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imaginary parallel lines, whose distance in writing the words idier, butler, miller, is supposed to be adjusted by the length &c.
6. No letters are to be doubled in of the short-hand t,"T" It is sometimes
mes short-hand unless some vowel comes be. necessary, in order to preserve a perfect tween them. lineality in the writing, to make these 7. When there are various ways of letters only half their usual size; as in joining the same letters together, which, the words foot, form, gold, &c. In a very in the present highly improved system few instances, where lineality cannot be of short-hand, is not unfrequently the preserved, even by thus curtailing the case, the learner should accustom him. size of the letters, it is always best to self to that which is the best, or most lift the pen, and write the word at twice, lineal, preserving as much as possible taking care to place the detached parts the full proportion and compact form of very near to each other, to denote their every letter. connection. Instances of this kind oc. It is to be observed, as another advancur so very seldom in practice, that no tage peculiar to this system, that here perceptible difference will be experi. the strictest adherence to the common enced in the brevity of writing, while a rules of punctuation may be observed. very material advantage will be gained The period, or full stop, which is supon the score of beauty and legibility; plied by a very small circle, . being the considerations never to be lost sight of only exception. by the lovers of useful and rational ste The characters denoting the preposi. nography.
tions and terminations being derived 2. The diameter of the horizontal se. from the alphabet, are easily retained in micircular letters is the short hand - 8; the memory, and are of very extensive and their height is rather more tban one use to the brevity and legibility of short. third part of the letter | t.
hand. Their respective powers and uses 3. As both the beauty and the brevity are distinctly delineated in the plate. It of short-hand writing depend very much is sufficient to remark, that, in writing on avoiding, as much as possible, the them, they ought always to be formed making of angles, and on the general rather smaller than the rest of the letters, uniformity of the writing, it is proper, in and should be placed sufficiently joining such letters as m and n, mand f, near the radical part of the word of m and p, &c. together, to deviate a little which they constitute a part, that they from the correct form of each letter: so may not be mistaken for separate and that they may readily and naturally run distinct words. Double prepositional chainto each other. The learner will easily racters joined together, as compre-, mis. discern where it is necessary to preserve under-, &c. the precise point of concurrence, as in The plural of nouns, ending in s, ought the case of md, hb.
to have their terminative letter written 4. The letter it is occasionally used rather smaller than the other letters. A for th, writing the adjoining letter only very little practice will accustom the halt its usual size ; as in thr, thm, &c. writer to this method of denoting such
5. Except in the foregoing case, a let. plural nouns. ter of half size, when it is made optionally, when the learner has acquired a peralways indicates that the adjoining fect knowledge of so much of the art as character is to be resolved into two let. we have already laid down, he may proters. When it is requisite to double the ceed to make himself acquainted with letters po or f, and no consonant is re- the following quired to be joined with them, they are RULES OF ABBREVIATION; by which he generally lengthened by a greater incli. will be enabled to follow the most rapid nation of the stroke than usual. Double speaker, and will soon become an expert 1, and double s, when necessary, may be stenographer. made by a little break in the middle, 1. The auxiliary verbs, the participle which may be done, without taking off not, and the pronouns, being severally the pen, by only a very slight movement denoted by their first consonant, may be of it from the line it was describing. . There are one or two cases, where it is
s joined to one another; as 9
can OC, better entirely to lift the pen, and make a small stroke through the letter, nearly D , will be, y, have not been. in the manner we usually cross the 1 in 2. Join the marks or letters in an unlong hand. This expedient is requisite usual manner, in order to show that cach particular mark denotes a word, and not substantive is to be repeated, with some a single letter; as by joining the lettern to the middle instead of the top of the intervening preposition; as, , day after letter t, the whole charater y, will re. a
day;| . from time to time, &c.
* 7. Place the substantive, adjective, or present the words in the ; so, also, the adverb point before two or more conletter 3, joined to the letter t, and drawn sonant marks, to denote two or more sub. from the middle of the preceding con- stantives, adjectives, or adverbs, cojinect. sonant, thus t, will denote the two ed by a conjunction; as, .ege, King, words it is, or r, it was. This rule is Lords, and Commons ; de, soberly, very comprehensive. The writer will righteously, and godly, &c. apply it as he finds it necessary or con 8. Express long words by their first venient so to do.
