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For necessary operating expenses of the Commission in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, including the employment of aliens; services authorized by section 15 of the Act of August 2, 1946 (5 U.S.C. 55a); hire, maintenance and operation of aircraft; publication and dissemination of atomic information; purchase, repair and cleaning of uniforms; official entertainment expenses (not to exceed $30,000); reimbursement of the General Services Administration for security guard services; hire of passenger motor vehicles; [$2,342,669,000 $2,823,000,000, and any moneys (except sums received from disposal of property under the Atomic Energy Community Act of 1955 (42 U.S.C. 2301)) received by the Commission, notwithstanding the provisions of section 3617 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 484), to remain available until expended: Provided, That of such amount $100,000 may be expended for objects of a confidential nature and in any such case the certificate of the Commission as to the amount of the expenditure and that it is deemed inadvisable to specify the nature thereof shall be deemed a sufficient voucher for the sum therein expressed to have been expended: Provided further, That from this appropriation transfers of sums may be made to other agencies of the Government for the performance of the work for which this appropriation is made, and in such cases the sums so transferred may be merged with the appropriation to which transferred: Provided further, That no part of this appropriation shall be used in connection with the payment of a fixed fee to any contractor or firm of contractors engaged under a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract or contracts at any installation of the Commission, where that fee for community management is at a rate in excess of $90,000 per annum, or for the operation of a transportation system where that fee is at a rate in excess of $45,000 per annum. (42 U.S.C. 2011, 2017, 2291; Public Works Appropriation Act, 1964; additional authorizing legislation to be proposed.)
Program and Financing (in thousands of dollars)
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
Federal sources (revenues applied).
New obligational authority.......
1964 1965 estimate estimate
477,719 320,000 267,455
10,300 13,500 11,000 9,035 76,780 6,930 6,950 7,000 5,572 5,800 5,100 -3,297
2,429,414 2,488,366 2,377,517
Program and Financing (in thousands of dollars)—Continued
The Atomic Energy Commission procures raw materials; manufactures special nuclear materials and atomic weapons; develops improved weapons; conducts research and development aimed at generation of atomic power; conducts research concerning protection of health against possible hazards arising from atomic energy operations; conducts investigations in the physical and biomedical sciences related to atomic energy, including investigation of controlled thermonuclear reactions; conducts research and development in civilian applications of isotopes and nuclear explosives; establishes and enforces regulations for civilian uses of atomic energy; promotes industrial participation in atomic energy development for peaceful purposes; encourages scientific and industrial progress through the dissemination of atomic energy information; and participates in programs of international cooperation in peaceful applications of atomic energy.
The program is administered through field offices. Most of the AEC activities are carried on in Governmentowned facilities by industrial concerns and educational institutions operating under contracts. Coordination with the armed services is achieved through the Military Liaison Committee of the Department of Defense.
Total program costs in 1965 are estimated at $2,377.5 million or $110.9 million less than the estimated 1964 costs of $2,488.4 million, and $51.9 million less than actual costs of $2,429.4 million for 1963. In 1965, increases are provided for: research in the physical and biomedical sciences, the use of isotopes, and for broadening the base of nuclear 2,549,397 2,524,672 2,359,066 technology. These increases are more than offset by a reduction in costs for the procurement of uranium concentrates due to the scheduled decline in procurement and anticipated deferrals in domestic procurement deliveries of 4,000 tons until 1967 and 1968 and a reduction in the
-32.635-31,574-36,066 production of special nuclear materials.
1964 1965 estimate estimate
1 Selected resources as of June 30 are as follows:
Total selected resources--
2,872,031 2,342,669 2,323,000
20, 347 18,618 18,618 18,618 774, 382 894, 365 930, 671 912,220
In 1965, total program obligations will be less than program costs, the difference being costs against obligations incurred in prior years. Total program obligations
General and special funds-Continued
for operating expenses in 1965 are estimated to be $2,359.1 million compared to $2,524.7 million in 1964 and $2,549.4 million in 1963.
The schedule of costs by activity does not include nonbudgetary costs such as depreciation charges, accrued annual leave earned but not taken by AEC employees, the cost of source and special material consumed and sold, etc.; in total, these are as follows: 1963, $313 million; 1964 estimate, $330 million; 1965 estimate, $335 million.
