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Mr. WEBB. Senator, I do have some facts with respect to personnel requirements which show very clearly that these figures that were used in the Senate yesterday by the opponents of our bill are clearly out of focus. They do not relate to any factual foundation in the studies we have made. I suspect some Senators may want to develop that, and this is one reason I have suggested we go over. When you get into that kind of discussion, it does take a little time.

The CHAIRMAN. Very well, if there is no objection, the committee will stand in recess until 10 o'clock tomorrow.

Mr. WEBB. Thank you, sir.

(Whereupon, 12:10 p.m., the committee recessed, to resume Friday, November 22, 1963, at 10 a.m.)





Washington, D.C. The committee met, pursuant to recess, at 10:05 a.m., in room 235, Old Senate Office Building, Senator Clinton P. Anderson, chairman, presiding.

Present: Senators Anderson (presiding), Symington, Young, Cannon, and Smith.

Also present: Frank C. Di Luzio, staff director; Col. Harry N. Tufts, facilities assistant; William J. Deachman and Dr. Glen P. Wilson, professional staff members; and Eilene Galloway, special consultant.

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Webb, we are very happy to have you here this morning. We are pleased to have you make any statement you wish to make. We are happy to have Dr. Newell with us.



Mr. WEBB. Thank you, Senator. I still have a very short statement, which I think will be more appropriate following Dr. Newell's statement, which will cover in considerable detail both the policy and operation of our university program. I would then like to refer to its basic value in the space program. So if you would permit Dr. Newell to go forward with his statement, we could, if you wish, take the questions together, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. Whatever you wish.

Mr. WEBB. I would also like to say Dr. Newell represents one of the kinds of outstanding Americans who are at work in this program. During the war, he did some of the most important work on the guidance system for our ballistic missiles, working in the military service.

Following the war and because of this interest, he worked with the German group who brought the V–2 rockets over here and flew them, as you remember, out at White Sands and developed the basic knowledge and interest on which our space program then went forward, taking the first pictures of cloud cover, making the first measurements out beyond the earth's atmosphere, and learning what it means to fly big rockets for space investigation.


Now, Dr. Newell has not only followed the theoretical and technical aspects of space power and participated actively in building all of the systems that we have built, including those associated with the International Geophysical Year and those associated with our present, very advanced orbiting observatories, but he has felt a strong need and personal desire to explain what this means, both in simple terms and in complex terms. He has written seven books, Mr. Chairman, one of which is "Space Science for Young People.” His most recent one is “Express to the Stars." So I think the committee might want to know that we are talking with a man who has devoted a good many years of his life to developing a system in the United States which will give us the capacity to do whatever we may need, both military and civilian, in the space program. He is now Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications. All of the meteorological, Tiros series satellites fly under his control and direction. All of the communications satellite development work is under his direction, as well as the development of the theoretical base in our universities and the research laboratories associated with these activities. The laboratories as well as the program direction were put under his supervision on the first day of November of this year, less than a month ago.

So this is Dr. Homer Newell.

The CHAIRMAN. Dr. Newell, I am glad Mr. Webb gave you a proper introduction.

(Dr. Newell's biography is as follows:)


Dr. Homer E. Newell is Director of the Office of Space Sciences, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a post he has held since November 1, 1961. Before this, he was the Deputy Director of Space Flight Programs.

An internationally known authority in the field of atmospheric and space sciences, he is the holder of the American Rocket Society's Pendray Award for 1958, and the 1960 Space Flight Award granted annually by the American Astronautical Society to the person who contributed most to the advancement of astronautical sciences.

He came to NASA in October 1958, from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory where he was acting superintendent of the Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division. In this position he was also the science program coordinator for Project Vanguard, the U.S. scientific earth satellite program for the International Geophysical Year.

A native of Holyoke, Mass., Dr. Newell earned both the bachelor and master of arts degrees from Harvard University and a Ph. D. in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin in 1940.

From 1940 to 1944 he was an instructor and later assistant professor at the University of Maryland, and a ground instructor on navigation with the Civil Aeronautics Administration from 1942 to 1943. From 1951 to 1958, as lecturer in mathematics for the University of Maryland, Dr. Newell participated in the NRL-University of Maryland off-campus education program by teaching graduate courses in mathematics to NRL and other Government employees.

Dr. Newell joined the Naval Research Laboratory in 1944, and became head of the Rocket Sonde Branch in 1947. In this position, he was in charge of the upper atmosphere research program of the NRL. In 1955 he was named acting superintendent of the Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division.

His scientific committee memberships have included the Special Subcommittee on the Upper Atmosphere of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (1947–51), and the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel (formerly Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel) since 1947. He was chairman of the Rocket and Satellite Research Panel in 1959 and 1960. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences' Panels on Rocketry and the earth satellite program for the IGY, and was chairman of a special committee of the rocketry panel for planning and organizing this country's IGY sounding rocket program

at Fort Churchill in Canada. In addition, Dr. Newell serves on several committees and working groups of the Committee on Space Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions, of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and of the International Scientific Radio Union.

Dr. Newell is the author of several technical books and numerous articles. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Research Society of America, the American Geophysical Union, the American Rocket Society, and he is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is president of the Section on Planetary Sciences of the American Geophysical Union.

Dr. Newell, his wife, and their four children live in Washington, D.C.



Dr. NEWELL. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

I may say before I go to my testimony that among the most gratifying and satisfying portions of my career were spent in your State of New Mexico at White Sands in the early days of this work.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you.

Dr. NEWELL. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee: I am gratified by this committee's desire to learn more about our university program, and it is a pleasure to have this opportunity to discuss in more detail an activity that is so essential to the accomplishment of NASA's overall mission.


The job of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications is in large part one of exploration, of measurement, of analysis and interpretation of phenomena in space in and beyond the solar system which, until recent years, have been beyond the reach of man's capabilities! Together with our parallel Offices of Advanced Research and Technology, and Manned Space Flight, we constitute the instruments by which NASA's total mission as set forth in the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is being accomplished. We are directed by the act to conduct a program which contributes materially to such basic national objectives as those listed in the early part of the Space Act. Although I have set those forth here, Mr. Chairman, certainly I do not need to read them to this committee. Suffice it to say that this mission determines our relationship with the universities. It is obvious that fulfillment of these objectives requires the participation of the university community just as it does that of the industrial community and other Government agencies.

Only small parts of the actual research, development, and operations which make


the national effort are done by our own inhouse laboratories. For operations, production and most development, we rely upon industry. For the basic research upon which to build a complex new technology we rely mainly upon universities. We need strong, creative universities just as surely as we need strong, productive industries and a strong economy. Without the assistance of the universities, we will not be able to do our job.


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