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this former constitution, and enjoins Reformation, lay baptism was allowed precisely the same thing. The pro- and practised. It was regular, and vincial constitutions of Archbishop even prescribed in cases of necessity : Peccham particularly enjoin, that after it was so complete and valid, that it baptism by a Layman it is not to be was by no means to be repeated. It iterated. The passage will be found also clearly appears that, in order to in Lyndwood 41, Caveant sacerdotes ascertain its validity, no inquiry was ne baptismum legitime factum audeant necessary to be made into the existing iterare ; and Lyndwood, in his gloss urgency under which it was adminisupon the word baptismum, says, Sive tered: but only into what was deper Luicum, sive per Clericum, etiam per clared to be the essence, whether it Paganum in casu necessitatis ; so that had been administered by water, and it is good, " whether by a Layman, or in the form of the invocation; for, if a Clergyman, nay even in a case of those forms were used, the baptism by necessity by a Pagan;" and, in his a Layman was complete and valid. gloss upon the words legitime factum, So the matter stood at the time of he says, two things are essential to it, the Reformation : and that period is duo sunt necessaria verbum et elementum an important one: for, if lay baptism aquæ; and in describing what is meant had been considered as one of the erby verbum, he explains the form of the rors of the Romish Church, it would words to be those which have been have been corrected at the time when always used, “I baptize thee in the all the Christian world had their atname of the Father, and of the Son, tention pointed to those particular erand of the Holy Ghost.” In a further rors. But the fact is otherwise, for the constitution of Archbishop Peccham, use of lay baptism was manifestly to be found' in page 244, it is again continued by the English reforined strongly enjoined not to baptize a church. Liturgies were framed, and second time persons who have been acts of uniformity passed by Parliabaptized by laymen or by women; ment, in the reigns of Edward the VIth and he speaks rather strongly of those and of Queen Elizabeth. In those Priests who do so baptize, terming the Rubrics run thus: “Let those them stolidi sacerdotes : and the con- that be present call upon God for his stitution concludes, Quod si sacerdos grace, and say the Lord's Prayer if rationabiliter dubitet an parvulus in
the time will suffer: and then one of formá debitâ baptizatus sit, dicat, Si them shall name the child, and dip baptizatus es, ego non rebaptizo te ; si him in the water, or pour the water nondum baptizatus es, ego baptizo te in upon him, saying these words, I nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritûs Sanc- baptize thee in the name of the ti. Lyndwood here again cautiously Father, and of the Son, and of the explains the words in formá debitá, as Holy Ghost.'”. Here is no mention he had before, to mean by the use of whatever of a priest or lawful ministhe element water, and by the use of ter, as the person who is to officiate the words of the invocation of the upon the occasion : it is directed to be Holy Trinity; and that it was in formâ done by “those who are present," or debitú though by a Layman.
one of them, without singling out or Now these passages shew, not only particularizing what the person is to that those baptisms were held to be be, who is to administer this sacrament. valid, but they show how extremely And the better opinion seems to be, cautious the Church was that baptism that all private baptism was by Lay should not be repeated. These refe- men antecedent to the time of King rences to the ancient law will also James ; that it was only public serve to explain and illustrate any baptism in the Church which was to be matter, which could be considered as administered by a Priest; and that, doubtful in the construction of the wherever there was the sort of urgency more modern law of the Rubric. It and necessity which prevented the therefore seems to admit of no doubt, child being brought to the Church, that by the law of the English Church, and required the child to be baptized as well deduced from the general ca- at home, the baptism was to be adnon law, as from its own particular ministered by any person without constitutions, down to the time of the requiring the attendance of the Priest.
