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services grow from small and ineffective units with few officers and practically no enlisted personnel to the Reserve of today, with its capabilities of supplementing the active forces in time of national emergency or in time of war.

We have also seen the National Guard, following World War II, of only a small group of officers and no enlisted personnel, grow until today the National Guard has a strength of 405,000 persons.

This subcommittee has been instrumental in proposing and acting on the legislative acts designed to improve the efficiency of all of the Reserve components. In addition, we have attempted to create benefits for Reserve personnel and to place them insofar as practicable in the same status as members of the Regular forces.

Still I will not say that I am satisfied with the Reserves, for I think they should be built up in numbers and should be more efficiently trained. And that is to a large degree what we must learn from these hearings. The subcommittee must be advised of the efficiency of the Reserves today and what kind of protection the country can expect from its Reserves.

If we find that that protection is inadequate, then by one means or another we must devise a better system to provide greater numbers and more efficient training for a better Reserve system than we have at present.

The Department of the Army has recently announced a revision of its Army Reserve program. This has come upon us rather suddenly and the announcement was made without formal consultation with the committee as such,

There are three main points in the new program which the Army intends to put into effect on April 1, 1957.

No. 1 point is this: All enlistees in the National Guard will be required to undergo 6 months of active duty for training.

No. 2. The 6 months' training program authorized by the Reserve Forces Act will be extended to all volunteers in the National Guard or the United States Army Reserve from the ages of 17 to 35.

And point No. 3: the Ready Reserve obligation for the 6 months' training volunteer and the person with prior service will be decreased.

It is the duty of this subcommittee to weigh the testimony given to us here and then arrive at decisions based on information made available to us.

Finally, we must report our findings to the full committee for final action. Every member of the subcommittee, I am sure, favors a strong, efficient Reserve. I daresay that it is true of every witness who will appear before us. But honest differences of opinion exist on the problem on how best to attain this goal. We must work with patience and with understanding to attempt to resolve these differences, keeping always in mind the best interests of the Nation and its defense.

I would also add a word of caution. Much will be said here regarding the length of the training period for Reserves and the full military obligation, but there is more to efficient and effective Reserve training than establishing a time limit of service for an enlisted period.

We must have adequate facilities, up-to-date training, and competent instructors. And even having that is not enough. We must have a realistic and effective training program.

All of these factors must be present or in the making before we can go forward in building the Reserve so necessary to our national security.

In addition, I must call to your attention that this is not an inquiry into the Army Reserve program alone. We are here to learn how the Reserves of all of the services are progressing if indeed progress is being made, so these conditions can be included in our report to the full committee.

Now that is the burden of the statement that I prepared. And in addition to that, I would like to tell the members of the subcommittee that with the help of our counsel we have prepared a brief outline of information which I think the committee should require.

Now, Mr. Ducander, do you have extra copies of the outline ?
Mr. DUCANDER. Yes, sir.

Mr. BROOKS. Can you give each member of the subcommittee a copy of the outline that has been prepared, as sort of a guide to what we want to develop?

Now this outline is not restricted. It is not restrictive, but merely suggestive. And anybody, of course, who feels that some important part of the program has been overlooked in the outline is free, of course, to supplement it with his own questions.

Now, if there are no questions regarding the outline
Mr. VAN ZANDT. Wait until we read it.
Mr. BROOKS. Mr. Ducander.
Mr. DUCANDER. Yes, sir.
Mr. Brooks. Would you read the outline you have?
Mr. DUCANDER. Yes, sir.

Mr. BROOKS. And as we go along if anyone wants to ask a question he can do so. I say again, it is just suggestive and it is not restrictive in any sense of the word. We are not trying to restrict the questions of any member of the committee.

Mr. DUCANDER (reading):

BRIEF OUTLINE OF INFORMATION REQUIRED BY THE SUBCOMMITTEE An explanation of the implementation of the Reserve Forces Act from time of enactment to present, including but not limited to

(1) Planned number of personnel required when enacted, by categories and components.

