Page images
PDF
EPUB

of a pluerisy in his 72d year, December 31, mineralogist will be able to guess where1679. His principal work was “ De Motu abouts a vein of ore may lie, or whether Animalium,” in two volumes small 4to.

The it will be worth while to open a mine there object of this work was to explain the func. or no. tions of animal bodies, on mechanical prin BORING of water-pipes. The method of ciples. He describes the fibres of the boring alder poles for water-pipes is thus : muscles, and measures the power or force being furnished with poles of a fit size, which each possesses, and the power of horses or tressels are procured of a due them collectively. He points out in what height, both to lay the poles, and rest the manner that power is increased or dimi- augre on in boring; they also set up a lathe, nished, by the manner in which the fleshy whereby to turn the lesser ends of the fibres are joined to the tendons. He calcu- poles, and adapt them to the cavities of the lates the power of the heat, in propelling greater eods of others, in order to make the the blood, which he supposed equal to joint shut each pair of poles together. The 180,000 pounds weight. In his calculations outer, or concave part, is called the female, Borelli was found to have erred in many and the other, or inner, the male part of the respects, but his principles were generally joint. In turning the male part, they make admitted.

a channel, or small groove in it, at a proper BORER, an instrument invented for the distanee from the end ; and, in the female purpose of searching or exploring the na part, bore a small hole to fit over this chanture of soils, it consists of iron rods about nel; they then bore through their poles. six feet long, made to screw into one ano. sticking up great pails at each end, to guide ther: to the lower one is fixed a steel them right; but they commonly bore a point: with an instrument of this kind two pole at both ends, so that if it be crooked one men will easily sound the depth of 12 feet way, they can nevertheless bore it through, in a quarter of an hour, if they do not meet and not spoil it. with stones. When the rod becomes too BORONIA, in botany, a genus of the heavy to be conveniently managed with the Octandria Monogynia class and order. Cahand, it may be raised by a rope fastened at lyx four-parted; petals four ; antheræ pedione end to the handle, and at the other to a celled below the summits of the filaments; roller, or kind of windlass, erected at a pro- style from the top of the germ very short ; per height, perpendicularly over the hole, stigmna capitate; capsule four-nnited ; seeds and turped with one or two handles. The coated. There are four species natives of toughest iron is used for making this instru- New South Wales. ment, which should be well hammered, till BOROUGH, or Burgh, in a general its surface is quite smooth and even, for the sense, signifies a town or a corporation, which least roughness and inequality would occa is not a city. The word, in its original sig. sion a friction, that must greatly retard nification, is by some supposed to have its working. For the same reason, and also meant a company, consisting of ten families, to increase the force of its fall, it is necessary which were bound together at each other's that it should be perfectly straight, nor pledge. Afterwards, as Verstegan has it, should it ever be struck with a mallet, &c. borough came to signify a town, having a to force it down, because a blow might wall or some kind of inclosare round it. And bend it, and it would easily break after all places that in old times bad the name wards. A bit, like that of an angre, propor- of borough, it is said, were fortified, or tioned to the thickness of the rod, may at fenced in some shape or other. Borough is any time, when necessary, be substituted a place of safety and privilege ; and some instead of the steel point to draw up a sam are called tree burghs, and the tradesmen in ple of the substance from the very bottom them free burgesses, from a freedom they of the sounding

had granted to them originally, to buy and BORING, in a general sense, the art of sell without disturbance, and exempt them perforating, or making a hole through any from toll. solid body.

Borough is now particularly approBORING, in mineralogy, a method of priated to such towns or villages as send bur. piercing the earth with scooping irons, gesses or representatives to parliament, whewhich, being drawn back at proper times, ther they may be incorporated or not. bring up with them samples of the different They are distinguished into those by strata through which they have passed; charter or statute, and those by prescrip by the examination of which the skilful tion or custom ; the number in England

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[merged small][merged small][graphic][ocr errors]

Fig...Arctomys marmotu : Alpine Marmot - Fig.2.A.empetra : Quebec.lumot - FQ.3.A. Monat: Maryland Marmot _Fio.4. Hamster - 17.5.Lapland Marmot - Fig.6. Bradypus tridactylus : three toed Sloth.

