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therefore of a more brief and comprehensive description must have encountered much opposition. Such a pacific proposal was, at the King of England's own suggestion, conveyed to the Synod; and at the well pressing of the Sixteenth verse of the Third Chapter of Saint John's Gospel," by Episcopius,— There I bid John Calvin Good Night!' as he has often told me.” This account has puzzled several authors beside Mosheim, who, in the Life, Fate, and Labours of the Ever Memorable John Hales, says: “ Yet I feel a difficulty in persuading myself into a belief of the circumstance as thus narrated. For every one thoroughly ac. quainted with the affairs of the Synod must know, that Episcopius never expounded at Dort that saying of our Saviour which is recorded by St. John, or defended the doctrines of his sect from the sacred writings. Neither dues Hales himself, in bis letters to the Ambassador, give the slightest intimation from which to elicit the fact that he was rendered more equitable in his judgment toward the Remonstrants during his residence at Dori. On the contrary, although he does not conceal the blemishes of the Calvinists, there is not a single passage, in which he refrains from expressing his entire disapproval of the cause of the Remonstrants even after Episcopius had delivered his speeches. I think therefore, that Farindon has misunderstood his friend's meaning, who, I suspect, only wished to say, that he had been impelled to desert Calvin's parly on perusing a certain book by Episcopius. But whatever the ultimate occasion might be of this change in his sentiments, it is an undoubted fact that he renounced the FATE and other RIGID DOCTRINES taught by Calvin : Not only do his writings prove this, but it is also confirmed by the answer which he is said to have returned to one of his friends, who on a certain occasion found him reading Calvin's Institutes, and asked him if he was not yet past that book?' To whom he pleasantly replied, • In my younger days I read it to inform Myself; but now I read it
to reform him (Calvin.]' I wish this eminent man had refrained from the faults of those persons who imagine that their former opinions are to be entirely discarded ; and bad not, by avoiding one extreme, run into its opposite, which was equally pernicious! His opinion concerning the Lord's Supper is sufficient to demonstrate, were there not plenty of other evidence, that the antipathy which he had once conceived against Calvin led him further than was lawful.”
Now, the very objections which I have quoted from Mosheim are all answered, by supposing the name of Episcopius to have been uttered by Mr. Farindon instead of MARTINIUS. For, after the letter in which reference is made to the discussion of the passage in question, Hales wrote only other two to the Ambassador, in neither of which does a single sarcastic expression against the Remonstrants escape, but both contain direct proofs of some sudden change in his sentiments. In the very next letter, without any previous intimation, he tells the Ambassador, " I lately writ unto Mr. Collwall, to kuow what order was to be taken for the discharge of my lodging, whether your Honour were to answer it, or the public purse." I would willingly be resolved of it, because I have a desire to return to the Hague ; FIRST, because the Synod proceeding as it doth, I do not see that it is opera pretium for me here to abide ; and, THEN, because I have sundry private occasions that call upon me to return." One of the concluding paragraphs in his last letter, is the following: “ There hath not been any stay made amongst the Foreign Divines, but only in this Second Article ; out of which if they can well and clearly wrest themselves, their passage out of the rest will be more smooth. I lately told your Honour, that Martinius of Breine made some doubts, amongst the rest, concerning UNIVERSAL GRACE: Not Martinins only, but D. Ward in this point. For the composing the doubts of both these, that they brake not out to any public inconvenience, there hath been of late many private meetings in my Lord Bishop's lodging ; where, upon Wednesday moruing, were drawn certain Theses in very suspense and wary terms : to what end, whether to give content to all parties, or to exhibit to the Synod, or what else, I know not. By chance, I had a view of them, but no opportunity to transcribe them.". If Hales were not present at “ these private meetings in my Lord Bishop's lodgings," it appears that he had other means of becoming acquainted with the nature and result of
Synod, by that complete court-sycophant, Du Moulin, at the very time when, with consummate hypocrisy, he had his Anathe discussions which there took place. In the first extract wbich I have given from him, he says that it was “ by chance" he “ came to see the Bishop's letter written to Martinius ;” in the last extract he employs the same phrase, “ by chance I had a view of the Theses ;” and these chances were undoubtedly the opportunities of private intercourse which Martinius afforded to the Ambassador's youthful and ingenuous chaplain, who had previously distinguished himself in the learned world, by important contributions to Sir Henry Saville's superb edition of St. Chrysostom's Works, and in his situation of Greek Professor in the University of Oxford.
