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(c) Manpower:

(1) Availability of manpower today and in the future.
(2) Needs of active services for the draft.

(3) Long-term enlistments.

(4) Deferments or extensions from the draft.

Mr. BROOKS. Now, are there any comments regarding that suggested outline?

Mr. VAN ZANDT. Mr. Chairman, are we going to hear testimony on these items as they are listed?

Mr. BROOKS. We first have set up the program this way. We will first have the witnesses appearing from the Pentagon, and we intended to start with the Hon. Stephen S. Jackson, who is Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense.

Following that, we will hear from the National Guard.

And third, we will hear from other Reserve components who wish to be present and testify.

Fourth, we will hear from the patriotic organizations such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the American Legion, and the DAV's, or any other patriotic organizations.

Now, we have thus far, I think it is, 31 witnesses on our schedule. Senator Malone called a few moments ago and he wants to come over in the morning, and if there is no objection we will hear him and he will make the 32d witness we have. All of them are topflight witnesses.

Any further questions? If not, we will proceed with the order of witnesses. We have Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense Stephen S. Jackson.

Mr. JACKSON, will you come forward, sir?

The committee is well acquainted with your work, Mr. Jackson. You have been with us before, and helped us on other Reserve programs. We need help in this instance. We are glad you are here. You are the lead-off witness. I understand you have a prepared statement. We will be delighted to hear it.

Secretary JACKSON. Thank you, sir.
Shall I proceed, sir?

Mr. BROOKS. You may proceed, sir.

Secretary JACKSON. Mr. Chairman and members of the House Committee on Armed Services:

As representative of the office of the Secretary of Defense, I am deeply appreciative of this opportunity to present its report on the present status of our Reserve Forces.

The chairman, and the distinguished members of this committee, have earned the gratitude of the Armed Forces for a long and consistent record of constructive legislation. In particular, the program which has been developed for the Reserve Forces is an excellent example of legislative foresight and effective action in a most important and vital area.

Our last progress report was given to this committee on May 2, 1956. My statement today is a continuation of that report, citing actions subsequently taken to improve the program, gains we have made, and what remains to be done in developing our Reserve Forces to a truly trained and ready status.

Representatives of the Services are here and are prepared to give this committee full details on their individual service programs, and the degree of progress they have achieved.


Several important policy directives have been issued by the Office of the Secretary of Defense since our last appearance here. In May, 1956, a Department of Defense directive prescribed a 6-month period of active duty for training for all individuals entering the Reserve components for an 8-year enlisted program.

Also in May, a directive was published prescribing uniform policy under which training programs may be offered to members of the Reserve Forces temporarily residing in foreign nations.

This directive, which was developed in coordination with the Department of State, authorized the conduct of Reserve training with the consent of the nation concerned.

A directive was issued on August 2 providing uniform policy guidance with respect to the morals, health, and safety of young men below age 1812 undergoing 6 months of active duty for training.

This directive was based upon recommendations of the National Security Training Commission submitted to the Secretary of Defense as prescribed by law.

On December 7, responding to a recommendation by the Reserve Forces Policy Board, the Secretary of Defense forwarded a memorandum to the departmental secretaries urging that, to the extent practicable, all Regular and Reserve officers on active duty be required to perform a successful tour of duty with one of the Reserve components, including the National Guard, or the ROTC. Such service will be weighed in determining eligibility for selection to general or flag officer rank, or assignment to senior military staff colleges. A pertinent paragraph from Mr. Wilson's memorandum reads:

I consider it highly desirable that our best career officers serve a tour of duty with the Reserve components or the ROTC before they attain senior rank and hold positions of a great responsibility. Such procedure will enhance the development of our Reserve and ROTC programs by the assistance these officers render ***

Most recently, on January 12, 1957, the Department of Defense issued a directive governing the call to active duty of Reserve units and individuals in a national emergency declared by the President. These policy directives are part of a kit of materials which are available for your reference.


