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Betterments are improvements of existing facilities through the substitution of superior parts for inferior parts retired, such as the substitution of steel-tired wheels for cast wheels under equipment, the application of heavier rail in tracks, and the strengthening of bridges by the substitution of heavier members. The cost chargeable to the accounts of this classification is the excess cost of new parts over the cost at current prices of new parts of the kind retired. (See 8 10.01-12.)
Cost shall be actual money cost to the carrier. Where a portion of the funds expended by the carrier has been obtained through donations by States, municipalities, individuals, or others, no deduction on account of such donations shall be made in stating the cost. The entire cost of constructing transportation property to which the carrier holds title or the exclusive right to use, acquired in connection with the construction of crossings, (other than railroad crossings), at grade and all crossings above or below grade of the carrier's tracks, or in connection with relocations of the carrier's transportation facilities for the benefit of others or incident to public improvement projects, shall be included in these accounts regardless of the amount contributed by the carrier toward the construction of such facilities. If the carrier's contribution to the construction of such projects is in excess of the cost of the transportation property acquired such excess shall be appropriately included in account 212, “Other right-of-way expenditures,” or account 39, “Public improvements—Construction. If the carrier's contribution to the project is less than the cost of the transportation property acquired, this difference, less the sum of the service value of the carrier's transportation property retired and the cost of retiring it, shall be accounted as a donation, includible as appropriate in account 754, “Grants in aid of construction," or account 606, "Donations."
Transportation property means physical property used in or held under a definite plan for transportation service.*+ [As amended, Apr. 18, 1928, Dec. 27, 1935]
10.01-3 Basis of charges. The charges to the accounts of this classification shall be based upon the cost of the property acquired. When the consideration given for the purchase of the improvement of property the cost of which is chargeable to the accounts of this classification is other than money, the money value of the consideration at the time of the transaction shall be charged to these accounts, and the actual consideration shall be described in the record in sufficient detail to identify it. The carrier shall be prepared to furnish the Commission, upon demand, the particulars of its determination of the actual cash value of the consideration, if other than money.**
10.01-4 Cost of construction. It is intended that the accounts for fixed improvements and equipment shall include the cost of construction of such property. The cost of construction shall include the cost of labor, materials and supplies, work-train service, special machine service, transportation, contract work, protection from casualties, injuries and damages, privileges, and other analogous ele
*For statutory citation, see note to § 10.00_1.
ments in connection with such work. The several items of cost here referred to are defined as follows:
(a) Cost of labor includes the amount paid for labor expended by the carrier's own employees, including the cost of labor expended for preliminary work, such as sinking test holes or making soundings for tunnels, grading, buildings, and other structures; and cost of labor expended in laying and taking up tracks for temporary use in construction, except the cost of labor expended on tracks provided for the protection of traffic during the progress of addition and betterment work. Office expenses and traveling and other personal expenses of employees, when borne by the carrier, shall be considered a part of the cost of the labor, as shall also the cost of fidelity bonds and employers' liability insurance premiums. When officers or employers are specially assigned to construction work, their pay and their traveling and incidental expenses while thus engaged shall be included in the cost of the work. No charge shall be made against road and equipment accounts for the pay of officers who merely render services incidentally in connection with extensions, additions, or betterments, although traveling and incidental expenses incurred by such officers solely on account of such work shall be included in the account to which the cost of the work is chargeable.
(b) Cost of materials and supplies includes the purchase price of materials and supplies, including small tools, at the point of free delivery, plus the costs of inspection and loading assumed by the carrier; also a suitable proportion of store expenses. (See 88 10.2–16, 10.2–17.) In calculating the cost of materials used, proper allowancé shall be made for the value of unused portions and of cutting, turnings, borings, etc.; for the value of the material recovered from temporary tracks, scaffolding, cofferdams, and other temporary structures used in construction; and for the value of small tools recovered and used for other purposes.
