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years, but I should point out that right now, or at least as of the end of March, our current workload is even further ahead of last year. Right now the fiscal 1968 figures show that we are some 15 percent ahead of last year, fiscal 1967.
This, Mr. Chairman, is part of the background to our 1969 budget request.
PREPARATION OF MATERIAL CONCERNING PROBLEMS OF THE
Mr. STEED. Let me outline in a few general words something that I have observed that has been coming into the congressional picture in a very pronounced way lately and I think as time goes on will require an enormous amount of attention. I am talking about the whole situations of the ghettos, the poverty program, the model cities program, all these things that in one form or another, for one reason or another, have been occupying both administrative and legislative attention.
I have been reading material that goes back and tries to analyze what we have been doing that brought on this situation and the thing that impresses me the most has been that basically the American people have been a migratory sort of people. We migrated from Europe to these shores and then across the Appalachian Mountains to the plains and from there to the west coast, and then we back-migrated and as technogolical advances took over agriculture we moved to the cities, and we are faced with sardine-type human masses and what some people call a megalopolis. Some people think you cannot cope with the crowded cities unless you stop the rural migration that has been feeding this furnace all these years.
I could go on and on but this gives you the general picture, and I think many of the programs proposed to bring relief to this national problem will involve a lot of people. Transportation and all these things are involved.
How do you cope with problems such as this? Do you deal with them on an individual basis or do you try to develop material that would encompass the whole picture?
Mr. Jayson. At the present time the inquiries we have are spread out among our various divisions because, as you point out, they deal with a whole variety of things. We have the subject of poverty, which would fall in our Education and Public Welfare Division; of transportation, which would fall in our Economics Division, and we have civil liberties which would fall in our American Law Division and Government Division.
Part of the inquiries we receive are prepared by teams, with researchers from several divisions. The question you raise was put to us by a Member of the other House with a view to discussing whether it would be wise to establish another division in the Service that would be aimed at these urban problems. The Member asked us to make a study of what our urban problems are and how they are handled in gorernment. We prepared a report in which we made an analysis of the types of bills that have been introduced on the subject and which committees they were going to, to show it is a diverse problem covering many, many subjects.
We have housing specialists in LRS, poverty specialists, and specialists in most of the fields you named. We have not reached the point where we feel it is desirable to organize a special unit, but that may be the best way to handle the problem in the future. Presently it is done on a discipline basis, on a subject specialist basis, except where we have to bring together a number of disciplines to prepare a report.
Mr. ŠTEED. It seemed to me the first reaction to this migration problem was back many years ago when they had the first of the so-called consolidated rural schools. This was an outgrowth of the shifting of population. As time has gone on we have added many other things that were actually stimulated by this, though at the time nobody was aware of the basic cause of it.
It seems to me at some point the material or the charts or the diagrams or the treatments that would bring this whole thing into a different focus would have to be forthcoming. The way I describe what I am trying to say is that at some point we will have to take a position where we can see the forest instead of the trees as to the causes and the effects, and maybe from that we can find the cure. Thinking this will be an increasing matter of Government attention, I would guess that in the years ahead your activities will be deeply involved in this because more people will be seeking more information.
Off the record.
Mr. Jayson. I might say that included within the report I mentioned was an analysis of how the executive branch handled this and we found there is little coordination, in the sense that one agency handles all these matters; there is an overlapping, with duplication in some instances. The survey we made in this area is not a very detailed one. It is a preliminary one in an attempt to meet the problem.
Mr. STEED. Mr. Langen and I represent areas that have a great many rural communities and they are interested in their problems from the standpoint, especially, of how they can bring in industry and create more jobs that mechanized agriculture is eliminating. I am sure many chambers of commerce give attention to this, I find that as you talk to people who build and operate factories they are very much interested in this, but apparently they have not been able to get their hands on the type of information that would guide them and help them do a better job of working in this area of rural and small town industrialization. I think there will be a growing demand for useful information. This brings in vocational training. It is hard to think about one phase of it that you do not find yourself mixed up in many phases. I think it illustrates how your workload can grow, snowball, multiply, and finally become a very big chore.
Mr. Jayson. We do have many problems. For instance, the one you raise as to how a small town once supported by a factor has left entices industry to come back. The town officials will go to their Congressman for help and the Member may come to us. This is not an infrequent request. We have prepared reports, not based on particular townships, but we can tell how other towns have met problems of this type by offering tax advantages, by aiding in the building of additional and more modern plants, and the like. We have specialists in many of the problems. We have specialists in housing, we have specialists in transportation, and we have educational specialists, and they are qualified
to make new applications of their skills to help on problems such as you are speaking of and it is true they are intensifying all the time.
Mr. STEED. As a thing like this generates itself from all the different angles, sooner or later you find yourself in a position where you need to do some actual research of your own to get a base from which all such requests can be filled. Is that true?
Mr. JAYSON. Yes, sir.
Mr. Jayson. In the past, our researchers could reply as reference librarians from things on the shelves, books, and so on. The trend today is for us to do deep and very often creative research, and you often find that the books on the shelves are not recent enough. There are materials in current journals and periodicals, and so on, and our people will have to get the up-to-date information in that way. We do not, as you know, get into the field and make specific field investigations, but we try to get the raw material together.
Mr. STEED. Mr. Langen, do you have any questions on the Legislative Reference Service?
INCREASE IN TRANSLATION REQUESTS
Mr. LANGEN. Possibly a couple.
One of the things that surprises me in looking over the chart of the inquiries that are made, I note a tremendous increase in translations. Where do those requests come from?
Mr. Jayson. The translations were up during the past calendar year by about 1,000. Translation requests come from Members and from the committees. They come in terms of committees wanting translations of articles in journals and magazines and perhaps translations of preliminary testimony of witnesses. The largest volume is generally translations of correspondence in foreign languages from constituents that Members receive.
