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Net income

Per cent

Surtax

Total surtax

1

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$0 to $10,000.--.
$10,000 to $14,000.
$14,000 to $16,000.
$16,000 to $18,000
$18,000 to $20,000
$20,000 to $22,000,
$22,000 to $24,000
$24,000 to $26,000.
$26,000 to $28,000
$28,000 to $30,000
$30,000 to $34,000.
$34,000 to $36,000
$36,000 to $38,000.
$38,000 to $42,000.
$42,000 to $44,000.
$44,000 to $46,000
$46,000 to $48,000.
$48,000 to $50,000
$50,000 to $52,000
$52,000 to $56,000
$56,000 to $58,000
$58,000 to $62,000
$62,000 to $64,000.
$64,000 to $66,000
$66,000 to $68,000
$68,000 to $70,000.
$70,000 to $74,000.
$74,000 to $76,000
$76,000 to $80,000.
$80,000 to $82,000,
$82,000 to $84,000
$84,000 to $88,000.
$88,000 to $90,000.
$90,000 to $92,000
$92,000 to $94,000.
$94,000 to $96,000-
$96,000 to $100,000.
$100,000 to $200,000.
$200,000 to $300,000
$300,000 to $500,000.
$500,000 up.

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$40 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 400 220 240 520 280 300 320 340 360 760 400 840 440 460 480

500 1, 040

540 1, 120

580

600 1, 240

640 660 680

700 1, 440 37, 000 38, 000 78, 000

$40

80 140 220 320 440 580 740

920 1, 320 1, 540 1, 780 2, 300 2, 580 2, 880 3, 200 3, 540 3, 900 4, 660 5, 060 5, 900 6, 340 6, 800 7, 280 7, 780 8, 820 9, 360 10, 480 11, 060 11, 660 12, 900 13, 540 14, 200 14, 880 15, 580 17, 020 54, 020 92, 020 170, 020

37 38 39 40

The surtax for any amount of net income not shown in the table is computed by adding to the surtax for the largest amount shown which is less than the income, the surtax upon the excess over that amount at the rate indicated in the table. Accordingly, the surtax upon a net income of $63,128 would be $6,148.16, computed as follows: Surtax on $62,000 from table_

$5, 900.00 Surtax on $1,128 at 22 per cent.

248. 16

Total

$6, 148, 16 ART. 13. Surtax on sale of mineral deposits.—Where the taxpayer by prospecting and locating claims, or by exploring and discovering undeveloped claims, has demonstrated the principal value of mines,

а

oil or gas wells, which prior to his efforts had a relatively minor value, the portion of the surtax attributable to a sale of such property or of the taxpayer's interest therein shall not exceed 16 per cent of the selling price. Exploration work alone without discovery is not sufficient to bring a case within this provision. Shares of stock in a corporation owning mines, oil or gas wells, do not constitute an interest in such property. To determine the application of this provision to a particular case the taxpayer should first compute the surtax in the ordinary way upon his net income, including his net income from any such sale. The proportion of the surtax indicated by the ratio which the taxpayer's net income from the sale of the property, or his interest therein, bears to his total net income is the portion of the surtax attributable to such sale, and if it exceeds 16 per cent of the selling price of the property or interest, such portion of the surtax shall be reduced to that amount. (See articles 220_ 223.)

NET INCOME OF INDIVIDUALS DEFINED

SEC. 212. (a) In the case of an individual the term “net income" means the gross income as defined in section 213, less the deductions allowed by sections 214 and 206.

(b) The net income shall be computed upon the basis of the taxpayer's annual accounting period (fiscal year or calendar year, as the case may be) in accordance with the method of accounting regularly employed in keeping the books of such taxpayer ; but if no such method of accounting has been so employed, or if the method employed does not clearly reflect the income, the computation shall be made in accordance with such method as in the opinion of the Commissioner does clearly reflect the income. If the taxpayer's annual accounting period is other than a fiscal year as defined in section 200 or if the taxpayer has no annual accounting period or does not keep books, the net income shall be computed on the basis of the calendar year.

(c) If a taxpayer changes his accounting period from fiscal year to calendar year, from calendar year to fiscal year, or from one fiscal year to another, the net income shall, with the approval of the Commissioner, be computed on the basis of such new accounting period, subject to the provisions of section 226.

ART. 21. Meaning of net income.—The tax imposed by the statute is upon

income. In the computation of the tax various classes of income must be considered: (a) Income (in the broad sense), meaning all wealth which flows in to the taxpayer other than as a mere return of capital. It includes the forms of income specifically described as gains and profits, including gains derived from the sale or other disposition of capital assets. Income can not be determined merely by reckoning cash receipts, for the statute recognizes as income-determining factors other items, among which are inventories, accounts receivable, property exhaustion, and accounts payable for expenses incurred. See sections 202–206, 208, 213 and 214 of the statute. (6) Gross income, meaning income (in the broad

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sense) less income which is by statutory provision or otherwise exempt from the tax imposed by the statute. See section 213 and articles 71-91. (c) Net income, meaning gross income less statutory deductions. The statutory deductions are in general, though not exclusively, expenditures, other than capital expenditures, connected with the production of income. See sections 206, 214 and 215 and the articles thereunder. (d) Net income less credits. See section 216 and articles 301-306. The surtax is imposed upon net income; the normal tax upon net income less credits. Although taxable net income is a statutory conception, it follows, subject to certain modifications as to exemptions and as to deductions for partial losses in some cases, the lines of commercial usage. Subject to these modifications statutory “net income” is commercial “ net income.” This appears from the fact that ordinarily it is to be computed in accordance with the method of accounting regularly employed in keeping the books of the taxpayer. As to the net income of corporations see section 232 and article 531.

