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favour to him (that had been her mother's chaplain) being once above the rest greatly feasted; at her parting from thence, the archbishop and his wife being together, she gave him very speciall thanks, with gratious and honourable termes, and then looking on his wife, and you (faith the) madam, I may not call you, and Mrs. I am ashamed to call you, so I know not what to call you, but yet I do thank you.

It is true, the milliked marriage in bishops, and was not very forward to allow that, in tome of the layety; for I knew one of good place about her, that had contracted himself to a rich widdow, and yet would not adventure to marry her, till he had gotten the queen to write, for that, which he had obtained before, to the intent, that the queen, reputing that as her benefit, might not dislike with her own act. But for clergymen, cæteris paribus, and sometime imparibus too, the prefered the single man, before the married.

Of Archbishop EDMOND GRINDALL. Of Mr. Edmond Grindall, whereas my authour writes he was blind, I have heard by fome (that knew fomewhat in thote dayes) that he kept his house upon a strange occafion, the secret whereof is known to few, and the certainty is not easie to find out, but thus I was told, that

There was an Italian doctor (as I take that of phyfick) that having a known wife a lyar, yet bearing himself on the countenance of some great lord, did marry another gentlewoman, (which to do now, is by most godly laws since made felony). This good archbishop, not winking at To publick a scandall, convented him for that, and proceeded by ecclesiastical censures against him; letters were presently written by this great lord, to the archbishop, to stop the proceeding, to tolerate, to dispense, or to mitigate the censure; but the bishop remained still unmoved and unmoveable ; when no subjects entreaty could be found to prevail, they intreat the soveraign to write in the Doctors behalf; but this John Baptist not only perfiited in his non licet habere eam, but also in a reverent fashion, required an account of her majesties faith, in that she would seem to write in a manner that (if she were truly informed) was exprefly against the word of God. The queen in a gracious disposition, was purposed to have yielded an account in writing; but the great Lord not onely diffwaded her from that, as too great an indignity; but incensed her exceedingly against him; whereupon he was privately commanded to keep his house; where because he was some what troubled with sore eyes, his friends gave out that he was blind. But if he were blind, that was like to the foothsayer Tyresias that foresaw and told Pentheus ruine, as Ovid writes,

Et veniet, nec enim dignabere numen honore,

Meq; fub his tenebris nimium vidisse quereris. For that lord, that so persecuted this prelate about his physítian's two wives, dying twenty years since, left two wives behind him, that can hardly be yet agreed which was his lawfull wife; and so much for archbifhop Grindall.

Doctor WHITEGYFTE. Upon the decease of archbishop Grindall, the state desirous to have a learned and discreet person, in fo eminent a place; and the queen resolved to admit none, but a fingle man; choyce was made of Doctor Whitegyfte, then bishop of Worcester, a man in many respects very

happy

happy, and in the best judgments very worthy. He was noted for a man of great learning in Cambridge, and he was grown to his full ripeness of reading and judgment; even then, when those that they called Puritans (and some meerely define to be Protestants scar'd out of their wits) did not begin by the plot of some great ones, but by the pen of Mr. Cartwright, to defend their new discipline. . Their endeavour as was pretended to reduce all, in show, at least to the purity, but indeed to the poverty, of the primitive churches.

These books of Mr. Cartwright, not unlearnedly written, were more learnedly answered by Doctor Whitegyfte. Both had their reward; for · Mr. Cartwright; was by private favour placed about Coventry, where he grew rich, and had great maintenance to live on, and honoured as a patriarck, by many of that profession. Doctor Whitegyfte was made bishop of Worcester, and there having a great good report of houskeep'ing, and governing the marches of Walles, he was (as my authour hath told, called unto Canterbury. While he was bishop of Worcester, though the revenew of that be not very great, yet his custom was to come to the parliament very well attended, which was a fashion the queen liked exceeding well. It happened one day bishop Elmer of London, meeting this bishop with such an orderly troop of tawny coats, and demanding of him, how he could keep so many men, he answered, it was by reason he kept fo few women.

Being made archbishop of Canterbury, and of the privy councel, he carried himself in that mild, and charitable course, that he was not onely approved greatly by all the clergy of England, but even some of those, whom with his pen he might seem to have wounded; I mean these called Puritans, of whom he won divers by sweet perswafions to conformity. In the star-chamber, he used to deliver his sentence in good fashion, ever leaning to the milder censure as best became his calling. He was a great stay in court and councel, to all oppressions of the church, though that current was some time to violent, as one man's force could not stop that.

He founded an hospitall in or nigh Croyden, and placed poor men therein, in his own life time, and being grown to a full age, that he might say with St. Paul, Bonum certamen certari, curfum confeci, &c. he was so happy as to give to his fovereign and preferrer, the last spirituall comfort the took in this world (I hope to her eternall comfort) and after that, he not onely joined with the other lords, for the proclaiming of King James, but on St. James his day following, did set the crown on his head, and anointed him with oyl; and to having first seen the church setled under a religious king, and the crown established in a hopefull succession, he fell into a palley, to which he had been formerly súbjea, and with no long and painfull sickness, he yielded to nature, delerving well this epitaph, written by a young 1cholar of Oxford, who was with me at the writing hereof.

