you to account for the fact that there are in Congress representing Jewish districts from New York City five Congressmen, all of whom are ready to testify, I believe, or have testified, that their constituencies are practically unanimous in favor of this particular legislation, or, rather, to a resolution favoring the establishment of a national home in Palestine for the Jewish people.
Doctor LANDMAN. If you will not feel that I am casting slurs, I want to say that behind these resolutions is a very serious political mistake, a mistake of politicians. Certain Zionist leaders have given the impression to certain politicians that they represent the Jewish vote. Now, there is no such thing as a Jewish yote. There are men within the organization who are opposed to the nationalist element in Zionism, but do not want to withdraw from the organization for the reason that they do not want to do anything to harm the rebuilding of Palestine any more than any other Jews. Included in
the Zionist organization are men, women, and children who will not vote for 10 or 20 years. There are only 30,000 members in the Zionist organization on the authority of the organization itself. In a circular recently issued by the Zionist Organization of America, they pleaded for additional members. Part of it reads as follows:
“ If you will secure a minimum of two members before April 25, the date on which the League of Nations meets to consider the Palestine mandate, our membership will reach the 100,000 mark."
That is the answer.
Mr. Fish. Do you not believe in this resolution? I am sure the Zionist organization sincerely believes in it. And so do the overwhelming majority of Jews in this country.
Doctor LANDMAX. Yo Jew is opposed to the rebuilding of Palestine.
Doctor LASDYAN. They would go about rebuilding Palestine in the way the Jews who represent the signers of this statement hare urged again and again.
Mr. FISH. What way?
Doctor LASDYAN. Without politics. Palestine should be rebuilt economically until it becomes an independent State. The politicians are creating dissension. We have politicians—I am talking about professional politicians, who are Jewish politicians. If they had not created all the difficulties in Palestine by their constant exaggeration, just such exaggerations as were made on the floor here this morning-if they had not done so, there never would have been riots in Palestine. We know that England can govern colonies; we know if the Jews were left alone in Palestine, and with the tremendous amount of assistance which the Jews of the world would give them, and if there were no politics, Palestine would be rebuilt rapidly, safely, soundly.
Mr. COOPER. What do you mean by politics?
Mr. COCKBAN. It would appear that under those conditions that you would not get sanction enough; that would leave an opening to oppression or assault by natives, especially to exclude them or shut them out?
Doctor LANDMAN. No; nobody in the world would do that.
Mr. COCKBAN. Then your position is an objection to the methods of this Jewish organization called Zionists?
Doctor LANDMAN. In that their methods are harmful to rebuilding Palestine.
Mr. COCKRAN. There would not be anything, according to your view—any objection to this resolution which simply expresses hope.
Doctor LANDMAN. This resolution does not really mean a single thing.
Doctor LANDMAN. In Congress a lot of resolutions are passed for one reason or another that have really no definite meaning. Of course, in the political light I can see the object of this resolution, but I need not discuss that here.
Mr. Fish. If you would ask the gentleman if he believes in the Balfour resolution, we might all agree without any further discussion.
Mr. COCKRAN. I will just put it that way. You do not object to the Balfour declaration, do you?
Doctor LANDMAN. I object to the Balfour declaration because it presumes to establish Palestine as the national home of the Jewish people. The Balfour declaration is written into the mandate as it is at present drawn. In the mandate the Zionist organization is declared to be the sole agency which shall be consulted by the mandatory with reference to the conditions in Palestine; and those Jews who are opposed to Jewish nationalism, to the doctrine that the Jews constitute a political entity, can not cooperate in the upbuilding of Palestine. As long as the point of view is held that the Jews are a nation, as long as there is a political side to Zionism, then the economic progress of Palestine is retarded.
Mr. COCKRAN. Your criticism of Zionism is that it obstructs the purposes which it seeks?
Doctor LANDMAN. Absolutely.
Mr. COCKRAN. There is another thing that simplifies the situation. This situation as it stands over there now, as I understand it, involves some method or other by which the freedom of the Jews to come in there and acquire property by purchase and work shall be maintained and they be guarded and protected in the enjoyment of whatever they produce, regardless of whether they have a majority or not?
Doctor LANDMAN. Certainly. The only thing that we are opposed to is, for instance, that a man should stand up here and plead with the Representatives of America in Congress for certain things to be given or to be done for the Jewish nationality when there is no such thing.
Mr. COCKRAN. You do not deny it is a race?
(Thereupon, at 1.30 o'clock p. m., the committee recessed until 3 o'clock p. m., Thursday, April 20, 1922.)
The committee reconvened, pursuant to the taking of the recess, at 3 o'clock p. m., Hon. Stephen G. Porter (chairman) presiding. STATEMENT OF HON. MARTIN C. ANSORGE, A REPRESENTATIVE
IN CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF NEW YORK.
Mr. ANSORGE. Mr. Chairman, I only want to take a few moments of the committee's valuable time.