ART. 22. Computation of net income.--Net income must be computed with respect to a fixed period. Usually that period is twelve months and is known as the taxable year. Items of income and of expenditures which as gross income and deductions are elements in the computation of net income need not be in the form of cash. It is sufficient that such items, if otherwise properly included in the computation, can be valued in terms of money. The time as of which any item of gross income or any deduction is to be accounted for must be determined in the light of the fundamental rule that the computation shall be made in such a manner as clearly reflects the taxpayer's income. If the method of accounting regularly employed by him in keeping his books clearly reflects his income, it is to be followed with respect to the time as of which items of gross income and deductions are to be accounted for. See article 51. If the taxpayer does not regularly employ a method of accounting which clearly reflects his income, the computation shall be made in such manner as in the opinion of the Commissioner clearly reflects it.

ART. 23. Bases of computation.-(1) Approved standard methods of accounting will ordinarily be regarded as clearly reflecting in

A method of accounting will not, however, be regarded as clearly reflecting income unless all items of gross income and all deductions are treated with reasonable consistency. See section 200 of the statute for definitions of paid or accrued” and “paid or incurred." All items of gross income shall be included in the gross income for the taxable year in which they are received by the taxpayer, and deductions taken accordingly, unless in order clearly to reflect income such amounts are to be properly accounted for as

come.

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of a different period. See section 213 (a). For instance, in any case in which it is necessary to use an inventory, no accounting in regard to purchases and sales will correctly reflect income except an accrual method. A taxpayer is deemed to have received items of gross income which have been credited to or set apart for him without restriction. See article 52. On the other hand, appreciation in value of property is not even an accrual of income to a taxpayer prior to the realization of such appreciation through sale or conversion of the property. (But see section 205.)

(2) The true income, computed under the Revenue Act of 1924 and, where the taxpayer keeps books of account, in accordance with the method of accounting regularly employed in keeping such books (provided the method so used is properly applicable in determining the net income of the taxpayer for purposes of taxation), shall in all cases be entered in the return. If for any reason the basis of reporting income subject to tax is changed, the taxpayer shall attach to his return a separate statement setting forth for the taxable year and for the preceding year the classes of items differently treated under the two systems, specifying in particular all amounts duplicated or entirely omitted as the result of such change.

(3) A taxpayer who changes the method of accounting employed in keeping his books for the taxable year 1924 or thereafter should, before computing his income upon such new basis for purposes of taxation, secure the consent of the Commissioner. Application for permission to change the basis of the return shall be made at least 30 days before the close of the period to be covered by the return and shall be accompanied by a statement specifying the classes of items differently treated under the two systems and specifying all amounts which would be duplicated or entirely omitted as a result of the proposed change.

ART. 24. Methods of accounting. It is recognized that no uniform method of accounting can be prescribed for all taxpayers, and the law contemplates that each taxpayer shall adopt such forms and systems of accounting as are in his judgment best suited to his purpose. Each taxpayer is required by law to make a return of his true income. He must, therefore, maintain such accounting records as will enable him to do so. (See section 1002 of the statute and article 1321.) Among the essentials are the following:

(1) In all cases in which the production, purchase, or sale of merchandise of any kind is an income-producing factor, inventories of the merchandise on hand (including finished goods, work in process, raw materials, and supplies) should be taken at the beginning and end of the year and used in computing the net income of the year (see arts. 1611-1618);

(2) Expenditures made during the year should be properly classified as between capital and income; that is to say, expenditures for items of plant, equipment, etc., which have a useful life extending substantially beyond the year should be charged to a capital account and not to an expense account; and

(3) In any case in which the cost of capital assets is being recovered through deductions for wear and tear, depletion, or obsolescence any expenditure (other than ordinary repairs) made to restore the property or prolong its useful life should be added to the property account or charged against the appropriate reserve and not to current expenses. But see article 224.

ART. 25. Accounting period.--The return of a taxpayer is made and his income computed for his taxable year, which means his fiscal year, or the calendar year if he has not established a fiscal year. The term“ fiscal year” means an accounting period of twelve months ending on the last day of any month other than December. No fiscal year will, however, be recognized unless before its close it was definitely established as an accounting period by the taxpayer and the books of such taxpayer were kept in accordance therewith. The taxable year 1924 is the calendar year 1924 or any fiscal year ending during the calendar year 1924. (See section 200(a) of the statute.) A person having no such fiscal year must make return on the basis of the calendar year. Except in the case of a first return for income tax a taxpayer shall make his return on the basis (fiscal or calendar year) upon which he made his return for the taxable year immediately preceding unless, with the approval of the Commissioner, he has changed his accounting period.

ART. 26. Change in accounting period.-If a taxpayer changes his accounting period he shall at least 30 days before the close of the proposed period for which a return would be required to effect the change, furnish to the collector, for transmission to the Commissioner, the information required on Form 1128. The due date of the separate return for such period is the fifteenth day of the third month following the close of that period. If the change in the basis of computing the net income of the taxpayer is approved by the Commissioner, the taxpayer shall thereafter make his returns and compute his net income upon the basis of the new accounting period. See article 431.

GROSS INCOME DEFINED: INCLUSIONS

SEC. 213. For the purposes of this title, except as otherwise provided in section 233

(a) The term “ gross income” includes gains, profits, and income derived from salaries, wages, or compensation for personal service (including in the case of the President of the United States, the judges of the Supreme and inferior courts of the United States, and all other officers and employees,

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