London. Published to imman Hurst Kecs & Orme April 1808.

is one hundred and forty-nine, some of which of wildness, the bison is distinguished not send one, but the most of them two repre- only by his size, but by the superior depth sentatives.

and shagginess of his hair, which about the BOROUGHS, royal, in Scotland, are corpo head, neck, and shoulders, is sometimes of rations made for the advantage of trade, by such a length as almost to touch the ground. charters granted by several of thcir kings, His horns are rather short, sharp-pointed, having the privilege of sending commission extremely strong, and stand distant from ers to represent them in parliament, besides each other at their bases, like those of the other peculiar immunities. They form a common bull. His colour is sometimes of body of themselves, and send commissioners a dark blackish brown, and sometimes rueach to an annual convention at Edinburgh, fus brown; his eyes large and fierce ; his to consult for the benefit of trade, and their limbs extremely strong, and his whole aspect general interest.

in à degree savage and gloomy. See Borough, English, a customary descent Plate III. Mammalia, fig. 2. of lands or tenements, in certain places, by

The principal European regions where which they descend to the youngest instead this animal is at present found, are the of the eldest son; or, if the owner have no

marshy forests of Poland, the Carpathian issue, to the younger instead of the elder mountains, and Lithuania. Its chief Asiatic brother. The custom goes with the land, residence is the neighbourhood of Mount although there be a devise or feoffment at

Caucasus; but it is also found in other the common law to the contrary. The parts of the Asiatie world. The American reason of this costom, says Littleton, is, be

bison seems to differ in no respect from the cause the youngest is presumed, in law, to European, except in being more shaguy, be least able to provide for himself.

and having a more protuberant bunch or

It BOROUGH-HEAD, or headbarongh, called fleshy substance over the shoulders. also borough-holder, or bursholder, the

grows to a vast size, and has been found to chief man of the decenna, or hundred, weigh sixteen hundred, and even two thou

sand four hundred pounds, the strongest chosen to speak and act in behalf of the

man cannot lift one of the skins from the Headborough also signifies a kind of head ground. These were the only animals which

bore any affinity to the European cattle, on constable, where there are several chosen as

the first discovery of the American contihis assistants, to serve warrants, &c.

nent, and might have been made to answer BORROWING, when money, corn, every purpose of the European cow; but grain, gold, or other commodity, merely. the natives being in a savage state, and esteemed according to its price, is borrow. living chiefly by chase, had never attempted ed, it is repaid by returning an equal quan- the domestication of the animal. The comtity of the same thing, or an equal value in

mon ox is, in reality, the bison reduced to money. If money is borrowed, it is always

a domestic state; in which, in different understood that interest is payable, and it is parts of the world, it runs into as many vaby law demandable; but when à house, or rieties as the sheep; differing widely in a hórsé, &c. is borrowed, the restoration of size, form, and colour, according to clithe identical property is always understood; mate and other circumstances. Its imporor if a thing be used for any other, or more tance in this its domestic state needs not be purposes, than those for which it was bor- mentioned. Formerly the ox constituted rowed, or be lost, the party may have his the whole riches of mankind; and he is action on the case for it.

still the basis of the wealth of nations, which BOS, in zoology, the ox, a genus of qua- subsist and Rourish in proportion to the cul. drupeds of the order of Pecora. The ge. tivation of their lands and the number of neric character is, horns concave, turned their cattle. outwards, lunated, smooth; front teeth : The Urus, or wild bull, is å variety of eight in the lower jaw ; canine teeth none. the ox kind, and is chiefly to be met with B, taurus, the bison, from which the seve in the extensive forests of Lithuania. It ral races of common cattle have been gra- grows to a size almost equal to the elephant, dually derived, is found wild in many parts, and is quite black; the eyes are red and both of the old and the new continent; in- fiery, the horns thick and short, and the habiting woody regions, and arriving at a forehead covered with a quantity of curled size far larger than that of the domestic or hair ; the neck is short and strong, and the cultivated animal. In this its native state skin has an odour of musk. The female,

VOL. I.

rest.