1. Raw materials.-Uranium concentrates are procured for processing in the AEC production facilities. In accordance with existing contractual commitments and the anticipated stretchout of deliveries from domestic sources currently being negotiated, 1965 procurement is estimated at 15,677 tons of concentrates, of which 11,625 tons will come from domestic sources. This is a decrease of 2,560 tons from the 18,237 tons estimated to be procured in 1964. Procurement in 1963 was 26,982 tons.
2. Special nuclear materials.-Special nuclear materials are produced to meet weapons production schedules and requirements for other programs. Uranium concentrates are processed into feed materials from which plutonium and other products are produced in the reactors at Richland, Wash., and Savannah River, S.C., and the isotope uranium 235 is extracted in plants at Oak Ridge, Tenn., Paducah, Ky., and Portsmouth, Ohio. Production of special nuclear materials will decline in 1965. Work will continue on process improvements to assure continuity and safety of operation and more economical methods of production.
3. Weapons.-The weapons program encompasses the production of weapons; the maintenance of stockpiled weapons in a state of constant readiness; the design, development and underground testing of new weapons types; preparation for and maintenance of a short-term readiness capability to resume atmospheric testing; and participation with the Department of Defense in the development of test detection methods.
4. Reactor development. This program includes the development of civilian power reactors leading to reliable and economic power, power and propulsion reactors for a variety of military and space applications, together with research and development on advanced reactor systems, nuclear safety, and general reactor technology. The costs by major category are (in thousands of dollars):
The civilian power reactor program establishes a foundation of technical knowledge through a program of research and development on promising reactor concepts; design, fabrication, and operation of power reactor experiments; the development of experimental reactors; and development of conceptual designs for prototype powerplants.
Costs of $16 million will be incurred for the cooperative power reactor demonstration program in which AEC provides financial aid in development of full-scale power reactors built by private utilities and public power bodies. This aid provides a basis for a privately financed nuclear power industry.
The Euratom program provides for research and development under a joint program with the European Atomic Energy Community, for which costs of $5.5 million will be incurred in 1965.
The merchant ship program is carried out in cooperation with the Maritime Administration. In 1965 the
experimental operation of the NS Savannah will be completed, and this nuclear ship will be turned over to the Maritime Administration for commercial operation.
The Army power reactors program, carried out with the Department of Defense, provides for the development of transportable power reactors for the generation of electric power and heat at remote installations. Effort will continue in 1965 on the development of mobile reactors for field use and reactors for central power use at remote
The naval propulsion reactors program, carried out with the Department of Defense, will be continued in 1965 to provide for the development of propulsion reactors for submarine and surface combatant ships.
The rocket propulsion reactors program (Project Rover) is carried out in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to develop nuclear rocket engines for space application. The program will be reoriented to ground-based research and engineering with deferral of flight objectives.
The missile propulsion reactors program (Project Pluto) is carried out with the Department of Defense to develop nuclear rockets for missile application. Work on developing an experimental reactor for possible application to ramjet propulsion will be essentially completed during 1965, and research and development on higher temperature reactor components will be conducted.
The satellite and small power sources program (Project SNAP) is carried out in cooperation with the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and other Government agencies, to develop nuclear reactors and small power sources for satellites and other special purpose applications. Development of reactor power systems for possible application to large communication satellites, reconnaissance systems, and
space probes will be continued.
To provide broad support for developmental reactor projects, AEC conducts research in general reactor technology, which includes general research and development on materials, components, moderators, control techniques, fuel elements, spent fuels reprocessing and waste
The advanced reactor systems research and develop ment program is devoted to the development of experi mental reactors and research and development on promising advanced reactor concepts.
In its nuclear safety program, AEC conducts investigations related to nuclear safety problems which have general application. The 1965 estimate provides for
additional work on related engineering field tests on postulated safety problems and on aerospace safety.
The AEC also operates the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho, including two test reactors which provide irradiation services for the AEC programs. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), when completed at Idaho during 1965, will contribute to these irradiation services. The cost categories in the table above may be recapitulated to indicate approximately the relative efforts placed on central station civilian atomic power applications, outer space applications, military program applications, and all other applications. This comparison is as follows (in thousands of dollars):
6. Biology and medicine.-Research is conducted on the effects of radiation on living things. It includes investigations of the biological effects of radioactivity in the body and the development of methods for minimizing exposure to radioactive materials of all kinds and for minimizing and protecting against the injurious effects of radiation. Support is given to the development of methods of utilizing radioactive materials for human welfare and for the diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of human diseases, such as cancer. Evaluation of the significance of human exposure to radioactivity from all sources is given special emphasis. Studies being carried out include the measurement of radioactive byproducts (including fallout) in the atmosphere, soils, fresh waters, oceans, and biosphere proper. Research provides the basis for establishment of standards to insure that AEC activities are conducted with safety.