Mr. LANGEN. They have more than doubled since 1961.
Mr. LANGEN. And it is by far the largest percentage increase of any of the inquiries during that 3-year period.
Mr. Jayson. Yes, sir. They jumped from 2,200 in 1964 to 4,600 in 1967.
Mr. LANGEN. So that with that increase in translations and the increase in previously prepared materials, those constitute the two major categories of increases. I suppose maybe most of them are letters written in foreign languages. You would think there would be less writing in foreign languages but maybe there is more. It surprised me to see such a large increase in that category.
Mr. Jayson. It may be, insofar as translations are concerned, that more Members are now aware that we have a translating service. We have had it for a long time. The increase in materials is a significant one because it was during this period that we issued our green sheets. listing our multilithed reports, which the Appropriations Committees gave us permission to distribute among the Members in general. These green sheet listings of our multilithed reports go to the Members, and any Members or their staffs seeing any material of interest listed a those sheets may ask us for a copy. We have found that this has been
very useful to the membership. We have found that every time we distribute a green sheet listing, we get back about 300 calls, usually from 300 different offices, asking for an average of about eight different reports on the list, totaling about 2,400 each month. So when you see an increase in materials previously prepared on this chart on page 149, a good deal results from this practice. This has been an effective way to meet the workload, because we prepare one report that is useful to many Members.
DECREASE IN INQUIRIES PER PERSON
Mr. LANGEN. I note also the number of inquiries per personnel is going down.
Mr. Jayson. I believe you are referring to the figures on table V on page 155 of the justification book!
Mr. LANGEN. Yes.
Mr. Jayson. I must say I have some questions about the meaningfulness of this particular figure. The reason it is here is because this particular chart has been presented to the committee for many years and I hesitated to take it out. This figure is simply a result of dividing the total number of inquiries by the total number of positions we have. When I say we have 281 positions it does not mean we have 281 researchers. We have about 180 actually engaged in research. I would not rely on that "Inquiries per position” figure too heavily. I would like to see it go back to where it was in the forties on this chart because that would show that there had been a substantial decrease per position and that would mean improved quality,
Mr. LANGEN. You are not telling us the quality is not very good? I thought it was excellent.
Mr. Jayson. I appreciate the compliment, but we think we can improve it. Our researchers are constantly saying they wish they had more time to devote to these inquiries.
Mr. LANGEN. That is all.
EFFECT OF REORGANIZATION BILL PROPOSALS ON LRS
Mr. STEED. I think we should note the request covered here makes no provision for any expansion that would result if the congressional reorganization bill becomes law. As you know, it has already passed the Senate and is pending in the House and it may or may not be consummated. As it now stands, what would likely be the impact of this law, if enacted, on your activities and what additional manpower and money would likely be involved?
Mr. Jayson. The reorganization bill of 1967 as passed by the Senate would do a variety of things insofar as our workload is concerned. I should answer your question not only in terms of the bill but also in the light of the discussions the joint committee had with us, in other words, the legislative history.
For one thing, it would require us to undertake anticipatory studies. The Reorganization Committee indicated it would like us at the beginning of each session of Congress to present reports on issues likely to be taken up in that coming session. They emphasize they want us to have more liaison with specific committees. We have staff members well known to the committee staffs but this liaison could no doubt be expanded. We have found that when you have an LRS man very close to committee members, and they know he is available and can tell them what LRS can do, this inevitably results in a large increase of business in that particular area.
The reorganization bill would authorize LRS to bring in consultants and engage in contracts with outside researchers and research organizations. Of course this would involve our overseeing such contracts.
It provides for legislative histories of bills to be given whenever a bill is called up for a hearing. At the request of a Member we would provide the legislative history of the bill
. We would also be required to tell him what other bills like it have been pending before the Congress in prior years, and something about them.
It would provide for LRS to have its own data processing equipment to engage in information system type of manipulation of information.
These are some of the things that would presumably enlarge our workload considerably.
Dr. MUMFORD. May I add one element? It also provides that LRS might send specialists into the field, does it not?
Mr. Jayson. The authority would be there, Dr. Mumford, yes.
Mr. STEED. I would be the last one to say Congress should not have access to any and all information it can usefully get its hands on, but some of this gives me concern. For example, what will this mean if you are to make these advance projections, particularly in the controversialtype areas, where you might be subjected to the accusation that you are in the field of propaganda or lobbying rather than informing There might be a thin line of demarcation there.
Mr. Jayson. We traditionally stay away from that type of report. Our staff would probably consult with the chairman and ranking minority member or their chief staffman on a committee and discuss what issues their particular committee intends to take up in the coming session, and we probably would prepare a background report such as we are now preparing, for example, in the science fields. This is to implement the work of the committee staff, not in substitution of the work of their staff.
COMMITTEE STAFF IMPOSITIONS ON LRS
Mr. STEED. Sometimes you are required to do work that comes cloze to being a substitute for work the committee staff should do. I suppose there is not much you can do when a Member's staff fudges by letting you do the work they should and are paid to do, but it becomes a little different problem if in effect you are performing the duties staff people are supposed to perform. I do not believe there has ever been a serious problem here, but in this expansion, it could quite easily become a probsem if it is not closely watched.
Mr. Jayson. It could be a problem, particularly where you are dealing with the volume we are. There are times when the nature of thr inquiry makes us suspicious of it, and we will call the office back to raise questions. Sometimes we may go directly to the Administrative Assistant. Committees occasionally will borrow our staff for a period of time and, by the rules under which we operate, if they borrow our staff for more than 60 days they are supposed to reimburse us.
There is no question that the problem you suggest is a possibility, but this is not a serious problem as yet.