(c) Cost of work-train service includes amounts paid to others for rent and maintenance of the equipment used; cost of labor of enginemen, trainmen, and enginehouse men, including the wages of engine crews and train crews held in readiness for such service; and the cost of fuel and other supplies consumed in connection with the operation of work trains. It shall also include the cost of maintaining the carrier's own equipment while used in construction service and a fair rent for such equipment while so used. Amounts charged for rent of such equipment used in construction shall concurrently be credited to the appropriate income account for hire of equipment. No “rent” or return upon the investment in such equipment shall be charged for the use of equipment acquired with the proceeds of securities sold, when the interest upon such securities is charged to the accounts of this classification.
(d) Cost of special machine service includes the cost of labor expended and of materials and supplies consumed in maintaining and operating steam shovels, scrapers, rail unloaders, ballast unloaders, pile drivers, dredges, ditchers, weed burners, and other laborsaving machines; also rents paid for use of such machines. (See Note
A under account No. 37, "Roadway machines," and text of general account II, Equipment, seventh paragraph.)
(e) Cost of transportation includes the amounts paid to other companies or individuals for the transportation of men, materials and supplies, special machine outfits, appliances, and tools in connection with construction. Freight charges paid foreign lines for the transportation of construction material to the carrier's line shall be included, so far as practicable, as a part of the cost of the material, when such charges are borne by the carrier. A fair allowance representing the expense to the carrier of such transportation in transportation service trains over the carrier's own line also shall be included. When the cost of such transportation is not assignable to specific work, it shall be included in account No. 43, "Other expenditures-Road." Amounts thus charged for transportation in transportation service trains over the carrier's line shall be credited to operating expense general account VIII, Transportation for Investment-Cr.
(f) Cost of contract work includes amounts paid for work performed under contract by other companies, firms, or individuals, and costs incident to the award of the contract.
(g) Cost of protection from casualties includes expenditures for protection against fire, such as payments for discovery or extinguishment of fires, cost of detecting and prosecuting incendiaries, witness fees in relation thereto, amounts paid to municipal corporations and others for fire protection, and other analogous items of expenditure in connection with construction work.
(h) Cost of injuries and damages includes expenditures on account of injuries to persons or damage to property when incident to construction projects, and shall be included in the cost of the work in connection with which the injury or damage occurs. It also includes that portion of premiums paid for insuring, property applicable to the period prior to the completion or coming into service of the property insured. Insurance recovered on account of compensation paid for injuries to persons incident to construction shall be credited to the accounts to which such compensation is charged, and insurance recovered on account of damages to property incident to construction shall be credited to the accounts chargeable with the expenditures necessary for restoring the damaged property. The cost of injuries and damages incident to the removal of old structures, or parts thereof, shall be charged to Operating Expenses or Profit and Loss, as may be appropriate, except that such costs in connection with the removal of old structures which are incumbrances on newly acquired lands shall be included in account No. 2, “Land for transportation purposes,” or No. 3, “Grading," as may be appropriate. (See $$ 10.01–7, 10.01-8.)
(i) Cost of privileges includes compensation for temporary privileges, such as the use of public property or streets, in connection with the construction of the property of the carrier.**
10.01–5 Excavated material. The cost of disposing of material excavated in connection with construction shall be considered as a part of the cost of the work, except that when such material is used
*For statutory citation, see note to $ 10.00_1.
for filling, the cost of removal and dumping shall be equitably apportioned between the work in connection with which the removal occurs and the work in connection with which the material is used.*+
10.01-6 Items to be credited. To these accounts shall be credited the ledger value of property retired.
Ledger value of property is the value at which the property is carried in the property investment account in the general ledger of the carrier. In case the value of any item of property is not shown separately in the ledger the ledger value of that item shall be its proportionate share of the value of the entire group in which the particular property is included.
Property retired means property which is sold, abandoned, demolished, or otherwise withdrawn from transportation service.
