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which at length united a group of islands, once at some distance from the shore, with each other, and with the continent. The fertile land thus gained became the theatre of many conflicts between the bordering tribes; and the inundations of the river probably gave rise to the AEtolian legend, according to which Hercules had wrestled with the Achelous for the hand of their king's daughter Dejanira. Another fertile plain was similarly formed by the Evenus, the second in size of the AEtolian rivers, which, descending from the side of CEta, parted the ancient districts of Pleuron and Calydon. Acarnania, lying between the lower part of the Achelous, which took its rise in Pindus beyond the limits of Greece, and the Ionian Sea, was, like AEtolia, a mountainous land, but its hills, still clothed with thick forests, are less lofty and rugged. The valleys of both countries contain some extensive lakes, surrounded by rich pastures. Northward of Acarnania, on the Ambracian Gulf, lay the territory of the semibarbarous Amphilochians, and that of Ambracia, which met the southern confines of Epirus. A peninsula, called Leucas, from the white cliff celebrated in ancient fable for the cure of desperate love, once projected from the western coast of Acarnania, but was afterward severed from the mainland by a narrow channel opened by its Corinthian colonists. Southward of it, a cluster of islands, including Ithaca, Cephallenia, and Zacynthus, cover the opposite shores of Acarnania and Peloponnesus. . We observed that the Onean range, which extends over the greater part of the territory of Megara, terminates in the Isthmus; and this is true for a general and distant survey. The Isthmus, however, is not exactly level. The roots of the Onean Mountains are continued along the eastern coast in a line of low cliffs, till they meet another range, which seems to have borne the same name, at the opposite extremity of the Isthmus.* This is an important feature in the face of the country: the Isthmus, at its narrowest part, between the inlets of Schaenus and Lechaum, is only between three and four miles broad; and along this line, hence called the Diolcus, or Draughtway, vessels were often transported from sea to sea, to avoid the delay and danger which attended the circumnavigation of Peloponnesus. Yet it seems not to have been before the Macedonian period that the narrowness of the intervening space suggested the project of uniting the two seas by means of a canal. It was entertained for a time by Demetrius Poliorcetes; but he is said to have been deterred by the reports of his engineers, who were persuaded that the surface of the Corinthian Gulf was so much higher than the Saronic, that a channel cut between them would be useless from the rapidity of the current, and might even endanger the safety of AEgina and the neighbouring isles. Three centuries later, the dictator Caesar formed the same plan, and was perhaps only prevented from accomplishing it by his untimely death. The above-mentioned inequality of the ground would always render this undertaking very laborious and expensive. But the work was of a nature rather to shock than to interest genuine Greek
* Leake, iii., p. 311.
feelings: it seems to have been viewed as an audacious Titanian effort of barbarian power; and when Nero actually began it, having opened the trench with his own hands, the belief of the country people may probably have concurred with the aversion of the praetorian workmen, to raise the rumour of howling spectres, and springs of blood, by which they are said to have been interrupted.* Pliny notices the disastrous fate of all who had conceived the project;f and Pausanias observes, that Alexander had been baffled, and the Cnidians stopped by the Delphic oracle, in similar attempts to do violence to the works of God.1 The face of Peloponnesus presents outlines somewhat more intricate than those of Northern Greece. At first sight, the whole land appears one pile of mountains, which, towards the northwest, where it reaches its greatest height, forms a compact mass, pressing close upon the Gulf of Corinth. On the western coast it recedes farther from the sea; towards the centre, is pierced more and more by little hollows; and on the south and east, is broken by three great gulfs, and the valleys opening into them, which suggested to the ancients the form of a plane leaf, to illustrate that of the peninsula. On closer inspection, the highest summits of this pile, with their connecting ridges, may be observed to form an irregular ring, which separates the central region, Arcadia, from the rest. Thus the range of Artemisium, and Parthenium, which bounds it on the east, is connected, by a chain of highlands running from east to west, with the northern extremity of Taygetus; this, again, is linked with the Lycaean and Nomian Mountains, which form the western frontier, and stretch on towards Pholoe, which meets the great northern barrier, including Olenus, Scollis, Erymanthus, Aroanius, and Cyllene. The territories which skirt the three principal gulfs are likewise enclosed by lofty ranges, ending in bold promontories, and exhibit each a peculiar character. The northern and western sides contain no such prominent landmarks; and the states which possessed them were separated by artificial rather than by natural limits. The mountains which encircle Arcadia are so connected as to afford a passage for its waters only by one opening, the defile (below Caritena, or Brenthe) through which the Alpheus descends to the Western Sea. This is the principal feature which distinguishes the western from the eastern part of Arcadia. On the west, a number of valleys open into the basin of the Alpheus, bringing down tributaries, some of which are considerable rivers, as the Ladon, and the Erymanthus, which flow from the northern mountains; and several ancient towns in this region were built on heights near the confluence of the neighbouring streams: as Cleitor, Psophis, Methydrium, Brenthe, Gortys, and Herala. On the other hand, the eastern portion of Arcadia is intersected by lower ridges, which completely enclose a great number of little plains, so that the streams which fall into them find no visible outlet. Such are the plains of Asea, Pallantium, Tegea, Mantinea, Orchomenus, Alea, Slymphalus, and Pheneus, Hence a great part of the country would be covered with stagnant pools, and * Dio Cass., lxiii., 16.