syllables, with as many points annexed as 3. Derivative nouns, adjectives, and ad. there are syllables wanting. In very comverbs, may be very conveniently express. mon words the points may be occasionally ed by points, differently placed, at the omitted. end of their last consonant. The substan. 9. Express long words by their pretive point being placed immediately fol- positions, together with their next vowel lowing the consonant, and in a direct line or consonant only. with it; the acljective to have its point 10. Words may be denoted by their placed also a little lower down to the left first vowel and consonant, with their terof the substantive point; and the proverb point to be placed, in the same manner,
minutions added ; as, 1 , arbitrary ; ) to the right of the substantive point; as, opportunity, &c Vy, forgetfulness ; vy, forgetful ;
11 Words easily discovered by their
connection may be expressed by their vey., forgetfully.
first vowel and consonant, or by their
prepositions only; and as few English 4. Very common words, or such as words end with the syllable to, the prehave an immediate relation to the subject, position to may be joined to the preced. and are therefore easily discoverable,
e: ing word; as, t, belongs to; 7., satisor first vowel and consonant, with the factory to, &c. substantive, adjective, or adverb point 1 2 Join the pronouns to prepositions ; annexed. The adjectives, which usually accompany such substantives, may also
as, h , to me; Le, to u8 ; l, to you,&c. be denoted by their first consonant, join. always adding the vowel point, when the ed to the substantive ; as 2., humble ser.
words would otherwise be liable to be
mistaken. vant ; 9;, human nuture ; ei christian
13. Join the preceding word, the pre
position, and pronoun, all together; as, religion, &c.
h , belongs to me; eh, ugreed with 5. Place a dot at the point of concur. rence of two consonant marks, to denote
me, &c. two substantives connected together by
14. Join adverbs, verbs, prepositions, some preposition, which is omitted; as pronominal adjectives, and substantives,
e , love of God, or light of the gospel ; all together; as, Sob , safely depend upon ee, cause of gravity, &c. Also, when my
15. Many common phrases, formed by an adjective precedes either of the sub. a substantive, preceded by the preposi. stantives, they may all three be repre- tions with, without, in, &c. and followed sented by their first consonants joined 10. by to, of. &c. may be abbreviated; as, gether, with the dot placed at the end
" Plo, with regard to ; ,in consequence of the first substantive ; as the cee, great goodness of God.
ed by their first consonants only, joined 6. The substantive point, placed before together the vowel o being added in the a single consonant mark, denotes that the first example to denote the preposition to.
THE BEAR. TABLE. adverbial phrases by the initial consonants
A bear, wo ws bred in the savg desris joined together; as, Ph, in like man- of Sibria, had an inkination to see the
wrld. He travld frm forst to forst, and ner; y, in particular; ben, in a frm on kngdm to anthr, making mni
prfnd obsrvations in hs wa. Among the great measure, &c.
rst of hs exkrsns, he km bi aksdnt into a 17. Numerous contractions may be
farmr's yard, wr he saw a nmbr of pltri made, when it is, or it was, are followed
standing to drnk bi the sid of a pool. by an adjective, and to, or that ; as, 4 Obsrving that at everi sip they turnd up
thr heds tords the ski, he could nt fiber it is impossible to; tys, it is not to be enkring the resn of so pekulr a srmni. supposed that, &c.
They told hm that it ws bi wy of rtrning The above abbreviating rules, though thanks to hvn fr the bnfts they rsvd, and few in number, are very extensive in their ws indd an ansnt and rigs kstm, which application. An assiduous attention to the they could nt, with a saf knsns, or wthot nature and idiom of our language, may impiity, omit. Her the bear brst into a suggest others as useful and extensive as ft of laftr, at ons mimking thr gestrs, and these. Proper care being taken to lay a rdkling thr superstition, in the mst kntright foundation, the legitimate ways of mtos mnr. On this the kok, with a sprt contracting will increase in proportion to sutable to the bldness of hs krktr, adrsd the writer's want of them.' li must be hm in the foloing wrds : "As you ar a obvious to every one, how much a sys- strngr, sr, you prps ma be exksd the tematic plan of abbreviation, like this, is indsnsi of this behvr; yet gv me leav to
ti you, that non but a bear would rdkl ani titude of arbitrary marks to signify par. rilgs srmni whatsoever, in the prsns of thos ticular words and phrases; a plan which wo bliev thm of imprtns.” not only disfigures the writing, buit ren. ders it nearly, if not entirely, illegible An Exemplification of the Specimen with even to the writer himself, unless it is Contractions ; containing numerical Retranscribed into long hand while the sub
ferences to all the Rules of Abbreviation, ject is fresh in his memory. The expe. the fourteenth, fifteenth, and seventeenth rience of the late ingenious Dr Darwin willserve to illustrate the futility of these
A bear, who was bred IN THE savage systems. “The book I learned short. Aber, wo w8 bred nt SVS hand from," says this elegant writer, " was published by Gurney, and said to deserts of Siberia, had an inclinATION+ to be an improvement on Mason; other dsrts of Sbria, had an in. to treatises of short-hand I have also examined, and found them all of nearly equal excellence. I can only add. that see the W. He trvld frm many volumes I wrote from medical lec
FOREST TO FOREST', and from one tures I now find difficult to decipher."
