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by the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet. In the absence of an appointment to the contrary, the most senior in date of rank of those appointed shall act as senior judge.

(b) The Senior Judge shall appoint someone under his authority to act as Clerk of the Court who will be responsible for maintaining a public docket containing such information as the Senior Judge may prescribe.

(c) Sessions of the court are held on the Midway Islands at times and places designated by the Senior Judge.

(d) Normally, not more than one judge shall be required to hear any individual case.

shall be construed to ensure simplicity in procedure and fairness in administration, and to eliminate unjustifiable expenses and delay.

(b) The judge of the court who presides at any trial or other criminal proceeding is responsible for the making of an appropriate record of the proceeding.

(41 FR 29672, July 19, 1986, as amended at 51 FR 22283, June 19, 1986)

8762.52 Attorney for the United States.

The Senior Judge may appoint any judge advocate or attorney to represent the United States in any criminal case in the Midway Islands Court or on appeal to the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor or such other command as may be designated by the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet.

8762.58 Release prior to trial and bail.

(a) The release of any person arrested on the Midway Islands for a violation of this part shall be in accordance with 18 U.S.C. 3146 as it now appears or as it may be amended or recodified.

(b) When an offense has been charged by a citation issued by a security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer or the Officer-in-Charge, U.S. Naval Air Facility, Midway Island, bail shall be set in the amount prescribed by the Senior Judge for the violation. The bail shall be paid in cash to the Clerk of the Court. The bail may be forfeited by the accused and the proceedings thereby terminated in the case of a violation of $ 762.28 that does not involve a moving vehicle collision or intoxication while driving, or with permission of the court in the case of any other offense charged by citation pursuant to $ 762.84.

(41 FR 29672, July 19, 1976, as amended at 51 FR 22283, June 19, 1986)

$ 762.54 Criminal jurisdiction.

The Midway Islands Court has jurisdiction over all petty offenses and other minor violations of this part. The United States District Court for the District of Hawaii shall have jurisdiction over all other offenses adopted under $762.16, over offenses against the laws of the United States, and over those offenses committed within the special maritime jurisdiction contained in the Act of June 15, 1950 (chapter 253, 64 Stat. 217).

8762.55 Venue.

Trial of all offenses under the jurisdiction of the Midway Islands Court shall be had at the U.S. Naval Air Facility, Midway Island; trial of all other offenses shall be in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii.

8762.62 Information.

(a) Any petty offense may be prosecuted by a written information signed by the attorney charged with prosecuting the case. If, however, the offense is one for which issue of a citation is authorized by this part and a citation for the offense has been issued, the citation serves as the information. Offenses against the laws of the United States, offenses committed against the laws made applicable by the Act of June 15, 1950 (chapter 253, 64 Stat. 217), and offenses adopted under $762.16, except those which are subject, under title 37, “Hawaii Revised Statutes," as it now appears or as it may be amended or recodified, to a penalty of imprisonment for six months or less or a fine of not more than $500, or both, shall be referred to the United States Attorney, Hawaii, for appropriate disposition.

$ 762.56 Rules of criminal procedure.

(a) Sections 762.56 through 762.79 govern the procedure in criminal proceedings in the Midway Islands Court. They

(b) A copy of the information shall be the record of the case the plea made to delivered to the accused or his counsel each charge. as soon as practicable after it is filed. (d) The accused may plead "guilty”

(c) Each count of an information may to any or all of the charges against charge one offense only and must be him, except that the court may at its particularized sufficiently to identify

discretion refuse to accept a plea of the place, the time, and the subject guilty, and may not accept a plea withmatter of the alleged offense. It shall out first determining that the plea is refer to the provision of law under made voluntarily and with understandwhich the offense is charged, but any

ing of the nature of the charge. error in this reference or its omission

(e) The accused may plead “not may be corrected by leave of court at guilty" to any or all of the charges any time before sentence and is not against him. The court shall enter a grounds for reversal of a conviction if

plea of not guilty if the answer of the the error or omission did not mislead accused to any charge is such that it the accused to his prejudice.

does not clearly amount to a plea of

guilty or not guilty. 8762.64 Motions and pleas.

(f) The accused may, at any stage of

the trial, with the consent of the court, (a) Upon motion of the accused at

change a plea of not guilty to one of any time after filing of the information

guilty. The court shall then proceed as or copy of citation, the court may

if the accused had originally pleaded order the prosecutor to allow the ac

guilty. cused to inspect and copy or photo

(g) Nothing contained in this subpart graph designated books, papers, docu

shall be construed to diminish any adments, or tangible objects obtained

ditional rights afforded military perfrom or belonging to the accused, or

sonnel under the Uniform Code of Miliobtained from others by seizure or

tary Justice. process, upon a showing that the items sought may be material to the prepara- 8762.66 Trial. tion of his defense and that the request

(a) If the accused pleads not guilty or is reasonable.

if a plea of guilty is not accepted by (b) When the court is satisfied that it

the court and a consequent plea of not has jurisdiction to try the accused as

guilty entered, the accused is entitled charged, it shall require the accused to

to a trial on the charges in accordance identify himself and state whether or

with the procedures prescribed in the not he has counsel. If he has no coun- Rules of Criminal Procedure for the sel, but desires counsel, the court shall