The major portion of the research is carried on at 18 laboratories which are owned by or operated for the Commission, and the remainder, comprising approximately 700 off-site research projects, is supported in more than 230 universities, colleges, hospitals and independent laboratories. The program includes the operation of several facilities in the United States devoted to cancer research and, through the National Academy of Sciences, in Japan for the determination of long-term effects of atomic bomb radiation on the affected population.
Research in high energy physics continues to expand as new accelerators, on which construction was initiated in prior years, phase into operation. The increase in low-energy physics is primarily due to the operation of research tools acquired in prior years. Increased work is planned in mathematics and computer-related techniques. Chemistry and metallurgical research are aimed at advancing basic knowledge in these fields of science and developing such knowledge for practical operations of the atomic energy program. Controlled thermonuclear research is directed toward ultimate production of power from the controlled fusion of heavy hydrogen nuclei. Basic nuclear engineering is intended to fill an existing gap between basic scientific research and classical engineering. The work will be done largely in areas which are traditionally treated as engineering problems.
Approximately 75% of the physical research program is conducted at 15 laboratories and installations owned by or operated for the Commission, and the remainder, comprising approximately 600 research projects, is supported in more than 150 universities, colleges, institutes, and independent laboratories.
includes conduct of specialized courses; granting of grad7. Training, education and information. This activity uate and postdoctoral fellowships; assistance to colleges and universities, operation of the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center; and dissemination of technical information, including participation in international conferences and exhibits on nuclear science and technology.
Under the fellowship program in 1965, approximately 287 college fellowships, compared to 239 in 1964 and 190 in 1963, will be offered for graduate studies in nuclear science and engineering. In 1965, 116 fellowships will be offered in the fields of radiological physics, industrial hygiene and industrial medicine, which compares to 95 fellowships in these fields in 1964 and 88 in 1963. A proposed program of nuclear traineeships is expected to include 100 participants in fiscal year 1965. Assistance to schools to provide for educational programs in nuclear science and engineering will be continued. Grants are made to universities to help them acquire nuclear training equipment, teaching aids, demonstration apparatus, and special laboratory equipment. University summer and academic year courses in radiobiology are made available to high school and university science teachers. Special training in the nuclear aspects of the engineering, life, and physical sciences for university faculty members is provided.
In order to assist the States in the implementation of Public Law 86-373 (which authorizes the Commission to transfer certain regulatory functions to the States and also authorizes related training activities), training courses and on the job orientation are conducted in radiation safety, radiological health protection, waste disposal, etc., for State and local and government employees. No tuition charges are made for these courses.
To broaden the dissemination of information on matters relating to atomic energy, AEC provides technical information services, maintains libraries, performs translation services, and operates traveling atomic energy exhibits.
APPENDIX TO THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 1965
General and special funds-Continued
AEC arranges for nuclear exhibits at selected foreign conferences and exhibitions in order to demonstrate U.S. technology. The program includes funds for AEC participation in the third international (Geneva) conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy scheduled in September 1964.
8. Civilian applications of isotopes and nuclear explosives-Isotopes. This program provides the new technology necessary for developing uses of radioisotopes and high level radiation. Continuing research is done to develop economic uses of fission product wastes arising from nuclear reactor operation. Effort is also directed to development of nuclear technology for solution of problems in meteorology, seismology, control of environmental pollution, water resources development, and food pasteurization. An increasingly important area is the development of isotopic power and heat sources for space and terrestrial needs.
Nuclear explosives.-This program (Plowshare) provides for the investigation and development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. Current emphasis is on the development and testing of "clean" devices for use in large scale earth moving projects and of high flux devices for future use in scientific experiments.
9. Communities.-Although legislation has been enacted to terminate Government ownership of the town of Los Alamos, N. Mex., over a period of the next few years, the program estimate of $9 million includes $6.7 million for the Los Alamos community of which $200 thousand is for assistance to the hospital and $6.5 million is for operation of the town because the Atomic Energy Commission will continue to operate the community through 1965. The remaining $2.3 million is for assistance payments to the former Atomic Energy Commission communities of Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Richland, Wash., in accordance with the Atomic Energy Community Act of 1955, as amended. Operating revenues at Los Alamos (budgeted under revenues applied) are estimated at $5.2 million.
