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The Epistle of James is not addressed to the Church; and does not take the ground of apostolic authority over the persons to whom it is sent. It is a practical exhortation, which still recognises the twelve tribes and the connection of the Christian Jews with them, as Jonah addressed the Gentiles, although the Jewish people had their place before God. Thus the Spirit of God still acknowledges here the relationship with Israel, as, in the other case, the relationship with Gentiles, and the rights of God, which are unchangeable, whatever may be the special privileges granted to the Church or to Israel respectively. We know that, historically, the Christian Jews remained Jews to the end of the New Testament history, and were even zealous for the law. To us, a strange thing; but which God endured for a time.
The doctrine of Christianity is not the subject of this Epistle. It gives God His place in the conscience, and with regard to all that surrounds us.
It thus girds up the loins of the Christian, presenting also the near coming of the Lord, and His present discipline - a
a discipline with respect to which the Church of God ought to possess intelligence, and activity founded thereon. The world also, and all that makes an appearance in it, is judged from God's point of view.
A few remarks on the position of Christians, i. e., on the way in which this position is viewed with respect to Israel, will help us to understand this portion of the Word.
Israel is still regarded as the people of God. To the faith of James the nation has still the relationship which God had given it towards Himself. The Christians in it are addressed as still forming part of a people whose links with God were not yet judicially broken: but it was only the Christians among them who possessed the faith which the Spirit gave in the true Messiah. These only among the people, with the writer, acknowledged Jesus as the Lord of Glory. With the exception of verses 14, 15, in chapter v., this Epistle contains no cxhortation which, in its spiritual height, goes beyond that which might be addressed to a godly Jew. It supposes, indeed, that the persons to whom it speaks have faith in the Lord Jesus; but it does not call them to that which is exclusively proper to Christianity and dependent on its privileges
. The exhortations flow from that higher source, and breathe the more heavenly atmosphere; but the effect they aim at producing consists in real proofs of religion here below; they are such as might be heard in the professing Church - a vast body like Israel, in the midst of which some Christians existed.
The Epistle is not founded on Christian relationships here below. It acknowledges them; but only as one fact in the midst of others, which have rights over the conscience of the writer. It supposes those whom it addresses to be in a relationship with God, which is known, unquestioned, and of ancient date; in the midst of which Christianity has been introduced.
It is important to notice the moral measure of the life which this Epistle presents. As soon as we apprehend the position in which it views believers, the discernment of the truth on this point is not difficult. It is the same as that which Christ presented when walking in the midst of Israel and setting before His disciples the light and the relationships with God which resulted to them from His presence. Now, indeed, He was absent; but that light and those relationships are retained as the measure of responsibility. And this the Lord's return would vindicate by judgment on those who refused to accept and walk in it. Until that day, the faithful were to be patient in the midst of the oppression they were suffering from on the part of the Jews, who still blasphemed the Holy Name by which they were called.
It is the inverse of the Epistle to the Hebrews with regard to their relationship with the Jewish nation; not morally, but because of the nearness of the judgment when the Epistle to the Hebrews was written.
The fundamental principles of the position that we have been speaking of are as follows: The law, in its spirituality and perfection, as explained and summed up by Christ. A life imparted, which has the moral principles of the law; itself a Divine life. The revelation of the Father's name. All this was true when the Lord was on the earth, and was the ground on which (however poorly they understood it) He then placed His disciples. He told them that they were to be witnesses of it after His death : distinguishing this testimony from that of the Holy Ghost.
1: is this which James is here; with the addition of that which the Lord had also said, that He would come again. It is the doctrine of Christ with regard to walk in the midst of Israel, according to the light and the truths which He had introduced; and seeing that He was still absent- an exhortation to perseverance and patience in that walk, waiting for the moment when, by judgment on those who oppressed them, He would vindicate the principles on which they walked.
Although the judgment executed on Jerusalem changed the position of the remnant of Israel in this respect, yet the life of Christ remains ever our inodel; and we have to wait with patience until the Lord comes.
