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such as simple boring and facing, slide rest tools may be used to advantage, inasmuch as they will operate quicker than hand tools. Since, however, pattern lathes are not usually provided with slide rests, we shall confine our


remarks to hand tools. For roughing out, the turning gouge, shown in Fig. 59, is used. In grinding this gouge, it is necessary to lower the back hand when grinding at and towards the outside corners, so that the cutting edges may be formed, by the junction of two faces, at as acute an angle as those forming the cutting edge in the centre of the width of the tool.

It is always the custom to reduce the work in the lathe to nearly the required form by this tool, the finishing tools being (with one exception) simply scraping tools, and not, properly speaking, cutting tools; hence it is evidently inadvisable to leave much for them to take off. The manner of holding the gouge is shown in Fig. 60. One hand grasps the handle near the end, while the other grasps the gouge near the cutting point, that is to say, as near as the hand rest will permit. It is sometimes, however, necessary to slightly vary the manner of holding, by passing the forefinger of one hand around the hand rest while the gouge is confined between the thumb and forefinger, thus gripping the gouge end to the rest. This is advisable when turning a piece of work that is not completely round, as, for instance, tipping off the teeth of a gear wheel, in which case gripping the gouge

to the hand rest will steady it and prevent it from digging into the work. The gouge is shown, in Fig. 60, to be cut

ting from right to left; it will, however, cut equally well if used from left to right, in which case the position of the hands must be reversed, the left hand gripping the gouge near the cutting edge. In either case, however, the gouge is not held horizontally level, but is tilted to one side, the lower side being the cutting one, otherwise the tool would rip into the work.

Fig. 61 shows the section of the tool and the tilt of the tool when cutting from right to left; while that of the tool, A, shows tilt when cutting

from left to right. The


reasons for this are as follows: The face of the gouge, on

its hollow side and

near the cutting

edge, receives the

strain which is necessary to curl the shaving, that is to


which is ne

cessary to force it

out of the straight

Frg. 61.

line. But if we were to place the gouge in the position shown in Fig. 61, at C, the whole of this strain would be placed upon the gouge, tending to force it forward and into the cut, as denoted by the direction of the arrow; and as a consequence, the gouge would run forward and dig into the work, in spite

[blocks in formation]

When, however, the gouge is held in the positions relative to its line of travel to its cut, shown in Fig. 61, at A and B, there is but little tendency for it to run forward, and it can be fed easily to its cut. In addition to its use as a roughing tool,



the gouge makes a very efficient finishing tool for hollows, though it is not often employed as such by pattern makers. In this case, however, great care must be taken in controlling its position to the work, as shown in Fig. 61.

For finishing plain work, we have the tool shown in Fig. 62, which is the exception noted previously as being a finishing and, at the same time, a cutting tool. It is called a skew chisel, because its cutting edge is ground at an angle or askew to the center line of its length. Furthermore, it is beveled at the cutting end on both sides (as shown in the edge view), being ground very keen. It is

employed for finishing straight or parallel surfaces, and for dressing down the ends or down the sides of a collar or shoulder. When used for finishing straight or parallel surfaces, it performs its cutting in the center of the length of its cutting edge only, as shown at A, in Fig. 63, and is held in the position relative to the work shown in Fig. 62. When nicely sharpened it leaves a polish, unlike other finishing tools; but


with these advantages, it has a drawback (and a serious one) to learners, as it seems to have a terrible propensity for tearing into the work, whether it is used upon the circumference or facing the shoulders of the work. This difficulty can only be overcome by practice, and the reason lies in the difficulty of learning how to handle the tool with dexterity. It must be held almost flat

to the work; and yet, if it should get quite flat against the work, the cutting edge would cut along its whole length, and the pressure of the cut would be sufficient to force the tool edge deeper into the work than is intended, which process would continue, causing the tool to rip in and spoil the work. The face of the chisel nearest to the face of the work being operated upon, stands almost parallel, with

just sufficient tilt of the tool to let the cutting edge meet the work in advance of the inside face of the tool; or in other words, the amount of the tilt should be about that of the intended depth of the cut; so that, when the cutting edge of the tool has entered the wood to the requisite depth, the flat face will bear against the work and form a guide to the cutting edge. The corner of the chisel which is not cutting must be kept clear of the work. Fig. 63 will convey the idea, the arrows showing the direction in which the chisel is, in each case, supposed to be traveling.

The short lines, A and B, under the arrows, and those touching the collar, at C and D, show the tilt or incline of




the chisel to the work. In turning the circumference, the obtuse corner of the chisel is the cutting one; while in turning down a side D face, it is the acute angle. Most pattern makers, however, do not often use the skew chisel for

finishing straight
because it is liable


to make the surface of the work more or less wavy. It is, however, almost always used for cutting off and for

cutting down shoulders, for which purpose it is highly advantageous. For circumferential work on cylindrical sur

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