This note, already too prolix, is not the proper place for adducing other collateral evidence in favour of this conjecture.' I have translated the entire paragraph from Mosheim, for the sake of the two last sentences in it, wbich contain an allusion to one of those extraordinary phenoinena occasionally exhibited, even by the strongest human intellect,-a kind of moral revulsion or shock, which, forcing the mind from the moorings to which it had been previously fastened, hurries it impetuously down the raging currents of couiending human spinions, and drives it either on the dangerous shoals of indifference, or dashes it against the frightful rocks of baneful errors. The latter was the unhappy fate of “the Ever Memorable Hales,” after his mind had been disgusted with the proceedings of the Dort Synodists, and after he had embraced the more scriptural creed of Martinius. Des Maizeaux and Mosheim have satisfactorily vindicated him from the charge of being the author of those two Socinian publications, Brevis Disquisitio and Dissertatio de Pace et Concordia Ecclesiæ, both of which in an English dress may be seen in the Phenix, or Revival of scarce and valuable Pieces. But his aberrations were only temporary, and his recovery from them iş generally attributed to the powerful arguments of Archbishop Laud: And though some Dissenting historians, after their usual method of unfounded. aspersion, have imputed corrupt motives to Hales for this
partial retracing of his steps, yet no man ever displayed stronger proofs of ingenuousness and sincerity ; and, on the very points on which these partial narrators of facts had supposed him to be a deserter, he never subsequently altered his opinion, which was favourable to some of their views of church-government. Indeed, it is a remarkable circumstance and deserving of more special notice than I can here give it, that two of the most able divines of that age, Hales and CHILLINGWORTH, from whose productions the Dissenters selected some of their most plausible reasons against Episcopacy, were gained over to the service of the Church of England by that eminent Archbishop, who shewed, by his forbearing conduct towards them, how much he was capable of enduring when he perceived uprightness of intention unmixed with malevolence, and a strong desire to promote practical religion without employing the specious pretence of instructing men in the unrevealed will of heaven, concerning the high mysteries of absolute election and unconditional reprobation. The intelligent reader will quickly appreciate the extent of the Archbishop's patience by the following extract from Hales's Tract on Schism, the most obnoxious parts of which he modestly defended in a letter to his magnanimous patron :
“ Consider of all the Liturgies that are and ever have been, and remove from them whatever is scandalous to any party, and leave nothing but what all agree on; and the evil shall be, that the public service and honour of God shall no ways suffer. Whereas, to load our public forin's with the private fancies upon which we differ, is the most sovereign way to perpetuate Schism unto the world's end. Prayer, confession, thanksgiving, reading of scriptures in the plainest and simplest manner, were matter enough to furnish out a sufficient Liturgy; though nothing either of private opivion or of church pomp, of garments or prescribed gestures, of imagery, of music, of matter concerning the dead, of many superfluities which creep into the church under the name of order and decency, did erpose its self. To charge churches and Liturgies with things unnecessary, was the first beginning of all superstition; and when scruple of conscience began to be made, or pretendeil, there Schism began to break in.”