There has been a continuing growth since passage of the Reserve not on active duty. From the end of June 1955 through September 1956, as indicated on the chart, this strength rose from 2,706,000 to a peak of 3,373,000.

In order to adjust to the 2,900,000 statutory ceiling of the Ready Reserve, which includes reservists in the Active Forces, it will be necessary to reduce the total strength not on active duty to 2,500,000. This reduction will be accomplished through the screening process which began in mid-1956.

If this goal is to be achieved as planned by June 30, 1957, taking into account anticipated gains to the Ready Reserve from enlistments and transfers, it will be necessary to review some 4 million records and

move as indicated here on the chart about 1.5 million members from the Ready Reserve during the present fiscal year.

As of November 30, 1956, approximately 565,000 reservists have already been processed. Of these, around 293,000 have been moved from the Ready Reserve.

We have witnessed an increase in our paid participation in all reserve components as indicated on the chart from 826,000 on June 30, 1955 to 914,000 on September 30, 1956.

The services have programed to attain a paid drill strength of 936,000 by June 30, 1957.


Since our report last May, Reserve enlistment programs authorized by the Reserve Forces Act of 1955 have come into increased use. As you will note on the overall chart, two of the services--the Air Force and Coast Guard-have begun use of the 6-month training program for young men under age 1812 years. Accordingly, as you see on this chart, all services except the Navy, are now employing this enlistment feature for their Reserve.

All services are now enlisting under the 6 months critical skill program. You will recall that at the time of our last report, the Army was serving as the executive agent for the critical skill program. Under current policy, however, the individual selected for this program may enter the service of his choice.

There has been no change in service employment of the 6-year enlistment that includes 2 years of active duty. All services except the Air Force are continuing this program. Similarly, employment of the 1-year incentive program for transfer to the Standby Reserve continues to be used only by the Army and Marine Corps.

The Air Forces, like the Army, has a 6-month earn-back training program available to members of the Air National Guard. Also, the Air Force has indicated its intention to use the 6-months training program for ROTC graduates.

Now, a look at the strength figures for these various programsthrough the end of calendar year 1956, 51,534 young men below age 1812 had enlisted in the 6-month program in all services, since the beginning of the program. The bulk of these, 44,120 were in the Army Reserve, 6,554 in the Marine Corps, 308 in the Air Force Reserve, and 552 in the Coast Guard Reserve.

And if I may interpose this figure which we have as of this morning, sir, which is not in the text since it is currently up to date, the figure of 44,000 on the chart in the Army Reserve is now 49,357, with an imput this last week of something, 1,000-1,157.

Now, it is significant to note in this connection that two servicesthe Marine Corps and the Coast Guard-are presently having such success with the 6-months program that they have requested a doubling of their fiscal 1957 quotas.

There has been a total of 1,244 enlistments in the critical skill program-as you see, 1,086 to the Army, 128 to the Navy, 2 to the Marine Corps, 23 to the Air Force, and 5 to the Coast Guard.

In the 6-year Reserve enlistment program, a total of 69,773 have been enlisted. The big user of this program is the Navy with 38,840,

followed by the Army with 25,862. The Marine Corps has enlisted 3,185 in this program and the Coast Guard, 1,886.

One of the most fruitful sources of volunteer participants in Reserve training has been the incentive program under which prior service personnel can qualify for transfer to the Standby Reserve by 1 year of participation in the Ready Reserve; 31,838 reservists have entered this program-31,450 in the Army Reserve and 388 in the Marine Corps Reserve.

During the same period covered by the Reserve figures on this chart, between August 1955 and the end of 1956, the Army National Guard enlisted 133,362 men below age 1812 years; 6,983 Army National Guard men went to 6-month training in that time.

The Air National Guard enlisted 13,026 young men below age 1812 years; 247 Air Guard men entered 6-month training of that service. Let me point out here a matter of major interest to the entire subject of Reserve Forces readiness.

