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queen Elizabeth: he having neither conscience nor religion of his own, was very desirous to make Jewel's conscience or life a papal sacrifice. In order to this, he sent to Jewel by the inquisitors a bead roll of popish doctrines to be subscribed by him upon- pain of fire and faggot, and other grievous tortures; the poor man having neither friend nor time allowed him to consult with, took the pen in his hand, and saying, “ Have you a mind to see how well I can write ?" subscribed his name hastily, and with great reluctance. But this no way mitigated the rage of his enemies against him; they knew his great love to, and familiarity with Peter Martyr, and nothing less than his life would satisfy these blood hounds, of which turn coat Marshal was the fiercest: so being forsaken by his friends for this his sinful compliance, and still pursued like a wounded deer by his enemies; but more agitated by the inward remorses and reproaches of his own conscience, he resolved at last to fee for his life. And it was but just in time; for if he had staid but one night longer, or gone the direct way to London, he had perished by their fury: one Augustin Berner, a Switz, first a servant to bishop Latimer, and afterwards a minister, found him lying upon the ground almost dead with vexation, weariness, (for this lame man was forced to make his escape on foot), and cold, and setting him upon a horse, conveyed him to lady Ann Ware cupps, a widow, who entertained him for some time, and then sent him up to London, where he was in more safety.

Having twice or thrice changed his lodgings in London, sir Nicholas Throginorton, a great minister of state in those times, furnished him with money for his journey, and procured him a ship for his transportation beyond the seas. And well it had been if he had gone sooner; but his friend Mr. Parkhurst hearing of the restoring of the mass fled forth with; and poor Mr. Jewel knowing nothing of it, went to Cleve, in Gloucestershire, to beg his advice and assistance, being almost killed by his long journey on foot in cold and snowy weather, and being forced at last to return to Oxford, inore dejected and confounded in his thoughts than he went out; which miseries were the occasions of his fall, as God's mercy was the procurer both of his escape and recovery.

For being once arrived at Francfort in the beginning of the second year of queen Mary's reign, he found there Mr.


Richard Chambers, his old benefactor, Dr. Robert Horne, afterwards bishop of Winchester, Dr. Sandys, bishop of London, sir Francis Knollys, a privy counsellor, and afterwards lord treasurer, and his eldest son, &c. these received Jewel with the more kindness, because he came unexpectedly and unboped for, and advised him 10 a public recantation of his subscription; which he did in the pulpit the next Lord's day in these words : “ It was my abject and cowardly mind, and faint heart, that made my weak hand to commit this wickedness." Which when he had uttered as well as he could for tears and sighs, he applied himself in a fervent prayer, first to God Almighty for his pardon, and afterwards to the church; the whole auditory accompanying him with tears and sighs, and ever after esteeming bim more for his ingenuous repentance, than they would, perhaps, had done if he had not fallen.

It is an easy thing for those, that were never tried, to censure the frailty of those that have truckled for soine time under the shock of a mighty temptation; but let such remember St. Paul's advice : “ Let himn that standeth take heed lest he fall,” Mr. Jewel had not been long at Francfort, before Peter Mariyr hearing of it, often solicited him to come to Strasburgh, where he was now settled and provided for; and, all things considered, a wonder it is that he (Martyr) did not perish in England ; for there was no person more openly aimed at than he, because none of them had given wider wounds than he to the Roman Catholic cause. One Tresham, a senior canon of Christ Church, who had held some points against him at his first coming thither, now took the benefit of the times to be revenged on him, and incited those of Christ Church and of other houses to traduce him publicly. So that not finding any safety at Oxford, he retired to Lambeth to Cranmer, where he was sure of as much as the place could afford him. A consultation had been held by some of the more fiery spirits, for his commitment to prison. But he came thither, as was well known, on the public faith, which was not to be violated for the satisfaction of some private persons. It was thought fit therefore to discharge him of all fitrther einployment, and to license him to depart in peace: none being inore forward to furnish hin with all things for his going hence than the new lord chancellor, bishop Gardiner, whether in honour to his learning, or out of a desire to

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send him away, shall not now be questioned. Peter Mar. tyr also helped himself, for he would not go without the queen's passport and leave, and when he had it, concealed himself fourteen days on the English coast, then privately took ship, and arrived at Antwerp in the night, and before day took coach, and got safe to Strasburgh October 30, 1553. But less humanity was shewed to him in his wife, whose body having been buried in the church of St. Frideswide, was afterwards by public order taken out of the grave and buried in a common dunghill. But in the reign of

queen Elizabeth she was again removed, as may be seen under Peter Martyr's life. And the truth is, the queen, who was a bigotted papist, and too much priest ridden, breaking not only her promise to the men of Suffolk, who had stood by her in her greatest necessity, and treating them with extreme severity but for challenging the performance of her promise; one Dobbe who had spoken more boldly than the rest, being ordered to stand three days in the pillory; but also her more solemn engagement made Aug. 12, 1553, in the council; that although her conscience was settled in matters of religion, yet she was resolved not to compel or strain others, otherwise than as she was in; and this she hoped should be done by the opening his word to them, by godly, virtuous, and learned preachers.