The same Rubric, although it enjoins it was directed to be performed by the people not to baptize their chil- them, and Laics were restrained from dren at home, except in cases of neces- doing it: but the article, as before sity; yet, lest the necessity should stated, does not appear to have been arise, expressly directs the pastors to published. instruct their parishioners in the form King James the First (who considerof doing it. Hence it is evident that ed himself a great divine) disapproved subsequent to the Reformation, the of the practice of lay baptism. Soon English reformed Church itself did after his accession, conferences were allow the practice of Lay baptism. held at Hampton Court with the
So the practice stood from the re- Clergy for the purpose of revising and formation to the time of King James reconsidering the Liturgy, and parthe First; except that in the year ticularly this article of private bap1575, among some articles agreed tism. The King expressed strongly - upon at that time in convocation, his disapprobation of lay baptism; there appears to have been one (the and seemed more inclined to no baptwelfth article,) which states, “that tism at all, than that the office should to resolve doubts by whom privatebap- be performed by a Laic : but his tism is to be administered, it is directed divines (most of ihem prelates of very that in future it shall be administered great eminence) differed from him in by a minister only,and that private per- respect to preferring the total omissons shall not intermeddle therein." sion of baptism to its being administerThis article rather appears not to have ed by a Layman. It was, however, been published and circulated. It agreed so far to alter the Rubric, as remained in manuscript. It had no to direct that private baptism should authority, not appearing to have been be administered by a lawful Minister : even confirmed by the Crown. There but whoever reads the account which could have been no doubt upon the has been preserved of these confeRubric of Edward the VIth, coupled rences will see, that neither the King with what was the old law, so far as nor the Bishops maintained that baprespected the validity of lay baptism. tism, if de facto performed by a Laic, And the Bishops certaiuly had not was invalid; on the contrary, even authority to alter the law; they had King James expressly declared his only anthority to explain matters opinion to be, that if baptism had been which were doubtful; and the doubt performed by a Laic with water and seems to have been, not whether lay the invocation of the Trinity (which he baptism was valid, but whether it was also admitted to be the essence of the regular and orderly. Up to that time, sacrament itself) such baptism was wherever private baptism was allowed not to be iterated; that is, that the there was nothing to be found in the person was not to be re-baptized; for ancient canons, the constitutions of the King's words, as recorded, are, “I the Church, or the ubric, that re- utterly dislike all rebaptization on quired the Minister as a person at all those whom women or Laics have necessary to be present for the orderly baptized.” He himself, therefore, conadministration of such private bap- sidered lay baptism as valid, though tism : it was not even to be inferred, he thought fit to enjoin the administhat it would be more regular, for the tration, even of private baptism, to be Minister is not mentioned ; on the by a Clergyman as much more ordercontrary, in cases where private baptism was necessary (and it was only The Rubric at that time agreed on allowed in cases of necessity) the peo- was never confirmed by Parliament; ple were to be instructed how to per- but a proclamation afterwards apform it themselves. The most to be peared for the authorizing an deduced from this article therefore is, uniformity in the Book of Common that it was thought at that time, by Prayer;" and his Majesty says in the convocation, that it would be more that proclamation, "We have thought proper, regular, and decent, to have meet that some small matters might the ceremony of private baptism per- rather be explained than changed." formed by ministers ; and therefore The proclamation has no suggestion
ly and proper.
VOL. XIV. NO. X.
whatever of so important a change in the English Church in the established constitution of that Church as it had existed, not only in early times, but as it existed after the Reformation had taken place as that baptism actually administered even by a Laic in due form with the element and the
words should be considered as wholly null and invalid, and that such a baptism could bear re-baptization. There is nothing of the kind in the proclamation ; on the coutrary, explanations in some small things rather than a change are alore referred to.
(To be continued.)
KING'S LETTER FOR THE NATIONAL SOCIETY
For Educating the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church. We are happy to announce that his which record the Society's grants Majesty has been pleased to issue a from month to month, but prefer letter on behalf of the above-named
giving a more interesting document, Society; and that circulars autho- being the substance of part of the rizing collections to be made in all the Society's Nineteenth Report for 1830. churches and chapels of the kingdom, " The most important event of the will be sent to the Clergy during the past year, in regard to the Society's present autumn. The King's letter funds, has been the closing of the contains abundant evidence, in the King's letter account.