(2) Number of personnel at present by categories and components.

(3) Type, duration and effectiveness of training under the Reserve Forces Act.

(4) Problems of recruitment and meeting force goals.
(5) Status of facilities at present and projected for the future.
(6) Status of equipment at present and projected for the future.

(7) Status of instructors and training programs and projected for the future. (6) Explanation of new Army program:

(1) Necessity for such a program.
(2) Legal authority necessary to implement such a program.
(3) Planned number of personnel to be obtained under the program.

(4) Requirements for the Army National Guard and the relationship to the Air National Guard.

(5) Extension and enlargement of the 6 months' program.
(6) Decreasing of the Ready Reserve obligation.
(7) Other provisions of the new program.
(8). Recruiting and assignment under the new program.
(9) Relationship to new concepts for the Armed Forces.
(10) Relationship to the programs of other services.

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(c) Manpower :

(1) Availability of manpower today and in the future.
(2) Needs of active services for the draft.
(3) Long-term enlistments.

(4) Deferments or extensions from the draft. Mr. BROOKS. Now, are there any comments regarding that suggested outline?

Mr. VAN ZANDT. Mr. Chairman, are we going to hear testimony on these items as they are listed?

Mr. BROOKS. We first have set up the program this way. We will first have the witnesses appearing from the Pentagon, and we intended to start with the Hon. Stephen S. Jackson, who is Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense.

Following that, we will hear from the National Guard.

And third, we will hear from other Reserve components who wish to be present and testify.

Fourth, we will hear from the patriotic organizations such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the American Legion, and the DAV's, or any other patriotic organizations.

Now, we have thus far, I think it is, 31 witnesses on our schedule.

Senator Malone called a few moments ago and he wants to come over in the morning, and if there is no objection we will hear him and he will make the 32d witness we have. All of them are topflight witnesses.

Any further questions? If not, we will proceed with the order of witnesses. We have Acting Assistant Secretary of Defense Stephen S. Jackson.

Mr. JACKSON, will you come forward, sir? The committee is well acquainted with your work, Mr. Jackson. You have been with us before, and helped us on other Reserve programs. We need help in this instance. We are glad you are here. You are the lead-off witness. I understand you have a prepared statement. We will be delighted to hear it.

Secretary JACKSON. Thank you, sir.
Shall I proceed, sir?
Mr. BROOKS. You may proceed, sir.

Secretary JACKSON, Mr. Chairman and members of the House Committee on Armed Services:

As representative of the office of the Secretary of Defense, deeply appreciative of this opportunity to present its report on the present status of our Reserve Forces.

The chairman, and the distinguished members of this committee, have earned the gratitude of the Armed Forces for a long and consistent record of constructive legislation. In particular, the program which has been developed for the Reserve Forces is an excellent example of legislative foresight and effective action in a most important and vital area.

Our last progress report was given to this committee on May 2, 1956. My statement today is a continuation of that report, citing actions subsequently taken to improve the program, gains we have made, and what remains to be done in developing our Reserve Forces to a truly trained and ready status.'

Representatives of the Services are here and are prepared to give this committee full details on their individual service programs, and the degree of progress they have achieved.


Several important policy directives have been issued by the Office of the Secretary of Defense since our last appearance here. In May, 1956, a Department of Defense directive prescribed a 6-month period of active duty for training for all individuals entering the Reserve components for an 8-year enlisted program.

Also in May, a directive was published prescribing uniform policy under which training programs may be offered to members of the Reserve Forces temporarily residing in foreign nations.

This directive, which was developed in coordination with the Department of State, authorized the conduct of Reserve training with the consent of the nation concerned.

A directive was issued on August 2 providing uniform policy guidance with respect to the morals, health, and safety of young men below age 1812 undergoing 6 months of active duty for training:

This directive was based upon recommendations of the National Security Training Commission submitted to the Secretary of Defense as prescribed by law.