We have not in this Epistle the association of the Christian with Christ exalted on high, nor, consequently, the thought of going to meet Him in the air, as Paul taught; but that which it contains ever remains true, and he who says that he abides in Him (Christ) ought also to walk even as He walked.
The judgment that was coming makes us understand the way in which James speaks of the world, of the rich who rejoice in their portion in the world, and the position of the believing remnant oppressed and suffering in the midst of the unbelieving nation; why he begins with the subject of the tribulations and so often recurs to it; why also he insists on practical evidences of faith. He still sees all Israel together; but some had received faith in the Lord of Glory, and these were tempted to value the rich and the great in Israel. All being still Jews, we can easily understand that, while some truly believed and confessed their belief, that Jesus was the Christ, yet, as these Christians followed the Jewish ordinances, mere professors might do as much, without the least vital change being proved by their works. It is evident, that a faith like this has no value whatever. It is precisely the faith of those who clamour for works in the present day-a mere dead profession of the truth of Christianity. To be begotten by the Word of Truth is as foreign and strange to them as to the Jews of whom James is speaking
Believers being thus placed in the midst of Israel with some who merely professed faith, we can readily understand the Apostle's address to the mass, as those who might share in the privileges that existed in their midst; his address to Christians, as having a special place of their own; and his warning to those who called themselves believers in Christ. Most easy and perfectly clear is the practical application to all times, and in particular when a mass of persons assume a right by inheritance to the privileges of the people of God. Besides this, the Epistle has peculiar force for the individual conscience: it judges the position one is in, and the thoughts and intents of the heart.
The Epistle, then, begins with an exhortation to rejoice in trial, as a means of producing patience. This subject
, in the main, continues to the end of verse 20, where the idea turns towards the necessity of curbing everything that opposes itself to patience, and towards the true character of one who stands in the presence of God. This address, as a whole, ends with the chapter. The connection of the reasoning is not always easy to find; the key to it is the moral condition with which the Apostle's mind is occupied. I will endeavour to make the connection more apparent.
The subject, in the main, is that we ought to walk before God, to show the reality of our profession in contrast with union with the world, practical religion. Patience, then, must have its perfect work, thus self-will is subdued, and the whole of God's will is accepted; consequently, nothing is wanting to the practical life of the soul. The believer may suffer; but he patiently waits on the Lord. This Christ did; it was His perfection. He waited for the will of God, and never did His own will; thus obedience was perfect, man thoroughly tested. Now, in fact, we often lack wisdom to know what we ought to do. Here, it says, the resource is evident; we are to ask wisdom from God. He gives to all liberally: only we must count upon His faithfulness and upon an answer to our prayers. Otherwise, the heart is double; there is dependence elsewhere than in God; our desires have another object. If we only seek that which God wills and that which God does, we depend securely on Him to accomplish it; and as to the circumstances of this world, which might make one believe that it was useless to depend on God, they vanish away as the flower of the field. We ought to have the consciousness that our place, according to God, is not that which is of this world. He who is in a low station should rejoice that Christianity exalts him; the rich, that it humbles him. It is not in riches that we are to rejoice; they pass away: but in the exercises of heart of which the Apostle had been speaking; for, after having been tried, we shall receive the crown of life.
The life of one who is thus tried, and in whom this life develops itself in obedience to the entire will of God, is well worth that of a man who indulges all the desires of his heart in luxury.
Now with regard to temptations of this last character, into which the lusts of the heart cause men to fall, it must not be said that they come from God: the heart of man is their source—its lusts, which lead, through sin, to death. Let no one deceive himself on this point. That which inwardly tempts the heart, comes from oneself. All good and perfect gifts come from God, and He never changes. He does nothing but good. Accordingly, He has given us a new nature, the fruit of His own will working in us by the Word of truth, in order that we should be, as it were, first fruits of His creatures. Father