It is already preamble, to satisfy every friend to known to the public, that the money the Established Church, as to the ex- collected under authority of his Mapediency of replenishing the funds of jesty's letter, in 1823, was set apart à society which has laboured faith
as a separate fund, in aid of the erecfully for above twenty years, in pro- tion, enlargement, and fitting-up of moting the religious education of the school-rooms to be permanently secured poor. But there are a few ciroum- for the
purposes of education, and the stances connected with the subject appropriation of the sum actually which we may be pardoned for urging collected has also been announced. on public notice, because we appre- But the Committee have now to rehend that a good deal of misunder- port, that the school-rooms, in aid of standing exists respecting them. We which the wbole produce of the letallude to these simple, but important ter was applied, have been built, and facts ;-1. That every shilling collected the grants claimed and paid ; the adon these occasions, nominally for the vantages ' expected from its expendibenefit of the National Society, is ture are therefore obtained ; and it actually returned to the public in the remains only to state the precise form of grants for erecting School- amount of the sum appropriated in rooms for the children of the
2. this manner, viz. 32, 7091. Ils. That all places in the kingdom are at which came into the hands of the Comliberty to apply for these grants, and mittee in the following manner, viz.actually do so apply. 3. That the
The net receipts invested
8. d. Clergy who preach ihe sermons, and in the public funds ... 28,146 10 obtain the collections, being the great Dividends from 1824 to 1830 3,622 10 0 promoters of the education of the Profit on the sale of stock 941 0 0 poor in the country, are the persons to whose care the collections ( in the
32,709 11 0 form of grants) are generally entrusted. 4. That by their assiduity and This sum differs only from the good management, the grants are amount announced in the Seventeenth the means of drawing forth into Report by a deduction of the trifling beneficial operation a sum equal to expenses of management, (viz. 1467. about four times their own amount. 1s. 10d.); and by the addition of In proof of this statement, we
the dividends, and of the profit on might refer to our own numbers, the sale of stock. The extension
of the benefits of National Edu-
from ignorance and vice, and regularly trained up in the knowledge and the worship of God, according to the pure principles of the Established Church. If these details are duly considered, and it is, moreover, taken into the account, that not rely the first institution of so many schools bas resulted from the expenditure, but, under the Divine blessing, their permanent establishment; and that together with this, more than 400 additional teachers, well trained to their important callings, have been distributed throughout the country, to give full efficiency to the benevolent design ; surely nothing can be wanting to convince the public of the excellent appropriation of the funds so liberally confided to the National Society's disposal, and the extensive and substantial benefits which they cannot fail to produce."
Domestic.—As the general atten- tion of a Bill for the renewal of their tion has been very much occupied by Charter, we feel the registry of an the publication of the accounts of the epitomized statement of their accounts Bank of England, both by the gover- an important item in our Political nors of that Body, and as stated in Retrospect, to enable our readers to examination before a Committee of examine the past, or judge for the the House of Commons, in anticipa- future. An Account of the Amount of Coin and Bullion, distinguishing Coin from Bullion, in the
possession of the Bank, from the 28th of February, 1815, to the present time, stating the Highest and Lowest Amount in each Year ; together with the Amount of the Securities held by the Bank, and its Liabilities at each of the same periods.
Highest and Lowest amount of Coin and Bullion in each Year, ending February.
An Account of the Average Amount of Bills and Notes under Discount, in each of the
Quarters of the Years 1815 to 1831.
Third Quarter, Fourth Quarter, Years.
ending March 31. ending June 30. ending Sept. 30. ending Dec. 31.
1815 1816 1817 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1929 1830 1831
£. 13,611,500 14,315,900 5,823,500 2,976,900 8,363,700 4,810,700 3,238,300 3,137,000 4,107,200 2,226,800 2,466,800 9,586,700 2,198,600 1,298,400 3,952,900 1,860,500 2,549,200
£. 13,846,500 13,380,400 4,148,300 2,847,800 6,632,300 3,605,500 2,715,100 3,216,500 3,252,200 2,553,500 3,973,700 5,037,400 1,226,400 1,165,600 3,283,700 1,414,600 3,240,200
£. 16,613,200 10,569,400 3,329,300 4,610,400 6,021,600 3,987,600 2,294,100 3,388,600 2,801,400 2,449,800 5,486,000 2,950,500 1,107,500 1,170,800 2,611,800 1,275,000 3,422,500
£. 15,717,300 7,399,800 2,541,200 6,865,700 5,042,200 3,130,700 2,459,300 3,724,600 2,334,200 2,248,900 7,839,500 2,164,800 1,239,800 2,157,200 2,152,700 1,930,700 3,771,500
Discounted during the years 1828, 1829, 1830, and 1831.
d. 2,462 6
5 5,154 3 6 2,041 10 1 11,618 12 2 1,758 13 0 1,779 11 8 1,941 16 4
194 5 3
726 5 5 1,252 18 0
8 4 9