its air generally infected by noxious vapours, did not the inland rivers and lakes find means of escaping through chasms and subterraneous channels, not uncommon in limestone mountains, but which perhaps nowhere occur so frequently, within an equally narrow compass, as in Arcadia. So the Aroanius, even after Hercules had cut a canal to guide its course into the Lake of Pheneus, would have encroached on the surrounding plain, if it had not been received by a vast gap at the foot of a mountain, through which it descends to rise again, under the more celebrated name of the Ladon. So the waters collected in the plain of Mantinea, at the western foot of Mount Artemisium, gush up out of the sea near the eastern coast. So the Lake of Stymphalus disgorges itself into a chasm, from which it issues again in the plain of Argos as the Erasinus. The Alpheus, above all, is a Protean stream, and acts at home a wonderful prelude to his fabled submarine adventures. According to a general, and apparently a well-grounded belief, it is the same river which, springing from several sources on the western side of Mount Parnon, sinks under ground at the foot of Mount Cresium, and rises again in the plain of Asea, where it is thought to mingle with the principal source of the Eurotas.” In this case, both are once more swallowed by the earth, and, after parting below its surface, reappear—the one in the plain of Mealopolis, the other in the north of Laconia. #. of the Arcadian legends were filled with the mythical history of these natural wonders, and with the changes wrought by the opening or the obstruction of the subterraneous watercourses. The land was a fit theatre for the labours of Hercules; and its peculiar features sufficiently explain the worship of the earthshaking Poseidon, and his struggles with the offended Demeter.t. The mountains were clothed with forests, which abounded with game: the bear was frequently found in them, even in the days of Pausanias; and it is probable that they may have afforded attraction for tribes of hunters or shepherds, while few of the plains were in a state to repay the labours of the husbandmen. In later times, the Arcadians, according to their countryman Polybius, enjoyed a high reputation among the Greeks for hospitality, kindness, and piety; but he ascribes these qualities to the success of their social institutions, in counteracting the natural tendency of a rugged climate, which, while it inured them to toil and hardship, disposed their character to an excess of harshness. The other great divisions of Peloponnesus are Argolis, Laconia, Messenia, Elis, and Achaia. Argolis, when the name is taken in its largest sense, as the part of Peloponnesus which is bounded on the land side by Arcadia, Achaia, and Laconia, comprehends several districts, which, during the period of the independence of Greece, were never united under one government, but were considered, for the purpose of description, as one region by the later geographers. It begins on the western side with the little territory of Sicyon, which, besides some inland valleys, shared with Corinth a small maritime plain, which was proverbial among
* Leak , iii., p. 42, 43. f Paus., viii., 25.
