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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established October 1, 1958, pursuant to Public Law
85-568 (72 Stat. 426; 42 U.S.C. 2451) approved July 29, 1958, for the conduct of the nonmilitary space programs of the United States, including the exploration of space and its utilization for peaceful purposes, and to conduct and support advanced research and development related to space and aeronautics in support of both civilian and military requirements. This appropriation provides for research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as follows:
1. Manned space flight. The estimates for this activity include the Gemini, Apollo and Advanced mission studies for all NASA manned flight missions and the development of launch vehicles and propulsion systems required for these missions. The objective of the manned space flight activity is to provide the capability for manned operations in space which will achieve and maintain a position of leadership for the United States and to demonstrate this capability by landing men on the moon and returning them safely to earth
before the end of this decade.
(a) Gemini.-The Gemini objectives are to develop an extended operational capability for manned flight in and to conduct experiments in support of Apollo and other programs. The missions include the development of earth orbital rendezvous techniques, flights of up to 2 weeks duration in earth orbit, controlled reentry, operation of astronauts outside of their spacecraft, and experiments for manned lunar missions. Two unmanned and ten manned flights are planned. The first unmanned flight test was successfully completed in April 1964. The second unmanned flight test is scheduled for early 1965 and the first manned flight shortly thereafter. The primary effort in 1966 will be on manned flight missions. (b) Apollo. The primary goal of the Apollo program is manned flight to the moon and return. The first flight phase includes unmanned flights to qualify the launch vehicles and spacecraft systems and structures in the space environment. The second phase includes long duration manned earth-orbital flights and rendezvous experiments to validate the system for lunar missions. The third phase consists of manned flights which will land
1 Reimbursements from non-Federal sources are payments for services performed on Communications Satellite
1966 estimate 4,656, 942 93, 275 87,633 4,651, 300
4,570,258 2,447,042 -2,897,300
on the moon, explore its surface, and return to earth. During 1966 the major effort will be on the continued development of the Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles and the Apollo spacecraft. The Saturn IB will undergo its first two development flight tests. The Saturn V development efforts will include extensive ground testing on components, systems, and stages; and acceptance testing of the stages for the first flight vehicle. The Apollo spacecraft ground test and development program and first flight phase will continue. The flight program in 1966 comprises two launches using the Little Joe II launch vehicle and two development flights using the Saturn IB vehicle. In addition to the primary effort on the manned lunar landing program, work will also be undertaken to determine how the Apollo spacecraft can be utilized for longer duration manned flights of scientific and engineering importance.
(c) Advanced mission studies.—The program objectives are to study present hardware systems for growth poten tial, to develop future systems requirements, and to formulate a stock of valid technical information upon which future program decisions can be based. Earth orbital and lunar missions will continue to be studied for feasibility and desirability.
2. Scientific investigations in space. This activity includes physics and astronomy, unmanned lunar and planetary exploration, bioscience, and development of related launch vehicles. The objectives are to increase our knowledge of the earth, interplanetary space, the moon, the sun, the solar system, other stars and galaxies, and the effects of the space environment on living organisms. The flight systems used are sounding rocket probes, orbiting observatories, lunar orbiting and landing spacecraft, and interplanetary probes.
(a) Physics and astronomy. This program comprises a number of projects designed to obtain scientific data from near-earth space. Projects include orbiting solar, astronomical, and geophysical observatories, sounding rockets, Explorer satellites and supporting research. The experiments range from solar radiation measurements to observations of infra-red, X-ray, and gamma sources in outer space, and include determination of geophysical,
magnetic, and atmospheric characteristics of the earth. Initial development funds for a large Advanced Orbiting Solar Observatory are provided in this budget.
(b) Lunar and planetary exploration.-The Ranger program will be completed in 1965, but unmanned exploration of the moon's surface will be continued with Surveyor spacecraft which are capable of landing television equipment and scientific instruments on the moon and Lunar Orbiter which will photograph and transmit back to earth pictures of large areas of the moon. The Mariner spacecraft currently in transit to Mars is equipped to obtain information about atmospheric and surface conditions on Mars. The Voyager spacecraft for which initial development funds are included in this budget is intended to obtain more detailed information on the nature of Mars. and to attempt to answer the question of whether life exists on that planet. The Pioneer spacecraft will provide data for studies in interplanetary phenomena simultaneously at widely separated points in space.
(c) Bioscience. In addition to ground based research, this program includes one flight project. Its purpose is to determine effects of weightlessness upon primates, small animals, plants, and other biological specimens. Some preliminary design and technology development effort will also begin in 1966 on an automated biological laboratory that will be a major payload on Voyager missions to Mars. (d) Launch vehicle development. The development of high-performance vehicles for unmanned flight projects is the objective of this program. The Centaur upper stage is the major current project. Other activity is directed at improvements of currently operational launch vehicles to support mission requirements.