But it was well for Mr. Jewel, that he was there; and as much of Mr. Jewel's sufferings in England had been occasioned by the great respect he had shewn to Peter Martyr whilst he lived at Oxford: so now Peter Martyr never left soliciting him, to come to him at Strasburgh till he prevailed, where he took himn to his own table and kept him always with him. And here Mr. Jewel was very ser. viceable to him in his edition of his Commentaries upon the book of Judges, which were all transcribed for the press by him; and he used also to read every day some part of a father to him, and for the most part St. Augustine, with which father they were both inuch delighted.

At Strasburgh Mr. Jewel found J. Ponet, late bishop of Winchester, Edmund Grindal, afterwards archbishop of York, sir Edwin Sandys, J. Cheeke, and sir Anthony Coke, knt. and several other great men of the English nation, who were fled thither for their religion. And with these he was in great esteem, which opened a way for his pre


ferment upon his return into England after the storm was over.

Peter Martyr, having been a long time solicited by the senate of Zurich to go ibither and take upon biin the place of professor of Hebrew, and interpreter of the Scriptures, in the room of Conrade Pellican, who was almost the first professor of Hebrew in Christendom, and died about this time near an hundred years of age; at last accepted the office, and carried Mr. Jewel with him to Zurich, where he lived still with Peter Martyr in his own family. Here he found James Pilkington, bishop of Durham, and several others, who were maintained by the procurement of Richard Chambers, but out of the purses of Mr. Richard Springham, Mr. John Abel, Mr. Thomas Eton, merchants of London, and several others; till at last Gardiner, finding who were their benefactors, threatened he would in a short time make them eat their finger ends for hunger: and it was sore against his will that he proved a false prophet, for he imprisoned so many of their benefactors in England, that after this there came but a small supply out of England to them. But then Christopher, prince of Wittenberg, the senators of Zurich, and the foreign divines, were so kind to them, that they had still a tolerable subsistence; and Mr. Jewel stood in need of the less, because he lived with Peter Martyr till his return to England.

During the time of his exile, (about four years,) he stu. died hard, and spent the rest of his time in comforting and confirming his brethren; for he would frequently tell them, that when their brethren endured such bitter tortures and horrible martyrdoms at home, it was not reasonable they should expect to fare deliciously in banishment, concluding always; “ Hæc non durabunt ætatem ;" “ These things will not last an age.” Accordingly, on Nov. 17, 1558, God remeinbered the distressed state of the church of England, and put an end to her sufferings, by removing the bigotted queen Mary; the news of which flying speedily to our exiles, they hasted into England again, to congratulate the succession of queen Elizabeth.

His good benefactor and tutor Mr. Parkhurst, upon the arrival of this news, made hiin a visit in Germany; but fearing Mr. Jewel had not chesen the safest way for his return to England, left him and went ano: her way, which seeming more safe, in the end proved otherwise. Mr. Jewel

arriving arriving safely in England with what he had, whilst the other was robbed by The way; and so at his landing in England, Mr. Jewel (who was here before hiin), very gratefully relieved his benefactor.

The time of Mr. Jewel's arrival in England is no where expressed that I can find, but he being then at Zurich in all probability, was for that cause none of the first that returned; so that when he came back, he had the comfort to find all things well disposed, for the reception of the Reformation: for the queen had, by a proclamation of Dec. 30, 1558, ordered that no man, of what quality soever he were, should presume to alter any thing in the state of religion, or innovate in any of the rites and ceremonies thereunto belonging, &c. until some further order should be taken therein. Only it was pernitted, and withal required, that the litany, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and the ten Commandments, should be said in the English tongue, and that the Epistle and Gospel should be read in English at the time of the high mass, which was done, (saith Dr. Haydn,) in all the churches of London, on the next Sunday after, being New Year's Day; and by degrees in all the other churches of the kingdom: further than this, she thought it not convenient to proceed at the present, only she prohibited the elevation of the sacrament at the altar of the chapel royal : which was likewise forborne in all other churches : and she set at liberty all that had been imprisoned for religion in her sister's time, and ordered the liturgy to be revised with great care, and that a parliament should be suminoned to sit at Westminster Jan. 25, 1559.

All this I suppose was done before Mr. Jewel returned into England. He was, however, entertained first by Mr. Nicholas Culverwell for almost six months, and then, falling into a sickness, was invited, by Dr. William Thames, to lodge at his house; but this was after the parliament.

The liturgy being then reviewed, and whatever might give i he popish party any unnecessary exasperation or discontent purged out, in order to the facilitating the passing an act of parliarrent for the settling it, and the establish inent of other things that were necessary, a public disputavion was appointed March 30 following, to be holden in the church of Westminster in the English tongue, in the presence of as inany of the lords of the council, and of the


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