the ancients for its luxuriant fertility. The dominions of Corinth, which also extended beyond the Isthmus, meeting those of Megara a little south of the Scironian Rocks, occupied a considerable portion of Argolis. The two cities, Sicyon and Corinth, were similarly situated, both commanding important passes into the interior of the peninsula.” The hill which was the site of Sicyon, probably in the earliest as well as the latest period of its history, rose near the openings of two ravines or valleys, those of the Helisson and the Asopus. The latter river descended from the plains of Phlius and Ornea. The lofty and precipitous rock, called the Acrocorinthus, on which stood the citadel of Corinth, though, being, commanded by a neighbouring height, it is of no great value for the purposes of modern warfare, was in ancient times an impregnable fortress, and a point of the highest importance, both for the protection of the Isthmus, and of the pass which led up to the plain of Cleonae, and thence to that of Nemea. From the vale of Orneae a rugged road crossed the mountains into the plain of Argos. But the more frequented approach from the north was the narrow, rocky glen of the Tretus, the fabled haunt of the Nemean lion, which branched off to Cleona and Nemea. A third pass, a little to the east of these, called the Contoporeia, or staff-road, was accessible only to footpassengers, f The plain of Argos, which is bounded on three sides by lofty mountains, but open to the sea, is, for Greece, and especially for Peloponnesus, of considerable extent, being ten or twelve miles in length, and four or five in width. But the western side is lower than the eastern, and is watered by a number of streams, in which the upper side is singularly deficient. In very ancient times the lower level was injured by excess of moisture, as it is at this day; and hence, perhaps, Argos, which lay on the western side, notwithstanding its advantageous position and the strength of its citadel, flourished less for a time than Mycenae and Tiryns, which were situate to the east, where the plain is now barren through drought. A great mass of Argive legends owed its origin to these local features, and especially to the marsh of Lerna and the fathomless Alcyonian pool, which bordered the western shore of the gulf, where popular tradition placed one of the monsters overpowered by the strength of Hercules. On the eastern side the Argolic plain was bounded by the insulated rock of Nauplia, at the foot of which lay the port of Argos, not a very commodious shelter even for the ancient shipping; its road appears to be much better adapted to a modern fleet. The peninsula which parted the Saronic from the Argolic Gulf, and which was sometimes called the Acte of Argolis, is almost wholly occupied by a chain of hills, which, in the northern and loftiest part, bore the name of Mount Arachnaum. The territory of Corinth extended along the eastern coast, till, near the harbour called Peiraeus, it met the confines of Epidaurus, which, besides a few small maritime plains, possessed some little inland valleys, one of which was in great part dedicated to the worship of
* Leake, Morea, iii., p. 372. f On these passes, see Leake, iii. p. 328. and ii. p. 415.
Esculapius. Midway between the Epidaurian coast and that of Attica lay the mountainous island of Ægina, with several others of smaller size and note. Southward of Epidaurus, the territory of Trazen stretched round Cape Scyllaum, the southeastern point of the Actá. It included a fertile maritime plain, in front of which was the noble port called Pogon, sheltered by the high rocky peninsula of Methana, and by the islands of Hiera and Calaurea, now united by a narrow sandbank under the name of Poro. West of Cape Scyllaeum, the city of Hermiomé, once the capital of an independent state, occupied a small peninsula facing the islands of Hydrea and Tparenus,” which have become more celebrated in modern times than they are in ancient story. On the western side of the Acté, Asiné, and its little territory intervened between the borders of Hermione and Argos. The range of the Artemisian and Parthenian mountains, which separated Argolis from Arcadia, was only crossed by three natural passes: one, called Trochus, leading into the plain of Tegea; and two, called Prinus and Climar, leading into that of Mantinea. This same range was continued into Laconia, where it took the name of Parnon, and terminated at Cape Malea. The mountains, as they advance towards the south, press more and more abruptly on the eastern coast. Near the opening of the Argolic Gulf, the little district of Cynuria, lying on the frontiers of Argos and Sparta, was once an object of obstinate struggles between the neighbouring states, but during the best part of Grecian history belonged to Laconia. A long valley, running southward to the sea, and the mountains which border it on three sides, composed the territory of Laconia. It was traversed in its whole length by the Eurotas, and bounded by the range of Parnon on the east, and by that of Taygetus on