tomy of Arminianism in the press and almost ready for publication.* By that vile performance, and by a letter to the Synod nearly equal to it in virulence, he endeavoured to heal the wound which to common observers he might seem by his peaceful labours to have made in his Calvinian orthodoxy. The English Ambassador, Sir Dudley Carleton, wished Mr. Hales, during his residence at Dort, to transmit his opinion about Du Moulin's scheme, which was not in substance different from that of 1614, and which has been detailed in page 555; and to ask Bogerman's views on the same subject. Mr. Hales soon ten
* In other parts of this volume, I have exposed the intolerant views and actions of this pragmatical Calvinist ; ! now proceed to quote the following brief character of him from the impartial Mosheim's notes to Hales's Letters :-“ Peter Du Moulin, who was without controversy a great man, obtained by his writings of various kinds a larger portion of glory than has fallen to the lot of many of the Reformed Divines. Let those who are desirous of knowing the circumstances of his eventful life consult, among the rest, Bates's Vilæ Selector. August. Viror., FREHERE's Theatrum viror. Erudit., PARAVICIN's Singularia de Viris Erudit., and others. But the same individual is said to have betrayed great inconstancy in these controversies, and does not appear always to have followed that rule which ought to be observed by a divine. Prior to the convening of the Synod, he frequently exhorted each of the parties to peace and concord, and at that time his opin. ion about the Arminians was not very low : See his letter to D'Aerssen, in the Letters of the Remonstrants, and compare it with the famous TURRETIN'S Cloud of Witnesses. But afterwards, when he perceived how the affair would terminate, he united himself to the party that hated the Remonstrants, so as pot to seem far removed from injustice or unfair dealing: For, being prohi. bited by the command of the King of France from making his appearance among the Fathers of that Council, he not only transmitted to the Dort Assembly his judgment on the Five Points, which was full
of harshness and asperity, and which may be seen in the first part of the Acts of the Synod, but he likewise published a very celebrated book, which he entitled the Anatomy of Arminianism, and in it openly proclaimed a dreadful war against the Remonstrants, who have generally complained of the acrimony of that performance. Among other authorities on this subject, consult the preface to the Synodical Acts of the Remonstrants, and in their letters is an Epistle addressed to him by the banished Arminians. Neither were there wanting those who attempted to refute Du Moulin's book; among them Corvinus is the most eminent, whose work, entitled The unskilful handling of Peter Du Moulin, the new Anatomist, or a Censure on his Anatomy of Arminianism, was published in Quarto, at Frankfort, in 1622.
“ To every one who considers this matter it must seem wonderful, that when this man was bearing proposals for establishing peace between the Lutherans and the Calvinists, he was at the very time condemning and proscribing certain of the doctrines of the Lutherans, while engaged in attacking the Arminians. For, if we attend solely to the Five Points, who can avoid observing, that our [the Lutheran) opinions about them are nearly the same as those of the early followers of Arminius ?
But Du Moulin appears afterwards to have again mitigated what he had expressed with rather too much harshness : For, in the defence of what he calls the orthodox cause, he asserts, that God reprobates no men except those who are unbelievers and are impenitent to the close of life. On this account he could not escape reprehension from the more rigid Calvinists, among whom the very famous William Twisse styles Du Moulin's book, which I have now described, a prevarication, and does not hesitate to assert that 'Du Moulin had not only
promoted the cause of the Arminians beyond what was right, but had entirely overturned all his previous orthodox conelusions about election.'
Such were Mosheim's remarks on the reasoning of Hales contained in the next note..
dered his own opinion,* and, a few posts afterwards, sent the Ambassador the following account of Bogerman's: “ I spake upon Tuesday with Mr. Præses concerning Moulin's project. His answer to m this, • That he communicated the thing • with some of the discreeter of the Synod, and that he had ' required my lord Bishop and Scultetus to conceive a form of
public confession. Which as soon as it should be conceived and • allowed of by those who should in that behalf be consulted (withal, he would send a copy of it to your honour, to be sent to his Majesty, by him to be revised and altered according to his pleasure, and so from him to be commended to the Synod pub.
*" Concerning. Monsieur Moulin's proposition, of which your honour required my opinion, thus I think : His project consists of two heads, of a General Confession, and of a Peaceable Treaty for union with the Lutheran Churches. I imagine, that the GENERALITY of the Confessions must not include the Lutheran. For if it doth, then are both parts of his proposition the same: it being the same thing, to procure one general Confession of Faith, and a union. Supposing then, that this Confession stretches not to them, I will
do as Jupiter doth in Homer, ' ! will grant him one part, and deny him the other.' For a general Confession of Faith, (at least so far as those churches stretch who have delegates here in the Synod,) I think his project very possible, there being no point of faith in which they differ. If therefore the churches shall give power to their delegates to propose it to the Synod, 1 see no reason but it should pass. But I did not like the intimation concerning church-government. It had, I think, been better not mentioned : not that I think it possible that all churches can be governed alike, (for the French church being sub cruce, cannot well set up Episcopal Jurisdiction,) but because it may seem to his Majesty of Great Britain, that his excepting the point of government might not proceed so much from the consideration of the impossibility of the thing, as from want of love and liking of it in the person.