Рp

though not so big as the male, exceeds the strong, and carry heavy burthens. Whem largest of our bulls in size : nevertheless her about to be loaded, they drop down on udder is extremely small. Upon the whole, their knees like the camel, and rise when however, this animal, which greatly resem their burthens are properly fastened. bles those of the tame kind, probably owes Bos babylus, or buffalo, ox with horns its variety to its natural wildness, and the lying backwards, turning inwards, and fat richness of the pastures where it is pro on the fore part. In its general appearance, duced. Fig. 1.

the buffalo is so nearly allied to the common The Zebu is another variety of the Bos ox, that, without an attentive examination, Taurus. They are all equally docile and it might pass for a variety of the same anigentle when tamed, and are in general co mal. It differs, however, in the form of its vered with fine glossy hair, softer and more horns, and in some particulars relative to beautiful than that of the common cow. its internal structure. The buffalo is rather Their humps are of different sizes, in some superior in size to the common ox; the head weighing from forty to fifty pounds, but in larger in proportion; the forehead higher; others less. That part is in general consi- the muzzle of a longer form, but at the same dered as a great delicacy; and when dressed time broad and square: but it is principally has much the appearance and taste of ud- the form of the horns that distinguishes the der. Fig. 3.

buffalo. They are large, and of a comThe Bisons of Madagascar and Malabar pressed or depressed form, with the exteare of the great kind; those of Arabia, rior edge sharp. The buffalo has an apPetrea, and most parts of Africa, are of pearance of great strength, and a more ferothe Zebu or small kind. In America, espe- cious or malignant aspect than the bull; owcially towards the North, the bison is well ing to the convexity of his forehead, the known. They berd together in droves of smallness of his eyes, the fatness of his muzfrom one to two hundred, on the banks of zle, and the flatter and more inclined posithe Missisippi, where the inhabitants hunt tion of his horns. The general or prevailthem, their flesh being esteemed good ing colour of the buffalo is blackishi, except eating. They all breed with the tame the hair on the top of the forehead, and that cow. The hump, which is only an acci at the tip of the tail, which is of a yellowish dental characteristic, gradually declines, white; the skin itself is also of a black coand in a few generations no vestiges of it lour; and from this general cast it is but remain. Thus, we see, whether it be the very seldom observed to vary. As the bufwild or the tame ox, the bonasus or the urus, falo in his domesticated state is, in general, the bison or the zebu, by whatever name larger and stronger than the ox, he is emthey are distinguished, and though variously ployed with advantage in different kinds of classed by naturalists, in reality they are labour. Buffaloes are made to draw heavy the same; and however diversified in loads, and are commonly directed and retheir appearance and properties, are de strained by means of a ring passed through scendants of one common stock, of which

the nose. Two buffaloes yoked, or rather the most unequivocal proof is, that they chained, to a cart, are able to draw as much all mix and breed with each other. The oxen as four strong horses. As they carry their of India are of different sizes, and are neck and head low, the whole weight of made use of in travelling, as substitutes for their body is employed in drawing; and horses. Their common pace is soft. In their mass much surpasses that of a labourstead of a bit, a small cord is passed through ing horse. In its habits the buffalo is much the cartilage of the nostrils, which is tied less cleanly than the ox; delighting to wal. to a larger cord, and serves as a bridle. low in the mud; and, next to the hog, may They are saddled like horses; and, when be considered as the dirtiest of domestipushed, move very briskly: they are like- cated quadrupeds. His voice is deeper, wise used in drawing chariots and carts. more uncouth, and hideous, than that of the For the former purpose white oxen are in bull. The milk of the female buffalo is great esteem, and much admired. They said, by some authors, to be not so good as will perform journies of sixty days, at the that of the cow; but it is more plentiful, rate of from twelve to fifteen leagues a and is used for the purposes of the dairy in day, and their travelling pace is generally the warmer regions. a trot. In Persia there are many oxen en Italy is the country where buffaloes are tirely white, with sinall blunt horus, and at present most common, in a domesticated humps on their backs. They are very state; being used, as in India, both for the

« PreviousContinue »