the west. Three different regions may be distinguished in the basin of the Eurotas. That which may be called the Upper Vale, from the source of the river to its junction with the OEnus, a little above the site of Sparta, is narrowly confined between Taygetus and the rugged highlands which connect it with Parnon, and which are probably the district once called Sciritis.f. At Sparta the valley is so contracted by the opposite hills as to leave room for little more than the channel of the Eurotas, but, immediately after, it opens into the great Laconian plain. This plain, however, does not extend without interruption to the sea, but is again contracted into a narrow ravine, by a projection of Taygetus, which separates the Vale of Sparta from the maritime plain of Helos, at the head of the Laconian Gulff. It is to the middle region, the heart of Laconia, that most of the ancient epithets and descriptions relating to the general character of the country properly apply. The Vale of Sparta is Homer's hollow Lacedæmon, which Euripides farther describes as girt with mountains, rugged and difficult of entrance for a hostile power. The epithet hollow fitly rep
resents the aspect of a valley enclosed by the lofty cliffs in which the mountains here abruptly terminate on each side of the Eurotas. When, however, the poet added, that the land contained a large tract of arable, but of laborious tillage, he may have had, not the plain only— though, except near the banks of the river, its soil is said to be poor—but the highlands in view. For both Parnon and Taygetus, more especially towards the north, include many gentle slopes and high valleys, which well repay cultivation. On the western side, in particular, the lofty rocks which bound the Spartan plain support a comparatively level region, which is not much less productive than the vale below. The ridge of Taygetus, beginning in the north from the basin of the Alpheus, which separates it from the opposite chain of Maenalus, rises to its greatest height towards the centre, where it is distinguished by five conspicuous peaks, often capped with snow," and gradually declines towards the south, while its sides become more and more steep and rugged. After sinking to its lowest level, it rises again in the rocky peninsula of Tamarus,t the southernmost extremity of Greece and of Europe. The character which the poet ascribes to Laconia—that it is a country difficult of access to an enemy—is one which most properly belongs to it, and is of great historical importance. On the northern and the eastern sides there are only two natural passes by which the plain of Sparta can be invaded:f the one opening from the upper vale of the Eurotas; the other, from that of the OEnus, in which a road leading from Arcadia by the western side of Parnon, and another crossing the same mountain from Argos through Cynuria, meet at Sellasia. On the west, Taygetus forms an almost insurmountable barrier. It is, indeed, traversed by a track, which, beginning near the head of the Messenian Gulf, enters the plain near Sparta, through a narrow defile, at the foot of lofty and precipitous rocks. But this pass appears to be so difficult, that the simplest precautions must always have been sufficient to secure it. At the mouth of the Laconian Gulf, the island of Cythera, containing excellent harbours, was a valuable appendage, or a formidable neighbour, to Laconia. The chain of Taygetus separates the Laconian Gulf from the Messenian, which runs much higher into the land. It is not, however, the direct northern continuation of this chain that forms the eastern boundary of Messenia; bnt a western branch, which is parted from it by the Arcadian valley of Cromi. At the northern foot of these mountains begins the Messenian plain, which, like the basin of the Eurotas below Sparta, is divided into two distinct districts, by a ridge which crosses nearly its whole width from the eastern side. The upper of these districts, which is separated from Arcadia by a part of the Lycaean chain, and is bounded towards the west by the ridge of Ithomé, the scene of ever-memorable struggles, was the plain of Stenyclerus, a tract not peculiarly rich, but very important for the protection and command of the country, as the principal passes, not only from the north, but from the east and west, fall into it. The lower part of the Messenian plain, which spreads round the head of the gulf, was a region celebrated in poetry and history for its exuberant fertility; sometimes designated by the title of Macaria, or the Blessed, watered by many streams, among the rest by the clear and full Pamisus. It was, no doubt, of this delightful vale that Euripides meant to be understood when, contrasting Messenia with Laconia, he described the excellence of the Messenian soil as too great for words to reach. But Messenia, in general, appears to contain a larger proportion of cultivable ground than Laconia. The plain of Stenyclerus is separated by the plain of Ithomé from another long valley, which stretches to the sea. Farther westward, the country is