Salvage from retired property is the value of material recovered from property retired. When such material is retained and again used by the carrier, the value shall be computed upon the basis of fair prices for the material in its condition as recovered. When such material is sold, the net proceeds of the sale shall be considered as the value of the material. +
10.01–7 Property retired and replaced. When a unit of property other than land or equipment—such as a section of road, side or yard track, shop or power plant machine, building, or other structure-is retired from service and replaced with property of like purpose, the ledger value of the retired property shall be credited to the appropriate accounts of this classification at the time that the property is retired from service. The amount of this credit shall be charged concurrently as follows:
An amount equal to the credit balance in the accrued depreciation balance sheet account with respect to the property thus retired shall be charged to that account and the remainder (less salvage and insurance recovered, if any), together with the cost of demolishing the property, if demolished by or for the carrier, shall be charged to the accounts in Operating Expenses appropriate for the cost of repairs of the property before retirement. The accounting for the salvage shall be in accordance with the disposition made of the material recovered.
If so authorized by the Interstate Commerce Commission, the carrier may charge to Profit and Loss any extraordinarily large item representing the cost of property retired and replaced, instead of charging such item to Operating Expenses. The carrier shall file with the Commission a statement of the cost and a description of the property retired and the reasons which, in its judgment, indicate the propriety of charging the cost of such property to Profit and Loss. The provisions of this
section are applicable in accounting (at the time of retirement) for the cost of property abandoned, even though the new property has been actually installed previously to the date of the demolishment of the abandoned property.
When the renewals to be made to an important building or other structure will constitute the major portion of its value when renewed, the property, when taken out of service, shall be considered as retired
*For statutory citation, see note to 10.00_1.
and accounted for as provided above, and for the purposes of this classification the renewed property shall be considered as an addition, and the appraised cost thereof shall be included in the accounts of this classification, consideration being given to the secondhand portions remaining therein. In no case shall the charge for the renewed property exceed the cost (at current market prices of labor and material) of new property of equal capacity and equal expectation of life in service, less à suitable allowance on account of the secondhand parts remaining therein.**
10.01-8 Property retired and not replaced. When a unit of property other than land or equipment-such as a section of road, side or yard track, shop or power plant machine, building, or other structure-is retired from service and not replaced, the ledger value shall be credited to the appropriate property accounts at the time that the property is retired from service. The amount of this credit shall be concurrently charged as follows:
An amount equal to the credit balance in the accrued depreciation balance sheet account with respect to the property thus retired shall be charged to that account, and the remainder (less salvage and insurance recovered, if any), together with the cost of demolishing the property if demolished by or for the account of the carrier, shall be charged to the appropriate profit and loss account. The accounting for the salvage shall be in accordance with the disposition made of the material recovered.*+
10.01-9 Equipment retired. The instructions for accounting for equipment retired are contained in the text of the general account II, Equipment.**
10.01-10 Land retired. When any land, the cost of which is included in the accounts of this classification, is retired, the ledger value shall be credited to account No. 2, "Land for transportation purposes." If the land is retained by the carrier, its estimated value shall be charged to balance-sheet account No. 705, “Miscellaneous physical property,” the necessary adjustment of the difference between the ledger value and the estimated value on account of the loss in the property due to its retirement from transportation service shall be made through Profit and Loss. If sold, the difference between the ledger value credited to account No. 2 and the amount received for the land shall be adjusted in Profit and Loss.**
10.01-11 Adjustments for converted property. If a unit of equipment which has become inadequate or obsolete for transportation service is physically converted to work equipment the unit shall be accounted for as retired. (See $ 10.01–6.)
The value of the unit for the purpose for which converted, as compared with the cost of a new unit for the same purpose, shall be charged, as the cost of the converted unit, to the primary account appropriate therefor. In determining the value of the converted unit among other factors proper consideration shall be given to the following particulars of the unit as compared with a new unit:
(a) Their probable service lives.
*For statutory citation, see note to $ 10.00–1.