United States District

District Courts, 18 give him a reasonable opportunity to U.S.C., except as otherwise provided in procure counsel. If he cannot afford

this part. There is no trial by jury for counsel or is unable to procure counsel petty offenses. after reasonable efforts have been ex- (b) All persons shall give their testipended, the court shall advise him of mony under oath or affirmation. The his right to have counsel appointed, Senior Judge shall prescribe the oath and shall appoint a judge advocate or and affirmation that may be adminisother lawyer counsel for the accused tered by any judge or the Clerk of the unless the accused shall have made a Court. voluntary and intelligent waiver of his (c) Upon completion of the trial, the right to counsel.

court shall enter a judgment consisting (c) When both sides are ready for ar- of a finding or findings and sentence or raignment, or when the court deter- sentences, or discharge of the accused. mines that both sides have had adequate opportunity to prepare for ar

8762.68 Sentence. raignment, the court shall read the (a) If the court accepts a plea of charges to the accused, explain them guilty to any charge or charges, it (if necessary), and, after the reading or shall make a finding of guilty on that stating of each charge in court, ask the charge. accused whether he pleads "guilty" or (b) After a finding of guilty is made, not guilty." The court shall enter in either by virtue of an accepted plea of

thereof to be inspected by the parties and their representatives.

(c) Any peace officer or any other person who is not a party and who is at least 18 years of age may serve a subpoena. Service of a subpoena shall be made by delivering a copy thereof to the person named.

(d) This section shall in no way be construed to limit federal subpoena powers, laws, or rules.

guilty or as the verdict of the court after trial, the court:

(1) May delay sentencing pending receipt of any presentencing report ordered by it;

(2) Shall, before imposing sentence, hear such statements, whether written or oral, by the prosecution and defense, if any, in regards to mitigation, extenuation, previous good character of the accused, matters in aggravation, and permissible evidence of bad character of the accused. In this regard, the accused or his counsel may introduce any reasonable statement he wishes in mitigation or extenuation or any evidence of previous good character. The prosecution may introduce evidence in aggravation including prior federal, state, or Midway Islands convictions. The prosecution may introduce evidence of previous bad character only if the accused has introduced evidence of previous good character; and

(3) Shall thereafter impose any lawful sentence, including, a suspended or partially suspended sentence; revocation or suspension of any Midway Islands automobile, truck, motorcycle, or other motor vehicle, or boat or other vessel permit in cases involving violations of $762 28; or placement of accused on probation.

8762.72 Appeals.

(a) The defendant in any criminal case may appeal from any judgment of the Midway Islands Court to the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, or such other command as may be designated by the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet, by filing a notice of appeal with the Senior Judge, and serving a copy on the attorney or judge advocate who represented the United States at trial.

(b) The notice must be served and filed within 15 days after the judgment of the Midway Islands Court.

(c) Upon receiving a notice of appeal, with proof of service on the attorney or judge advocate who represented the United States at trial, the Senior Judge shall forward the record of the case to the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor.

(d) The appellant must serve and file a memorandum with the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, within 10 days after filing notice of appeal setting forth the grounds for appeal. The attorney or judge advocate who represented the United States at trial may file a reply memorandum within 10 days thereafter.

(e) The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, may affirm, dismiss, or modify the order of the court, or exercise any of the other powers of the court. The judgment of the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, is final.

(f) Cases tried in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii shall be subject to federal laws and rules applicable to appeals.

8762.70 Subpoenas.

(a) The Clerk of the Court shall issue subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses. The subpoena must include the name of the court and the title, if any, of the proceeding, and shall command each person to whom it is directed to attend and give testimony at the time and place specified therein. The clerk shall issue a subpoena to a party requesting it, setting forth the name of the witness subpoenaed.

(b) The clerk may also issue a subpoena commanding the person to whom it is directed to produce the books, papers, documents, or other objects designated therein. The court may direct that books, papers, and documents designated in the subpoena be produced before the court at a time before the trial or before the time when they are to be offered in evidence. It may, upon their production, allow the books, papers, documents, or objects or portions

8762.74 New trial.

A judge of the court may order a new trial as required in the interest of justice, or vacate any judgment and enter

a new one, on motion made within a reasonable time after discovery by the moving party of matters constituting the grounds upon which the motion for a new trial or vacation of judgment is made.

Subpart E-Warrants; Arrests;

Special Procedures

or

8762.80 Warrants.

(a) Arrest warrants. (1) Any judge of the Midway Islands Court may issue a warrant for arrest if, upon complaint, it appears that there is probable cause to believe an offense has been committed and that the person named in the warrant has committed it. Probable cause, as used herein, means that there exist facts which are sufficient to lead a reasonably prudent and cautious man to a natural conclusion that the person to be arrested committed the offense for which he is to be arrested. The issuing officer shall:

(1) Place the name of the person charged with the offense in the warrant, or, if his name is not known, any name or description by which he can be identified with reasonable certainty;

(11) Sign the warrant;

(ili) Describe in the warrant the offense charged;

(iv) Issue the warrant to a security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer for execution; and

(v) Place in the warrant a command that the person charged with the offense be arrested and brought before him.