and from Had Dr. Darwin practised the system of
on Mr. Byrom, we can assert, both from our KINGDOM3 to another, making many own experience, and the experience of kng to anthr, mking mni many others, that he would have found no serious difficulty in deciphering his profound OBSERVATIONS'' in his way. medical lectures at any period of time prfnd 0b8
nis after they were written, For, as the pre
Among the rest of Ris! EXCURSIONS9, he sent indefatigable Dr. Mavor observes, in the introduction to his own treatise on
Among the rst fis erk. he stenography, “it must be owned that it came by accident4 into a farmer's yard, is above the reach of human ingenuity to km bi ak. into a frmr yrd, exceed his (Mr. Byrom's) general plan, which must for ever be the basis of everywhere he saw a number of poultry standing future rational system.”
wr he saw a nmbr of pltri stnding The first Part of the Specimens without
to drink by the SIDE OF A POOL). Observing Contraclions, spelt according to the Me.
to drnk bi the sp. Obsrving, thod used in writing Short-hand. (See that at every sip they turned up their Plates Short-hand.)
that at erri 8p they trnd up thr
KEADS towards the sky, HE COULD NOT the Plate, that the rules of abbreviation hs. trds the ski, kkn are not only constructed on the most sim.
ple and scientific principles, but that forbear enquiring the reason of so peculiar they possess an almost unlimited power
fror enqring the ren of so pklr of contraction, and have a peculiar adapa ceremony. They told him, that it was:
tation to the genius and phraseology of
our language. With these rules, peru srmni..They tld hm, that t8
fectly learnt, and brought into use by exby way of returning thanks to HEAVEN+ for perience, the present system of shortbi way of rtrning" thnks to H. fr hand may be applied to all the purposes
for which this invaluable art is intendthe benefits they received, and wasindeeded, with as little labour in the acquisithe buifts they rsvd and we indd tion, and with less ambiguity in decy
phering, than attends the learning of any an anCIENT AND RELIGIOUS custom, which
other system of stenography hitherto ksim, which
made public. they could not, with a safe conscience, or
Having availed ourselves of the imthey could nt, wth a saf konsns, or
provements make by Mr. Molineux on
this mode of short writing, first inventwithout IMPIETY!0, omit. Here the beared by Mr. Byrom, and recommending the wth impity, mit. Hr the ber learner for further instructions to Mr.
Molineux's treatise, we think it only burst into a FiT OF LAUGHTER', at once necessary, in order to give the learner a brst into a A
at ons still more adequate knowledge of this
system of short-hand, to lay before him the mimicking their gestures, and ridiculing
mmking thr gutre, and rdkling their SUPERSTITION IN THE most GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR A YOUNG STE. thr superst. nt met
1. Short-hand is one of the perpendiCONTEMPTUOUS MANNER4. Os tuis, the
cular bands; and that your writing may cm. Onis, the
have a vertical appearance, always place cock, with a spirit SUITABLE TO! the yourself exactly parallel with your paper, kk, wth a sprt sle
2. Make all your strokes of an equal
thickness; and endeavour to be as corBOLDNESS OF ais'character, addressed rect as possible in the formation of the bfis krktr, adrsd short-hand characiers; because any ma
terial deviation, either in their shape, or him IN THE FOLLOWINGło words. ' As you in the position of the stroke, may exhm nt foing words. “As you press a different letter, or produce iliegiare a stranger, sir, you PERHAPS3 MAY RE'
3. Let the looped or twirled letters ar a strngr, sr, you p. mb
have their loops made as circular as is excused the INDECENCY OF THIS!: consistent with beauty and ease of joinxksd the ind. fis ing.
4. Make the horizontal characters, BEHAVIOUR9; yet GIVE ME LEAVE TO 16 tell which denote the letters m and n, with beh. yt gmlto E their derivatives, ch and g, nearly semi
circular ; but the rest of the curvilineal you, that none but a bear would ridicule
cule letters, which are either vertical or obyou, that un but a ber would rukl. lique, are always less curved, except any RELIGIOUS CEREMONY+ whatsoever, whe
when they are made only half size.
