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Universities are the only knowledge-creating institutions that produce more trained people than they consume. Through constructive methods of operation, which will be discussed later in more detail by Dr. Smull, NASA intends to secure their maximum direct contribution to the space program and, as a primary byproduct, to strengthen the established academic framework in which their kind of work flourishes. As a matter of practical wisdom, we have decided to work within the existing university structure rather than foster activities tending to weaken the university or pull the university researcher away from teaching. On the other hand, universities must bear their share of responsibility and devote an appropriate portion of their material and human resources to the national space effort. From such a partnership, NASA expects to reap a harvest of more fruitful research and useful knowledge, more and better-trained scientists and engineers from which to select our investigators and program managers of tomorrow and more adequate laboratory space in which the research necessary for the eventual conquest of space can be conducted. .


Mr. Chairman, at this point, if you are willing, I would like to interpolate a brief résumé of some of the contributions the universities have actually made and are making to our program so as to provide a realistic basis against which to reflect the rest of the testimony.

The CHAIRMAN. I think that would be fine. That is just the kind of thing we are trying to find out. Dr. NEWELL. Thank you.

The following university experimenters have participated in our program: Professors Kraushaar and Clark and their coworkers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology contributed the first gamma ray astronomy results.

These were particularly exciting results in that they eliminated one possible cosmological theory from those that had been in existence.

Professors Bridge, Rossi, and coworkers, also at MIT, conducted the Explorer X solar plasma measurements. These were the first observations of the solar wind out in space. They made measurements of the boundary of the earth's magnetosphere, the first measurements of the boundary of the earth's magnetic field.

James Van Allen of the State University of Iowa discovered the radiation belts and has since provided a wealth of data on the earth's magnetosphere and in so doing, has trained a large number of students who are now participating in the space program in other universities and in NASA laboratories.

John Simpson and coworkers at the University of Chicago made the first charged particle measurements millions of miles from earth on Pioneer Ŭ and detected events out in space that previously had been thought to be associated with the vicinity of the earth.

Prof. John Winckler and coworkers, of the University of Minnesota, also made particle measurements on Pioneer V. John Winckler was among the discoverers of the solar proton beams, which now appear as the most hazardous elements of charged particles in space

for space flight. He and his coworkers have also participated in gamma ray astronomy measurement work.

Professor Ney of the University of Minnesota has devised airglow experiments which Mercury astronauts have carried out. He has also designed similar experiments for later Gemini operations.

Jones and coworkers at the University of Michigan have measured atmospherio densities and temperatures, made ionospheric measurements and developed sophisticated mass spectrometer instrumentation.

Ricketts, Moore, and coworkers of New Mexico State College, one of the earliest group of workers in this field, contributed antenna research and development, development of rocket techniques, telemetry, and field operations.

Professor Schwarzchild of Princeton is contributing to our program through his balloon observations. Photographs have been made of Mars by these techniques.

Professor Suomi of the University of Wisconsin has made infrared measurements in the early IGY and later satellites.

Professor Suomi's measurements were pioneering in the use of infrared for studying the radiation balance in the atmosphere.

Professor Cahill of the University of New Hampshire has made measurements of magnetic fields in space and has contributed to our understanding of radiation belts. Likewise, Professor Davis of the California Institute of Technology has measured the magnetic field in Explorer and Mariner II experiments.

The above are only some of the investigators who have flown experiments on our spacecraft. But just as important are the theorists and the laboratory workers who lead and furnish the basis on which the flight results may be interpreted. By far, the greater fraction of the total output of the space programs basic research comes from these ground-based workers.

For example, Thomas Gold of Cornell developed the theory of magnetic fields in space and actually predicted that magnetic bottles would be discovered out in space.

Prof. Eugene Parker of the University of Chicago predicted that we would find the solar wind. This is an example of the astute theoretical work that underlies our planning and preparation for our measurements and Parker is continuing to furnish leadership in the understanding of the interplanetary medium in the earth's radiation belts.

Joseph Chamberlain of Kitt Peak Observatory is furnishing some of the basis for our understanding of the atmospheric data obtained through our satellites.

Marcel Nicolet, a Belgian working at the Pennsylvania State University, one of the world's leading theorists in aeronomy, has furnished much of the interpretation of ionospheric and atomspheric data from satellites and space probes. He predicted the presence of the helium layer in the upper atmosphere before it was found.

Fred Whipple of Harvard has done theoretical work on the upper atmosphere and theoretical work on micrometeors in space. His early work furnished the basis for micrometeor measurements on our satellites and spacecraft. Walter Roberts and coworkers of the High Altitude Observatory of Colorado provided theoretical and ground observational work on solar activity, furnishing the basis for interpretation of our satellite solar observations.

These examples could be multiplied at length and we would be glad to extend the list for the record if the committee so desires.

In addition, one should also take account of the university workers who have been working in the laboratory to prepare instrumentation, design experiments, and lay the theoretical groundwork for future satellite and space probe points.

Here again the list is a long one; in fact a longer one, and only some illustrative examples can be given. Spitzer of Princeton,

likewise Whipple and coworkers of Harvard and the High Altitude Observatory of Colorado, and Code of the University of Wisconsin. Code's work is also laying the groundwork for measurements to be made on the X-15 airplane in ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Gordon MacDonald of the University of California is working on the theoretical basis for geodetic studies and lunar observations.

I could continue with this list, Mr. Chairman, but I think I have made my point. I shall be glad to provide the total list for the record if you so desire.

The CHAIRMAN. And I think that is desirable. (The balance of the list referred to follows:)




Harold Urey, Jim Arnold, and


Frank Press.

Maurice Ewing and coworkers....

Sidney Fox...