“ Now for that part of the proposition which concerns the Lutheran, either it aims at an union in opinion or a mutual toleration.-The first is, without all question, impossible : For, in the
point of the sacrament and the dependencies from it, as the Ubiquity of Christ's manhood, the person of Christ, the Communicatio idiomatum, 8c., either they must yield to us, or we to them, neither of which is probable. Their opinions have now obtained for a hundred years, ever since the beginning of the Reformation,and are derived from the chief author of the Reformation. It is not likely, therefore, that they will easily fall, that have such authority and so many years to uphold them.-Bat I suppose Monsieur Moulin intended only a mutual toleration; and be it no more, yet if we consider the indisposition of the persons with whom we are to deal, I take this likewise to be impossible. The Lutherans are divided into two sorts, either they are molliores, as they call them, or rigidi. What hope there may be of moderation in the first, I know not, but in the second we may well despair of. For they so bear themselves as that it is evident, they would rather agree with the Church of Rome than with the Calvinist He that is conversant in the writings of Hunnius and Grawerus, will quickly think as I do: The first of which hath so bitterly written against Calvin, that Parsons the Jesuit furnished himself by compiling Hunnius his book. If the whole lump. [of Lutheranism) be leavened, as those two pieces which I but now named, they are certainly too sour for moderate men to deal with. The French wits are naturally active and projecting, and, withal, carry evermore a favourable conceit to the possibility of their projects. Out of this French conceit, I suppose, proceeded this of M. Moulin."
It would be an agreeable occupation to trace the very preceptible difference between the sentiments here expressed by one of the greatest men of that age, and the more enlarged views of toleration which he embraced and defended on becoming an Arminian.
• licly: Which course, he thinks, will take good success. As touching the point concerning the Lutherans, he thinks it not fit that any word at all be made." See in page 153, what a mild Lutheran divine has very justly observed on this last sentence. On the receipt of these opinions, Sir Dudley dispatched a letter to Archbishop Abbot, in which the following paragraph occurs: “ There hath been an overture made to his Majesty by Du Moulin the minister at Paris, of a General Confession to be composed by this Synod for all the Reformed Churches, a form whereof is, by his Majesty's order, privately conceived by some select persons in the Synod, which, when it is perfected, it will be then sent to his Majesty, to be by him governed as shall seem best to his wisdom, either by suffering the same to go no farther, or, if he approve thereof, with such change and alteration therein as he shall think fit, to recommend the same publicly to the Synod, and by consequence to the several churches which have their deputies there. Du Moulin doth recommend further a project of mutual toleration betwixt the Calvinists and Lutherans ; which doth ill suit with our present business of suppressing the Arminians; and therefore, I believe, it will not be thought fit to make mention thereof in the Synod.” In this very letter are to be found stronger indications of the premeditated design of the Synodists “to suppress the Arminians ;” and the inference deduced by Mosheim is exceedingly just, “ It was scarcely possible therefore, that peace could have been refused to the Arminians, if the Lutherans had been received into covenant and sacred alliance.”
The pernicious effects of the unhallowed zeal and injustice of the Dort Calvinists will be cursorily noted in succeeding parts of this narrative. After Grotius had, through the intrepidity and conjugal devotedness of his excellent wife, effected
* The following account of this circumstance from Du MAURIER'S Memoires de Hollande, though not the most correct, is entertaining : " It was hy the advice and coutrivance of Mary de Reygersbergen his wife, who, observing that, after his keepers had fatigued themselves with often searching and examining a great trunk full of books and foul linen which used to be washed at Gorcum, a town not far from the castle [of Louvestein] where he was imprisoned, they allowed it at length to pass without opening it, as had formerly been their custom. She advised her husband to get iuto the trunk, having bored boles with a wimble in the place where the fore-part of De Groot's bead lay, that he might breathe and vot be stifled. He complied with her advice and was carried in this manner to a friend's house in Gorcum whence he went to Antwerp in the common waggon, having crossed the great square, in the disguise of a joiner, bolding a rule in his hand. This artful woman feigned, that her husband was extremely ill, in order to give him time to make his escape. But when she thougbt he was got into a place of safety, she laughed at the keepers and cried, The birds are flown ! At first it was intended to prosecute her; and some judges were of opinion, that she ought to be kept in prison instead of her husband: However, she was released by a plurality of voices, and applauded universally for having, by her wit and artifice, procured her husband's liberty."-Bayle's remark on this affair is also worthy of insertion : “ Such an excellent wife merited, from the commonwealth of learning, not only to have a statue erected to her honour, but