Candida dona tibi Whitegyfte, funt nomen, & omen,

Candidiora tuis munera nemo dcdit.
Nomen habes niveis infcriptum nunc crgo lapillis,
Et stola, pro meritis redditur alba tuis.

Doctor RICHARD BANCROFT. • Upon the death of archbishop Whiteguift, divers worthy men were samed in the vacancy. - His inajetty not after the manner of fome

princes,

princes, seeking to keep that vacant, but rather haftning to fill that. The bishops of Durham and Winchester were, as it were, roce populi, made competitors with the bishop of London, rather by their eininence of merit and learning, than by any known delire, or endeavour of them or their friends. Wherein methinks, by the way, envy it self cannot but gratulate the church of England, that is fó furniihed with learned bishops, as if choyce had been to be made, not by a judicious prince, but by the fortune of a lot among those three, and many more beside, that could not have fallen amits. But his majesty had long lince understood of his writing against the Genetiling, and Scotizing ministers; and though some imagined he had therein given the king some distaste, yet finding him, in the disputations at Hampton Court, both learned and stout, he did more and more increase his liking to him; so that although in the coinmon rumour, Thoby Matthew then bishop of Durhain, was likeliest to have carried that; fo learned a man, and so assiduous a preacher, qui in concionibus dominatu as his emulous and enemy wrote of him, yet his majesty in his learning knowing, and in his wisdom, weighing, that this fame strict charge Pasce ores meos feed my sheep, requires as well a pastorall courage of driving in the stray fheep, and driving out the infectious, as of feeding the found, made especiall choyce of the bishop of London, as a man more exercised in affaires of the Itate. I will add also my own conjecture out of some of his majestie's own speeches, that in respect he was a single man, he supposed him the fitter according to Queen Elizabeth's principles of state; upon whose wise foundations, his majesty doth daily erect more glorious buildings.

But I lose labour to repeat these things, to your highnesse better known, than to myselfe. I thould onely speak of the former times.

Of his beginning therefore, and rising, I will boldly say that, which I would I might as truly of all that follow in this treatise, viz. that he came to all his preferments very clearly, without prejudice or spoile of his churches.

He was tutor in Cambridge, to the Lord Comwell, who had cause to wish, and (as I have heard) hath witht, he had staid with him longer, though he were sharp and austere. My Lord Chancellor Hatton made . speciall choyce of him, to be his examiner.

. Eft aliquid de tot Graiorum millibus unum a Diomede legi. By his means Queen Elizabeth came to take knowledge of his wifdome and fufficiency. He both wrote, as I touched before, and laboured earnestly by all good means for the suppreiling of the fantasticall novelllists. After the strange and frantick attempts of Hacket and his fellows; which practice, though the branches thereof were easily cut off, yet was it thought to have a more dangerous and secret root. But, for these his travels, as the queen and state favoured him, so the seditious sectaries (to use Judge Popham's word, that would not have them called puritanes) they I say, no leite maligned him in libels and rimes, (for they were void of reasons) laying the imputation of papistry unto him; some of them were punished in the star-chamber, namely, one Darling, the last star-chamber day in Queen Elizabeth's time, was

Tharply censured. And it is no wonder, if they loved him not, for · indeed he had stoutly opposed their chiefest darlings. As for the impu· tation of papistry, which they lay on all men that crofle their designes, be

is

is so free from it, that I can truly affirme, the greatest blow the Papists received in all Queen Elizabeth's time, came from his hand, or at least from his head. For having wisely observed the emulation, am bition, and envy, that lurked in the minds of their secular priests, and the Jesuits one against another, he found the means, by the same policy. and with the like fpirit, that St. Paul set the Pharisees against the Sadduces to set the priests against the jesuits, Watson against Parsons (impar .. gresiils) but yet thereby he fo divided their languages, as fcantly they cna: understand one another as yet. These things acted, before the king, your father's happy entry, I thought good to touch, tho more sparing y than my particular affection and his just deserts do give me occasi in Of his late imployments, of his great care, in setting forward and settore forth all his majesties godly proceedings, thou I know much, if I should say all I know, perhaps it is leile then your highreite knowes; therefore I will conclude with that which the truth, rathe. than my kindness enforceth me to say, that no bithop fince I can tmember hath been counted more vigilant in looking to his charge, Ne quid Ecclefia detrimenti capiat.

SACRED CRITICISM, No. IV*. A CRITIQUE, ON THE INTRODUCTION OF THE EPISTLE

TO THE HEBREWS. • To The EDITORS OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE.