In the first place, I want to second the statement made yesterday by the gentleman from New York, Mr. Fish, that there are a great many Hebrews who are not actively affiliated with the Zionist movement who are in thorough sympathy and accord with the heartbeats and yearnings of the Zionists for a restoration of a homeland in Palestine.
I also want to say that I had the pleasure and the honor of attending at the British Embassy several months ago when Mr. Balfour—now Lord Balfour-addressed the Zionists, and although the Balfour declaration was proclaimed in 1917, during the heat of the war, Mr. Balfour on that occasion voiced the same sentiments as are contained in the Balfour declaration, In other words, in 1922 Mr. Balfour feels as he did in 1917.
I have here a small booklet, Mr. Chairman, which is published by the Palestine foundation fund in New York. It is addressed to the workers of the Zionist fund, and I just want to read a very short paragraph from this booklet.
“ Forty centuries of history close with this question. Will you, Jews of America, redeem the Holy Land ?
“The promise that was made 4,000 years ago is to be fulfilled through you, or is to remain unfulfilled.
“ You are the guardians of Jewish history to-day. With you Jewish history ends, or through you it begins a new and glorious chapter.
“Forty centuries of history are watching you to-day. The far-off generations look to you out of the twilight of the past. The warriors and prophets and teachers of ancient Judea are watching you. The martyrs of Spain and Poland and Russia, they who died that our people might live, are watching you. The young heroes who fell on a hundred fields in the great war are watching you. The victims of a hundred pogroms, men and women and children, are watching you.
“ In the eyes of all of them there is the single question : Will the land of our fathers be restored to our people, or have we lived and died in vain?'”
It seems to me, Mr. Chairman, that this Fish resolution, which is merely a word of encouragement to this movement, should be fostered by the Congress of the United States, and I want to join with the others who have appeared before this committee in respectfully recommending that on behalf of the numerous Hebrews in my district and in the city of New York who are thoroughly in sympathy with this resolution the committee report it favorably.
Mr. LINTHICUM, Could we hear Professor Reed now, Mr. Chairman? We asked him to remain over that we might hear him.
The CHAIRMAN. I want to finish with our last witness before we hear anyone else. Does anybody desire to ask the Reverend any questions. If not, that will end it.
Now, you want to hear Mr. Reed, do you?
Mr. LINTHICUM. Mr. Reed had said that he would remain over so that I could hear him on the mandate. I am interested to know what connection this would have with the mandate of Great Britain over Palestine.
Mr. MOORES. It strikes me that is very important.
STATEMENT OF PROF. EDWARD BLISS REED, OF NEW HAVEN,
Professor REED. Gentlemen, I wish to say that if you pass this Fish resolution you indorse the Balfour declaration, because that is what this resolution virtually is. It is stated a little more plainly, or absolutely plainly, in the Senate concurrent resolution. If you indorse the Balfour declaration, you are caught absolutely in the mandate. That is what I want to show to-day.
In the twelfth of his fourteen points President Wilson stated as follows:
“ Nationalities which are under Turkish rule should be assured of continued security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development.”
Now, gentlemen, if language can convey any meaning whatever, the inhabitants of Palestine and Syria were led to believe that America proposed for them freedom and some degree at least of self-determination.
Now we come from what the President wishes to what the league says. The mandate is given by the League of Nations, and what I want to warn you against is getting caught by the mandate in what I consider an impasse. It will bring disaster on this country of Palestine. That is why I am here, Mr. Goldberg. If you want to know what I am getting out of it, I will show you my mail. I am getting some extraordinary things out of it. I am here because I want to prevent my country from doing something that will bring it untold trouble, That is why I am here; let us have that understood.
Now I want to go ahead and show you what you are going to get in for if you pass this Fish resolution. The text of article 22 of the League of Nations is in part as follows:
"To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late war ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world there should be applied the principle that the well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilization and that securities for the performance of this trust should be embodied in this covenant."
In other words, that is very nice on the face of it.
The mandate is given for the well-being and development of certain peoples. If a mandate is given for Palestine, it is given for the well-being of Palestine. (Continuing reading :)
“ The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of such peoples should be intrusted to advanced nations, who, by reason of their resources, their experience, or their geographical position, can best undertake this responsibility, and that tutelage should be exercised by them as mandatories on behalf of the league.
“ The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of the development of the people, the geographical situation of the territory, its economic conditions, and other circumstances."
Now, here comes this point:
“ Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of development where their existence as individual nations can be provisionally recognized, subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a mandatory power until such time as they are able to stand alone."
That applies, as it states, to communities under the Turkish Empire. It shows that they are to be helped :
"The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the mandatory power.”
These communities include the Hedjaz, Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Syria. And their wishes must be a principal consideration in the mandatory power.
A mandatory for a community previously under the Turks must do two things: It must guide them, it must not submerge them they have enough power to