From these sources we have experienced gains to the Reserve Forces in excess of 300,000. Forty percent of this total, however, consists of persons without either prior service or the obligation to take basic training. This high percentage is accounted for by the fact that of 133,362 non-prior-service enlistments into the Army National Guard, at least 126,000 are under no requirement to undergo basic training.


That, in brief, gentlemen, is the story of the progress made thus far in strengthening the reserve components under the Reserve Forces Act of 1955. We have recorded positive gains, to be sure, but we are not as far along the road toward our objective as we would like to be or as we ought to be.

The basic objective we are striving to achieve was established by the Congress in its definition of the mission of the reserve components. Let me recall to you that in enacting the Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952, Congress declared

that the reserve components of the Armed Forces of the United States are maintained for the purpose of providing trained units and qualified individuals to be available for active duty in the Armed Forces of the United States in time of war or national emergency, and at such other times as the national security may require *


More recently, a corollary objective was established by the President when he signed the Reserve Forces Act of 1955. At that time, August 9, 1955, the President said:

I am instructing the Secretary of Defense to take immediate and effective action to utilize the means that the bill provides to augment and strengthen the Reserve Forces throughout the country.

Two important features of the National Reserve Plan recommended to the Congress by the President in January 1955, you will remember, were not incorporated in the Reserve Forces Act of 1955. The bill did not contain the requested authority to induct into the Reserve if necessary, nor did it contain the authority to effect the involuntary transfer to the National Guard of obligated reservists.

We have not asked for further legislation in these two areas. do not feel that we would be justified in asking for authority to draft

into the Reserve until the exploitation of other personnel sources has failed to achieve the desired strengths.

We have not requested legislation to permit the involuntary transfer of obligated individuals to the National Guard because of the fate that befell H. R. 5297 as a result of that provision.

Our efforts have been, and are being, directed toward developing, within the structure of existing law, Reserve forces capable of fulfilling their mission. The following are some of the steps that have been taken in that direction:

In February 1956 the Chairman of the Reserve Forces Policy Board delivered to the Secretary of Defense a report by the Board of actions needed to strengthen the Reserve forces. This report took note of the high percentage of untrained men in some of the Reserve components; and urged that administrative action be taken to correct deficiencies in the Reserve programs.

In furtherance of the recommendations of the Reserve Forces Policy Board, the Secretary of Defense called upon the military departments in March 1956 for a reevaluation of their Reserve forces programs. One of the objectives set forth by the Secretary of Defense in this instruction was the achievement of individual readiness as a matter of high priority.

To the Departments of the Army and Air Force the following guideline was given:

Our Federal recognition standards for the National Guard should be relastic and aimed at achieving the desired readiness, and similar impartial standards should also be followed with respect to your Federal Reserve forces.

During the period in which the reevaluated Reserve forces program submitted by the services were under study, two important interim actions were taken to improve the level of individual training in the Reserve forces. The first of these related to the Army National Guard.

In August the Army requested authorization for an increased fiscal year 1957 strength goal for the Army National Guard. In connection with this request, the Army noted that—

enlistment of large numbers of non-prior-service men into the National Guard without requiring them to undergo an initial period of 6 months' training is a material obstacle to attainment of the desired training readiness.

The Army proposed, therefore, that recruitment into the National Guard for the increase in strength would be limited to individuals having had prior active service or to those without prior service who volunteered for the Army's 6-months' training program. This Army proposal was approved.

The second interim action dealt with the question of recruitment of non-prior-service personnel directly into the Reserve, as distinguished from the National Guard.

The fiscal year 1958 manpower programs contained a restriction that enlistments into the Reserve, as distinguished from the National Guard, would be accomplished only under the special enlistment programs provided in the Reserve Forces Act of 1955; that is, either the 6-year enlistment with definite assurance of 2 years of active duty or the 8-year enlistment involving 6 months of active duty for training. Study of the detailed reserve programs submitted by the services in response to the March reevaluation instruction, revealed that complete solutions had not been worked out relative to the problem of

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