(2) Each person making an arrest on the Midway Islands shall take the arrested person, without unnecessary delay, before the Officer-in-Charge, U.S. Naval Air Facility, Midway Island, or a judge of the Midway Islands Court, as appropriate.

(3) The official before whom an arrested person is brought shall inform him of the complaint against him. The official shall also advise the arrested person that he has the right to remain silent and make no statement; that any statement made, whether oral or written, may be used against him, that he has the right to consult with a lawyer and to have a lawyer with him during questioning and to seek advice be

fore answering any questions; that he may employ civilian counsel of his own choice and at his own expense; that if he cannot afford a lawyer, or is a service member, the court will appoint one for him if he so desires; and that, if he decides to answer questions, he has the right to stop answering at any time and terminate the interrogation. Before any security patrolman, shore patrolman, other duly designated peace officer questions any person arrested, he must advise the arrested person of his rights, as set forth above, whether such questioning occurs before or after the arrested person is brought before the appropriate official as designated above in this section. No warnings need be given, however, prior to general on-the-scene questioning or identification inquiries.

(b) Search warrants. (1) Any judge of the Midway Islands Court may issue a warrant for search and seizure, if, after dispassionate and impartial consideration of all evidence, information, and circumstances involved, probable cause is deemed to exist. Probable cause, as used herein, means reliable information that would lead a reasonably prudent and cautious man to a natural belief that:

(1) An offense probably is about to be, is being, or has been committed;

(ii) Specific fruits or instrumentalities of the crime, contraband, or evidence exist; and

(iii) Such fruits, instrumentalities, contraband, or evidence are probably in a certain place.

(2) If, after considering all information, the judge shall decide to issue a search warrant, such warrant shall specifically include the following information:

(1) The time and date the warrant was requested;

(ii) The name and capacity of the person, official, security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer requesting the warrant;

(iii) The name and address of the person(s) suspected and the specific offense(s) of which he is suspected;

(iv) The address, place, or structure which is to be searched;

(v) The general nature of the items intended to be seized;

(i) The time and date the warrant was requested;

(ii) The name and capacity of the person requesting the warrant;

(iii) Property description or address of place or structure to be inspected;

(iv) General purpose of inspection;

(v) Date and time inspection intended to be made; and

(vi) An authorization to inspect the described place for the purpose specified, followed by the date, time, capacity, and signature of judge issuing the warrant.

[41 FR 29672, July 19, 1976, as amended at 51 FR 22283, June 19, 1986)

or

(vi) The information presented or reasons for suspecting the suspected person(s) in general; and

(vii) An authorization to search the described place for the property specified and, if the property is found there, to seize it, followed by the date, time, capacity, and signature of the judge issuing such warrant.

(3) A search warrant must be executed and returned to the issuing authority within five days after date of issuance. A search warrant executed within the five-day period shall be deemed to have been timely executed and no further showing of timeliness need be made.

(4) Security patrolmen, shore patrolmen, and other duly designated peace officers or other designated personnel conducting searches shall do so in accordance with the issued warrant.

(5) Any property seized as a result of a search or in connection with an alleged offense (unless property is highly perishable) is to be retained in a secure place pending trial in accordance with the orders of the court. All seized property shall be securely tagged with the following information:

(i) Date seized;

(ii) Property searched and location of seized article(s) when so seized;

(iii) Person ordering search and warrant number;

(iv) Signatures of person searching and witness; and

(v) Place where property is now located and names and addresses of any persons who have had custody thereof prior to deposit in the secure place required by this paragraph. A complete chain of custody record is to be kept.

(6) The property must be produced in court, if practicable. At the termination of the trial, the court shall restore the property or the funds resulting from the sale of the property to the owner, or make such other proper order as may be required and incorporate its order in the record of the case.

(c) Sanitation and fire prevention inspection. (1) Any judge of the Midway Islands Court may issue a warrant to inspect property on the Midway Islands for purposes of maintaining sanitation and fire prevention.

(2) Such warrant shall indicate:

8762.82 Arrests.

(a) Any person may make an arrest on the Midway Islands, without a warrant, for any crime (including a petty offense) that is committed in his presence.

(b) Any security patrolman, shore patrolman, other duly designated peace officer may, without a warrant, arrest any person on the Midway Islands who violates any provision of this part 762 or commits a crime that is a violation of the laws of the United States or the laws made applicable to the Midway Islands under the Act of June 15, 1950 (chapter 253, 64 Stat. 217), in his presence, or that he has probable cause to believe that person to have committed.

(c) In making an arrest, a security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer must display a warrant, if he has one, or otherwise clearly advise the person arrested of the violation alleged, and thereafter require him to submit and be taken before the appropriate official on the Midway Islands.

(d) In making an arrest, a security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer may use only the degree of force needed to effect submission, and may remove any weapon in the possession of the person arrested.

(e) A security patrolman, shore patrolman, or other duly designated peace officer may, whenever necessary to enter any building, vehicle, aircraft, or vessel to execute a warrant of arrest, force an entry after verbal warning.

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