University of California, Laboratory and theoretical work on the
San Diego.

chemistry of the moon and meteor-
ites. Laying some of the ground-
work for our future lunar and plane-

tary studies. California Institute of Tech- Preparation of a new type seismometer nology.

for use on the moon. Columbia University (La- Preparation of seismometer for lunar mont Observatory).

studies, cooperating with Frank Press of CIŤ. Analyses of micrometeor material collected from ocean

sludges. University of Florida.... Synthesis of protein spheres with a

resemblance of enzymatic activity.

This lays the groundwork for our

exobiology efforts. Stanford..

Development of life detection systems,

including microscope television sys

tems for exobiological studies. University of Rochester. Development of life detection systems. Harvard.

Instrumentation for orbiting sol b

servatories, to make ultraviolet

measurements of the sun. Massachusetts Institute of Participating in X-ray instrumentaTechnology.

tion for orbiting solar observatories.

Joshua Lederberg....

Wolf Vishniak.
Leo Goldberg.

Rossi and coworkers...


The CHAIRMAN. May I ask just this one question:

You have listed men from Michigan, Cornell, various places. Are these people who are doing this work on campus? For example, for some of the early work, we used Dr. Seaborg from the University of California. Buť Dr. Seaborg is with the Atomic Energy Commission now. Are these people doing work as part of the staff of NASA or on their own campus, helping NASA in their own programs?

Dr. NEWELL. All of these people I have listed are doing work on campus as members of the university staffs participating in this space program.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you.


Dr. NEWELL. The three main components of our university program, research, facilities, and training, are complementary; their relative magnitudes have been balanced to ensure the most efficient use of the Nation's academic capabilities and resources. Initially, maximum emphasis has been placed on the training of scientists and engineers, for here the demand has already been felt and will become more severe during the next decade. Research and the acquisition of necessary research facilities are phased in to employ this manpower most effectively.


The new knowledge and new ideas which form the life blood of this entire undertaking flow from research. The majority of the experiments carried aboard NASA's satellites and space probes are conceived and designed by university scientists and engineers. To universities we owe some of our most advanced concepts in science and technology

Since its inception, NASA has encouraged and sponsored research of the project variety, aimed at some individual flight experiment or in direct support of some relatively specific program objective. But, in addition, during the past 2 years we have made a determined attempt to use more fully the unique capabilities of universities in our effort to accomplish the NASA mission. Universities have the unique ability to bring to bear on our space research problem, the skills of experts in each of the many individual scientific disciplines involved. "The scientific and technological problems facing NASA require the concerted and cooperative efforts of biologists, geologists, physicists, chemists, electronic specialists, metallurgists, engineers, and many others.


Accordingly, we have given encouragement to the consolidation of related research projects into unified multidisciplinary activities, initiation of new investigations to full existing gaps, and participation of promising new groups with high potential. Closely coordinated with the project research, this relatively modest effort exerts a powerful and effective force on the continued growth and development of space research capabilities throughout the Nation. The multidisciplinary research activities allow able scholars in diverse disciplines, to work together on the broad problems which frequently require an understanding of the behavior of large and complex systems and resist piecemeal attack.

NASA has taken positive action to insure that the benefits of space research are applied energetically to the business and economic structure of the United States. We have in a number of instances encouraged within the university, joint efforts by representatives of several nontechnical disciplines in addition to the physical scientists and engineers. Consequently, some universities are gaining an increased appreciation of the intellectual influence they can exert toward the creation of a favorable climate for progress and growth in the economic environment of their regions as a result of their space-related efforts.


All told, some 130 universities are presently conducting investigations under NASA grants and research contracts. But there remain additional institutions having great potential, which are not currently participating in research. Many of these groups are showing an increasing interest in the important scientific challenges of space, and will undoubtedly be responsible for major contributions in the years ahead.

Development of such groups not only gives us the immediate yield of new talent, but provides new incentives for scientists to remain there and resist the excessive drift of skilled manpower from growing institutions to those few universities with highly publicized programs. It also makes it unnecessary for young scientists to leave universities which attract them for many reasons and in which they are needed, but which offer no opportunity for them to participate in currently exciting and pacing space-oriented research.

At many institutions already heavily engaged in research in response to NASA's requirements, work is being impeded by inadequacy or complete lack of laboratory space. Some research scientists confine their attention to theoretical studies and may literally need only a blackboard, well-stocked book shelves, and a desk in a quiet room suitable for concentration.


More and more frequently, however, first line space flight research of the type needed by NASA requires the use of more elaborate equipment, such as computers, electronic testing devices, and environmental simulators. Sufficient laboratory space must exist for this equipment as well as for the faculty, graduate students, other research personnel, and supporting services.

Accordingly, we have made research facilities grants to selected institutions already committed substantially to continuing space and aeronautics research. One of the first accomplishments of the American space effort-one I have already referred to, the discovery of the radiation belts—was made by a university scientist, Dr. James Van Allen, of the State University of Iowa.

Since that first discovery, the Iowa group has flown experiments on eight NASA spacecraft and has continued to make important contributions toward unraveling the still imperfectly understood phenomena of trapped radiation. This group has also trained some 10 competent scientists who are now participating in research at various other universities and Government laboratories. Here is an outstanding example of the contributions which universities are making, both in research and in the training of young scientists and engineers.

Yet this group is literally working in hallways, the basement, the attic, and in small nooks behind lecture halls. Through a cooperative effort involving the State of Iowa, the National Science Foundation, and NASA, in which the State has been able to provide more than half the total funds, construction has been started on a new physics building in which these people will devote their full professional talents to research of major importance in the exploration of space. In this way, we seek to stimulate the provision of research space not otherwise

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