GENTLEMEN, ACCORDING to promise, in my last letter, (No. III.) I now proceed 4 to examine the fublime introduction of THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS, in which is cited that notable attestation to the divinity of CHRIST: " Thy throne, O God, &c.” Pf. 45, 6. and on some future occasions, shall review (GOD willing) that entire psalm, and also the 2d, the 110th, the 8gth, the 97th, and the 102d, &c. From all which, important authorities are adduced by the apostle, to establish the dignity of Jesus as “ THE CHrist, the Son of GOD" upon prophetic evi. dence, in the course of the INTRODUCTION; which properly terminates, (according to Bowijer's judicious division, in his edition of the Greek Testament) chap. 2, 4.

By this unalytical process, a' wide and important field of SACRED CRITICISM, will be opened to investigation, upon surer grounds and more scientific principles; - upon the erclufie application of these psalms, to the MESSIAH or CHRIST, in this' Introduction, as well as in other parts of THE NEW TESTAMENT; which altogether, furnishes the most admirable commentary, that ever was framed, on the prophecies of The OLD, For, furely, nothing can be more injurious to the SCRIPTURE OF TRUTH, than trivial' or cursory strictures upon single texts of Scripture, detached from the context, without suffi. ciently attending to the occasions which gave them birth, and their relation, and connexion, (whether nearer or more remote) with the whole tenor of Holy Writ; in that niysterious scheme of REVEALED WISDOM, of which fuch texts exhibit merely the proininent features. In SACRED CRITICISM, above all, Vol. II. Churchm. Mag. Jan. 1802.

. "A * No. I. and IT. “ On the Restoration of Balaam's Prophecy, Numb. xxiv. 7.?" oceur . 269, and 309; and No. III. « Critique on Psalm XVI. p. 464; of the foregoing volume of this miscellany.

0

" A LITTLE LEARNING is a dangerous thing :

Drink deep, or taste riot THE PIERIAN SPRING.” For, as an inspired apostle most justly remarks, the great “ Apostle of the circumcision,Peter; in the prophetic scriptures, and especially in Paul's epistles, are some things (dvovonta) hard to be understood, which the unlearned and unstable wrest to their own destruction.".2 Pet. 3, 16. And Paul himself acknowledges, that his copious and profound argument refpe&ting the royal priesthood of Christ, was (durepunue ur ) hard to be interpreted" or explained, to those that are si dull of hearing." Heb., 5, 10-11.

I assume, with the ablest critics, ancient and inodern, Clemens Alerandrinus, Eusebius, Origen, &c. Michaelis, Wetstein, Lardner, &c. supporting the decision of our church, that this masterly epistle, (which has won the admiration of the profoundeft scholars and foundest divines, and even extorted the commendation of the most learned Jewish Rabbins) was the composition of that great mystagogue PAUL;-addressed, in the first instance, to the native Jewish converts in Jerusalem and Palestine, who are called HEBREWS, Acts 6, 1. to keep them Itedfast in the faith of Christ. Compare Heb. 2, 1-4. and 3, 1. and 6. 1-9. and 10, 23—27. and 13, 17— 24.- written from Rome, or some part of Italy, about, or Thortly after the close of his two years confinement, ending A.D. 63. Compare Acts 28, 30. and Heb. 13, 23- 24. with 2 Tim. 4, 9. 2 Cor. 1, 1. Coloff. 1, 1. Philem. 1.-And like all his other epistles, in Greek, the universal language of that age. And it is strange, how such respectable fcholars as Grotius, and Michaelis, with several in their train, Hallet, Wakefield, Newcome, Paley, &c. could adopt a notion of some of the earlier fathers, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, &c. that because the epistle was addressed to the Hebrews, it must have been originally written in Hebrew; and was afterwards translated by Luke, the Evangelist, Clemens Romanus or some other, into Greek! A fancy so unfounded, and so disgraceful to this mighty master of Grecian as well as Jewish literature, under whose. auspices, his assistant Luke, the faithful companion of his latter travels, and of his residence at Rome, 2 Tim. 4, 11. might much rather be supposed to have derived his own proficiency in the Greek language. See Owen, Whitby, Wetstein, and Lardner, who have ably vindicated the originality of the present Greek epistle. And, indeed, the remarkable coincidence in expression and phraseology, as well as in sentiment and doctrine, between this and the latest and noblest of Paul's epistles, furnishes internal evidences the most decisive and satisfactory thercof; such as “ The God of Peace,” Heb. is. found also, Rom. 15, 33.; and 16, 20.; 2 Cor. 13, 11., Phil. 4, 9. 1 Theff. 5, 23. Jesus, “THE MEDIATOR,” Heb. 8, 6. and 9, 15. and 12, 24.; found also, Galat. 8, 19-20. 1 Tim. 2, 5. and no where else in the New TESTAMENT. · Why this epistle is anonymous in respect of its author ; why PAUL did not stile himself “ an Apostle," as in his other epistles, addressed to the Gentile converts; (though he evidently did not wish to conceal himself; from his stiling Timothy, o adiago, the brother," as in his acknowledged epistles; and also from his concluding with the usual falutation : Grace be with you all, Amen" as elsewhere, 2 Theff. 3, 17-18.) is best explained perhaps, by Clemens Alexandrinus.--" Because OUR LORD, was pre-eminently, THE APOSTLE OF THE HEBREWS, sent by the

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