3. Space applications. The NASA programs funded in this activity include development of meteorological satellites, communications satellites, and applications technology satellites. Specific objectives of the NASA meteorological program are to improve satellite technology, to carry out instrumentation flight tests, to provide data for atmospheric science research, and to participate in the operational satellite system as required by the U.S. Weather Bureau. In the communications area, NASA is completing tests with the Relay and Syncom satellites already launched. The objectives of the applications technology satellite program are to develop and flight test stabilized and synchronous orbiting spacecraft capable of demonstrating spacecraft components and systems applicable to meteorological, communications, scientific, and other space missions.
4. Space technology. This activity comprises research and development work on space vehicle systems and related equipment and components required for space missions. Emphasis is placed on space vehicle and propulsion systems, and on the technology for applying nuclear power to space uses. Studies of the space environmental effects
5. Aircraft technology.-The objective of this activity is to serve the advancement of the national capability in aeronautics, and to support other Government agencies having aeronautical interests and responsibilities, such as the Department of Defense and the Federal Aviation Agency. In 1966 the aeronautical research effort will be continued in support of supersonic transport and military aircraft development, utilization of the X-15 aircraft for flight research, and technological developments for short and vertical take-off and landing aircraft. A flight research program using prototype B-70 aircraft is provided for in 1966. Basic research in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and loads, propulsion, and aircraft operations will be carried forward in support of these and other anticipated advanced aircraft developments.
on man and on the man-machine relationship are also important activities. The improvement of electronic systems used for control, data acquisition, and communication is a prime objective. Problems concerned with launch, atmospheric reentry, and recovery involve research in areas such as aerothermodynamics, structures and materials, and advanced vehicle concepts. Most of this advanced technology and research activity is conducted at NASA laboratories and special ground based test facilities. The decrease in 1966 is due primarily to the decision to terminate development of the M-1 engine, the large solid rocket motor, and the SNAP-8 nuclear power device.
6. Supporting activities.-The three programs grouped in this activity provide general support for the attainment of NASA mission objectives.
(a) Tracking and data acquisition. Operation and equipment of the stations of the NASA tracking and data acquisition networks are provided for here, as well as research and development to increase the capability of the specialized ground equipment.
(b) Sustaining university program. This program includes training grants awarded to graduate science and engineering students, and broadly oriented research and facility grants to universities.
(c) Technology utilization.-The primary objective of this program is to facilitate and accelerate the transfer of new technological advances generated by NASA research into the nongovernmental sectors of the economy.
Object Classification (in thousands of dollars)
This appropriation provides for contractual services for the design, construction and modernization of facilities; the purchase of equipment related to construction and modernization; and advance design of facilities planned for future authorization. The principal projects in the 1966 program are described below:
1. Manned space flight. This activity includes funding requirements in 1966 for operational and testing facilities, utility installations, and additions and modifications to existing facilities, to support the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle programs and related research and support activities. NASA field centers involved are the John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA, Cocoa Beach, Fla.; the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.; and the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Tex.
2. Scientific investigations in space. The estimates for this activity provide for a space sciences data center and utility installations at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.; a systems engineering facility at the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif.; and assembly and launch control facilities at Wallops Station, Wallops Island, Va.
For necessary expenses, not otherwise provided for, of the operation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, including uniforms or allowances therefor, as authorized by the Act of September 1, 1954, as amended (5 U.S.C. 2131); minor construction; supplies, materials, services, and equipment; awards; [purchase or hire of not to exceed two aircraft for administrative use;] hire, maintenance and operation of administrative aircraft; purchase and hire of motor vehicles (including purchase of not to exceed [eighty-five] thirty passenger motor vehicles, of which [forty] twenty-four shall be for replacement only); and maintenance, repair, and alteration of real and personal property; [$623,525,500.1 $609,400,000: Provided, That contracts may be entered into under this appropriation for maintenance and operation of facilities, and for other services, to be provided during the next fiscal year. (42 U.S.C. 2451, et seq., 50 U.S.C. 151-160, 511-515; Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1965; additional authorizing legislation to be proposed.)
Note. Includes $24,800 thousand for activities previously carried under "Research and development." The amounts obligated in 1964 and 1965 are shown in the schedule as comparative transfers.
Program and Financing (in thousands of dollars)
Identification code 27-00-0103-0-1-251
Receipts and reimbursements from:
Comparative transfers from other accounts. 25 Unobligated balance lapsing............
New obligational authority.
New obligational authority:
"Construction of facilities" (77 Stat.
"Operating expenses, Public Buildings
42 Transferred from "Research and develop-
Relation of obligations to expenditures:
10 Total obligations..........
70 Receipts and other offsets (items 11-17)..
Obligations affecting expenditures....
72 Obligated balance, start of year..
74 Obligated balance, end of year..
1965 1966 estimate estimate
-164 -17,757 2,246
496,099 623,253 609,400
494,000 623,526 609,400
31 2,592 420
514,155 649,821 614,300 -20,302 -26,568 -4,900 493,853 623,253 609,400 77,076 106,515 -77,076-106,515 -141,915
1 Reimbursements from non-Federal sources are payments for services performed on Telstar and Communications Satellite Corporation projects (42 U.S. C. 2473) and for personal property sold for replacement purposes (40 Ú.S.C. 481).