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instrument of vengeance in the hand of a justly offended God, the undisputed representative of Charlemagne, the uncontrouled Emperor of the western Roman world. Till this period the chief of the house of Austria was the representative of Charlemagne; but his influence is now annihilated in Germany, and he is totally driven out of every part of Italy. Dispossessed of a considerable part even of his hereditary dominions, he seems tacitly to have resigned his ancient title, now to him nothing but a title, and to have assumed instead of it that of Emperor (which in his case is virtually the same as' only King ) of Austria.

In my Dissertation 1 stated, that we had reason to believe that we were then living under the fourth vial*, and that the fifth was not as yet poured outt. From the ambiguous nature of the Carlovingian bead of the beast, which has sometimes been attached to one kingdom and family and sometimes to another, I dare not even now positively say, that the effusion of the fifth vial has commenced; but I am strongly inclined to believe that it has commenced, and that the house of Austria now feels its baleful effects. This vial is said to be poured out upon the throne or secular authority of the beast under bis last bead; and it produces the effect of filling his kingdom with darkness. Let the reader turn his eyes to the present state of the German emperor, Germany, and Italy: and he will behold the power of the imperial throne subverted, and the Emperor degraded to the condition of a king of Austria, elbowed out of his empire, stripped even

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of his hereditary dominions, and trembling at the nod of an implacable enemy who seems even now to be meditating his entire destruction; he will behold Germany passing under the yoke of a new Charlemagne, and parcelled out according to the sovereign pleasure of a daring usurper, its ancient constitution annihilated, and itself full of political darkness and confusion; he will behold Italy equally degraded, equally dark, equally confused. And what is the consequence of these calamities? “They $ gnawed their tongues for pain, and blasphemed 66. the God of heaven because of their pains and to their sores, and repented not of their deeds“. And do we find anything like a reformation in Germany and Italy? They present only the hideous spectacle of the abominations of Popery blended with the blasphemies of Infidelity. . .

Though I scruple not to say, that there are strong reasons for believing that the fifth vial has begun to be poured out, I repeat that I am unwilling at present positively to make such an assertion. Whenever the waters of the mystic Eupbrates are completely dried up under the sixth vial, we shall then know with certainty that the fifth vial, which precedes it, must have been poured out; we shall then consequently be able to determine, whether the fifth vial was poured out at the close of the year 1805, or whether it relates to some yet future calamity about to befall the present Carlovingian head of the beast. This last however I fear we have not much reason to expect. The fall of the Turkish monarchy will in every point of view be a most remarkable and important event. It will throw a wonderful light on the study of the Apo


calypse; because it will definitely teach us in what part of it we are now living, and will prove that all the five first vials (let them relate to what they may) must have been previously poured out. If no events therefore, answering to those described under the fifth vial, shall take place between the present time and the downfall of the Turkish monarchy, I hesitate not to say, that that vial, which immedi, ately succeeds the commencement of the scorching military tyranny predicted under the fourth, must have begun to be poured out in the late disastrous campaign. Nor will the overthrow of the Ottoman empire serve to elucidate the Apocalypse alone; it will greatly assist us likewise in explaining two prophecies of Daniel and Ezekiel. Both Mr. Mede and Bp. Newton think, that the events predicted in Dan, xi. 44, 45, which they refer to the king of the North, are the same as these predicted in Ezek, xxxviii, xxxix; and they both equally think, that those two prophecies will be accomplished in some yet future expedition of the Turk into Palestine at the era of the restoration of the Jews. I have explicitly avowed my total dissent from them, and have given my reasons for such dissent; in consequence of which I have been somewhat roughly called to account by Mr. Whitaker. According to all appearances, though I presume not to say bow soon, not many years will elapse before the question is decided between us for ever. If the Ottoman empire fall, as I myself firmly believe it will do, without undertaking the predicted expedition into Palestine contemporaneously with the return of the Jews; we shall then be sure, that it cannot be the subject of either of the two prophecies, whether the


two relate to the same event or not to the same event. And if it should prove not to be the subject of the prophecy contained in Dan, xi. 44, 45, which of course it cannot be unless it fulfil that prophecy by undertaking the expedition into Palestine; then neither can it be the subject of the prophecy contained in Dan. xi. 40-43. And, if it be not the subject of that prophecy; then it cannot be tbe king of the north, to whom the entering into the countries and all that follows is ascribed, erroneously indeed I believe, by Mr. Whitaker, And, if the Ottoman power be not the king of the north; then neither can the Saracenic power be the king of the south. In short, unless the Turk shall perform at some future period all that is predicted in Dan, xi. 44, 45, which both Mr. Mede and Bp. Newton allow to be yet unaccomplished; the whole exposition of Dan. xi. 36-45, which Mr. Whitaker has undertaken to defend against my attempt to "fritter it away by hypercriticism"*, will at once sink to the ground. And, with regard to the Turk's ever performing what is predicted in the unaccomplished prophecy in question, independent of the extreme improbability of the thing, I may here repeat, that according to St. John his empire will be destroyed at some indefinite period before the time assigned by Daniel for the fulfilment of that unaccomplished prophecy; namely, the era of the restoration of the Jews at the close of the three times and a balft. cho x9 Se n este se

* Letter, p. 40. + I here argue with Mr. Whitaker as I did before: if he will not allow at that time (Dan. xii. 1.) to relate to the time of the end (Dan. xi. 40.), he must allow it to relate to be shall come to bis end, Dan, xi. 45.


fritter indertaken to defena 45, which Mr.

How long a period will elapse before the sixtb vial is poured out, in other words, how long in the course of God's providence tbe Turkish empire will be permitted to stand, no one can presume to determine.: It seems at present to exist, balanced as it were only between the jealousy; of France and Russia; and, what is more, its crisis, so far as human foresight can calculate, seems very rapidly approaching. The usurper, whom Mr. Whitaker with much propriety styles a vessel of wrath*, is claiming all the Turkish provinces that ever belonged to the Venetian republic; and, if France and Russia seriously measure their strength, it will most probably be upon Ottoman ground. Can an empire which totters to its very base, and which is faintly struggling with open rebellion, stand the shock of two such conflicting rivals ? Unless I greatly mistake, the route of Antichrist to Palestine, so fully described by Danielt, will be through the northern provinces of Turkey and Asia minor. Here the king of the south will butt at him; and here the more mighty king of the north will come against him like an impetuous whirlwind, not only with land forces, but with inany ships to prevent his crossing the Constantinopolitan strait. Yet, in despite of this resistance, he shall overflow the countries like a torrent and safely "pass over", wonderful is the concurrence of facts with prophecy! Even now we behold the monster, who at one period seemed effectually excluded from Turkey by the powerful intervention of Austria, hanging upon

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