10. Program direction and administration.-This program includes the salaries and other costs for employees of the Federal Government engaged in executive direction, general management, and technical supervision of the atomic energy program; the negotiation and administration of contracts; establishment and enforcement of regulations for civilian uses of atomic energy; and other related administrative activities. Employees under this program are located in the Washington headquarters and in field offices. The 1965 increase of $4.2 million is related principally to costs for the increase in average employment, which provides for full-year employment at the June 30, 1964, level; for scientific and management training programs; and for the provisions of the Postal Service and Federal Employees Salary Act of 1962, Public Law 87-793. No increase in staff is provided in 1965.
11. Security investigations.-The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires background investigations of those persons proposed for access to restricted data of the atomic energy program. The number of full background investigations to be requested in 1965 is estimated at 19,353 compared with 19,750 for 1964 and 19,753 for 1963.
12. Cost of work for others.-In furthering the objectives of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 concerning utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, AEC furnishes materials and services, apart from those which it provides normally for its own basic programs, to industrial organizations and other private parties. Costs for these are incurred only upon the request of others. Charges made for such products and services are reflected in the budget under advances and reimbursements from non-Federal sources (revenues applied) and are applied as a source of funds, thereby reducing the amount of appropriations required. The items included are (in thousands of dollars):
Income from products sold and services performed the costs of which are included in program costs of current or prior years:
Sale of source and special nuclear mate-
Income from communities.
Income from other products sold and services performed, cost of which are incurred at request of others and included under Cost of work for others: Products sold....... Services performed.
Total, Advances and reimbursements from non-Federal sources (revenues applied)..........
Advances and reimbursements from non-Federal sources (revenues applied).-This item, shown as a source of financing on the program and financing schedule, reduces appropriation requirements and is obtained from services performed; the sale and lease of products, including sale and lease of nuclear materials produced as a part of the Commission's own basic program; the operation of AEC-owned communities and housing; the sale of special reactor materials; and products and services for which costs are incurred only upon the request of others and are included under Cost of work for others. The items included are (in thousands of dollars):
1963 actual 1964 estimate 1965 estimate
1964 estimate 1965 estimate
PLANT AND CAPITAL EQUIPMENT
For expenses of the Commission, as authorized by law, in connection with the purchase and construction of plant and the acquisition of capital equipment and other expenses incidental thereto necessary in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, including the acquisition or condemnation of any real property or any facility or for plant or facility acquisition, construction, or expansion; purchase [(]of not to exceed [four hundred and twenty-three] five hundred and twenty-two of which three hundred and eighty-four are for replacement only [,] (including [two] three at not to exceed $3,000 each) and hire of passenger motor vehicles; and purchase of one aircraft; [$400,000,000 $370,000,000, to remain available until expended: Provided, [That the obligated balance as of June 30, 1963, of amounts included in appropriations to the Atomic Energy Commission for "Operating expenses", for capital equipment not related to construction, shall be merged with this appropriation: Provided further, That the unexpended balance as of June 30, 1963, of the appropriation "Plant acquisition and construction" shall be merged with this appropriation: Provided further, That not to exceed $30,000,000 for a spectral shift power reactor may be transferred from this appropriation to the appropriation for "Operating expenses", if the Commission determines such transfer to be necessary to carry out such cooperative power_reactor demonstration program as may be authorized by law] That not to exceed $9,000,000 of the amount appropriated herein for an isotopes production plant may be transferred to the appropriation for "Operating expenses", if the Commission determines such transfer to be necessary to enter into an arrangement for construction of all or a part of such plant by private industry. (42 U.S.C. 2017; 77 Stat. 84; Public Works Appropriation Act, 1964, additional legislation to be
Program and Financing (in thousands of dollars)
This appropriation provides for the construction of plants and facilities and for the acquisition of capital equipment, all required for the production, research and development, and supporting programs of the Atomic $9,699 Energy Commission. Of the new obligational authority of $370 million being requested for 1965, $151.3 million applies to new construction projects; $28.9 million is applicable to construction projects previously authorized by the Congress; and $189.8 million is required for the acquisition of capital equipment not related to construction.
1. Raw materials.-This activity provides for minor construction to support the Government-owned procure