On December 7, responding to a recommendation by the Reserve Forces Policy Board, the Secretary of Defense forwarded a memorandum to the departmental secretaries urging that, to the extent practicable, all Regular and Reserve officers on active duty be required to perform a successful tour of duty with one of the Reserve components, including the National Guard, or the ROTC. Such service will be weighed in determining eligibility for selection to general or flag officer rank, or assignment to senior military staff colleges. A pertinent paragraph from Mr. Wilson's memorandum reads:

I consider it highly desirable that our best career officers serve a tour of duty with the Reserve components or the ROTC before they attain senior rank and hold positions of a great responsibility. Such procedure will enhance the development of our Reserve and ROTC programs by the assistance these officers render * * *

Most recently, on January 12, 1957, the Department of Defense issued a directive governing the call to active duty of Reserve units and individuals in a national emergency declared by the President. These policy directives are part of a kit of materials which are available for your reference.


There has been a continuing growth since passage of the Reserve not on active duty. From the end of June 1955 through September 1956, as indicated on the chart, this strength rose from 2,706,000 to a peak of 3,373,000.

In order to adjust to the 2,900,000 statutory ceiling of the Ready Reserve, which includes reservists in the Active Forces, it will be necessary to reduce the total strength not on active duty to 2,500,000. This reduction will be accomplished through the screening process which began in mid-1956.

If this goal is to be achieved as planned by June 30, 1957, taking into account anticipated gains to the Ready Reserve from enlistments and transfers, it will be necessary to review some 4 million records and

move as indicated here on the chart about 1.5 million members from the Ready Reserve during the present fiscal year.

As of November 30, 1956, approximately 565,000 reservists have already been processed. Of these, around 293,000 have been moved from the Ready Reserve.

We have witnessed an increase in our paid participation in all reserve components as indicated on the chart from 826,000 on June 30, 1955 to 917,000 on September 30, 1956.

The services have programed to attain a paid drill strength of 936,000 by June 30, 1957.


Since our report last May, Reserve enlistment programs authorized by the Reserve Forces Act of 1955 have come into increased use. As you will note on the overall chart, two of the services--the Air Force and Coast Guard-have begun use of the 6-month training program for young men under age 1812 years. Accordingly, as you see on this chart, all services except the Navy, are now employing this enlistment feature for their Reserve.

All services are now enlisting under the 6 months critical skill program. You will recall that at the time of our last report, the Army was serving as the executive agent for the critical skill program. Under current policy, however, the individual selected for this program may enter the service of his choice.

There has been no change in service employment of the 6-year enlistment that includes 2 years of active duty. All services except the Air Force are continuing this program. Similarly, employment of the 1-year incentive program for transfer to the Standby Reserve continues to be used only by the Army and Marine Corps.

The Air Forces, like the Army, has a 6-month earn-back training program available to members of the Air National Guard. Also, the Air Force has indicated its intention to use the 6-months training program for ROTC graduates.

Now, a look at the strength figures for these various programsthrough the end of calendar year 1956, 51,534 young men below age 1812 had enlisted in the 6-month program in all services, since the beginning of the program. The bulk of these, 44,120 were in the Army Reserve, 6,554 in the Marine Corps, 308 in the Air Force Reserve, and 552 in the Coast Guard Reserve.

And if I may interpose this figure which we have as of this morning, sir, which is not in the text since it is currently up to date, the figure of 44,000 on the chart in the Army Reserve is now 49,357, with an imput this last week of something, 1,000—1,157.

Now, it is significant to note in this connection that two services the Marine Corps and the Coast Guard-are presently having such success with the 6-months program that they have requested a doubling of their fiscal 1957 quotas.

There has been a total of 1,244 enlistments in the critical skill program--as you see, 1,086 to the Army, 128 to the Navy, 2 to the Marine Corps, 23 to the Air Force, and 5 to the Coast Guard.

In the 6-year Reserve enlistment program, a total of 69,773 have been enlisted. The big user of this program is the Navy with 38,840,

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