5. Spell in the shortest but neatest and uni r8.
most compact manner possible. IN THE presence of those who believe 6. Use no more vowels than are neces. nt prsne fos %e0 bไข sary; yet never leave out any that are
distinctly sounded. them of importance.'
7. Observe lineality and beauty at all thm of imprins.'
times, and occasionally lift your pen, ra
ther than fall below or rise above the The learner will perceive, by this ex. space allotted for the short-hand characemplification of the short specimen on ters,
8. Use no arbitrary marks at all : but “To find the diameter of a sbot," froin let every abbreviation be formed upon the impression or cavity it makes by rational and scient fic principles. . striking a brass gun, or other object.
9. Never use the common stops or Rule. Divide the square of the radius of points for any but their own proper and the cavity by the depth of it, and add legitimate purpose.
the quotient to the depth, the sum 10. Never affect too much brevity: will be the diameter of the shot requircommon short-hand is short enough for ed. all common purposes. 11. Make no fanciful innovations in the
Spot, common, small, or that used for
fowling, should be well sized : for, should art: but let all your improvements be it be too great, then it flies thin and scatfounded on the rational principles laid ters too much : or if too small, then it down by the ingenious inventor.
has not weight and strength to penetrate 12. If you write By r'om's Short-hand, far, and the bird is apt to fly away with your writing will be easily read by all
it. In order, therefore, to have it suitawho practise the same system. Let all ra. ble to the occasion, it not being always to tional stenographers observe uniformity, be bad in every place fit for the purpose, and the art will soon become generally
we shall set down the true method of makuseful.
ing all sorts and sizes under the name of 13. Write not too close ; and never
mould-shot, formerly made after the fol. suffer your characters to have a weak,
lowing process : diminutive appearance. Let your whole practice be bold and dignified; agreeably
Take any quantity of lead you think to the genius of the system you have
fit, and melt it down in an iron vessel; adopted.
and as it melts keep it stirring with an 14. Do not make a secret of the art :
iron ladle, skimming off all impurities it is worthy of being universally known
whatsoever that may arise at top: when and practised.
it begins to look of a greenish colour, SHORT sightedness, in medicine. See strew on it as much auripigmentum, or Myopia.
yellow orpiment, finely powdered, as will SHOT, a denomination given to all lie on a shilling, to every twelve or foursorts of balls for fire-arms; those for can- teen pounds of lead; then stirring them non being of irou, and those for guns, together, the orpiment will flame. The pistols, &c. of lead.
paladie should have a notch on one side of " To find the weight of an iron shot,” the brim, for more easily pouring out whose diameter is given; and the con. the
piven. and the con. the lead: the ladle must remain in the trary. Rule. Double the cube of the melted lead, that its heat may be the diameter in inches, and multiply it by 7: same with that of the lead, to prevent so will the product (rejecting the two last inconveniencies, which otherwise might or right hand figures) be the weight in happen, by its being either too hot or pounds. Ex. What is the weight of an too cold ; then, to try your lead, drop iron shot of 7 inches diameter? The cube a little of it into water, and if the drops of 7 is 343, which doubled is 686, and this prove round, then the lead is of a promultiplied by 7 produces 4802, which, per heat; if otherwise, and the shot with the right hand figures rejected. have tails, then add more orpiment, to gives 48 pounds, the weight required. increase the heat, till it is found suffi
" To find the diameter of the shot,” cient. when the weight is given. Rule. Mul. Then take a plate of copper, about the tiply the cube root of the weight in size of a trencher, which must be made pounds by 1.923, and the product is the with a hollowness in the middle, about diameter in inches. Ex. What is the dia. three inches compass,' within which meter of an iron shot of 52 pounds? The must be bored about 40 boles, accord. cube root of 52 is 3.732, which multi. ing to the size of the shot which you plied by 1.923 gives 7.177 inches, the intend to cast: the hollow bottom should diameter required.
be thin ; but the thicker the brim, the
better it will retain the heat. Place Rule by Logarithms.
this plate on a frame of iron, over a
tube or vessel of water, about four To one-third of the logarithm
inches from the water, and spread burn
0.582001 ing coals on the plate, to keep the lead Add the constant logarithm 0.283979 melted upon it, then take some lead, And the sum is the logarithm
and pour it gently on the coals on of the diameter is 7.177 . 0.855980 the plate, and it will make its way