broken into hill and dale by ranges of no great height, terminated towards the south by that of Temathia, and towards the west by that of AEgaleum, which borders the coast, leaving room only for a few narrow levels at its foot. The climate of Messenia was also extolled by the ancients, in contrast with that of Laconia, as temperately soft; a praise which seems to have been applied to the lower Messenian plain, but which travellers from the north are hardly able to understand. The western coast is marked by the deep Bay of Pylus, which has become celebrated in modern history under the name of Navarino—the only perfect harbour of Peloponnesus; but better adapted for the shelter of a modern fleet than of the ancient vessels. The River Neda, rising in Arcadia, and flowing through a deep and savage glen, at the foot of a range of hills, connected with Ægaleum, and including Mount Eira—a name of kindred glory with Ithomé–was the limit of Messenia to the north, and separated it from Elis, or the Elean territory, according to the largest extent included in later times under that name. But the district immediately north of the Neda was properly called Triphylia. It consisted of a hill country, bounded by the vale of the Alpheus on the east, and linking the range of Lycaeum with that of Pholoe. The Triphylian Hills never recede from the coast so as to leave more than a very narrow strip of maritime plain. One of the most conspicuous features of this, as in general of a great part of the Elean coast, is, that it is lined by a series of lagoons, parted from the sea by narrow sandbanks, and fed partly by land-springs, but more frequently by the waves which break over in stormy weather. It is not easy to determine at what point of the coast Triphylia met the confines of Pisatis, or the territory of Pisa. It seems clear, however, that, during the period of her independence, Pisa possessed the whole of the lower vale of the Alpheus, including the celebrated plain of Olympia, on the right bank of the river, on which the ancient city of Pisa itself stood. North of the Alpheus, Pisatis included a portion of the skirts of Mount Pholoe, and a maritime plain, bounded by a low ridge, ending in Cape Iethys, which separated it from the Elean territory, properly so called. This was the tract known by the name of the Hollow Elis, consisting chiefly of a broad level, extending northward as far as Cape Arazus, and only inter
* Commonly supposed to be Petra or Spezia. But Leake (Morea, ii., p. 465) conceives this to be a mistake, and, also, that the true name of the island was Tricarenus. + Leake, iii., p. 28. 1 Gell, Journey in the Morea, p. 348. Leake, i., p. 100. * In Strabo, viii., p. 366.
* Hence the name Pentedactylon, the ridge of the five fin
gers, or knuckles.
rupted on the seaside by the insulated promontory of Chalomatas. The rich pastures on the banks of the Elean Peneus were celebrated in the earliest legends; and an ancient channel, which is still seen stretching across them to the sea, may be the same into which Hercules was believed to have turned the river, to cleanse the stable of Augeas. A little south of Cape Araxus, the River Larisus was the common boundary of Elis and Achaia. On the western side of Achaia, between Cape Araxus and the straits of the Corinthian Gulf, the high mountains which occupied the confines of Achaia and Arcadia leave some comparatively broad plains open to the sea. But on the Corinthian Gulf they either descend abruptly on the shore, or are separated from it only by narrow levels. These small maritime plains, and the slopes immediately above them, are, however, for the most part, highly fertile; and the soil is peculiarly adapted to some kinds of produce.* They are watered by streams issuing from the heart of the mountains, through deep and narrow gorges, which are the only approaches by which the country can be invaded from the south. The coast is deficient in harbours, which abound on the opposite side of the gulf. When the necessary deduction has been made for the inequalities of its surface, Greece may, perhaps, be properly considered as a land, on the whole, not less rich than beautiful. And it probably had a better claim to this character in the days of its youthful freshness and vigour. Its productions were various as its aspect; and if other regions were more fertile in grain and more favourable to the cultivation of the vine, few surpassed it in the growth of the olive, and of other valuable fruits. Its hills afforded abundant pastures: its waters and forests teemed with life. In the precious metals it was, perhaps fortunately, poor; the silver mines of Laurium were a singular exception; but the Peloponnesian Mountains, especially in Laconia and Argolis, as well as those of Euboea, contained rich veins of iron and copper, as well as precious quarries. The marble of Pentelicus was nearly equalled in fineness by that of the Isle of Paros, and that of Carystus in Euboea. The Grecian woods still excite the admiration of travellers, as they did in the days of Pausanias, by trees of extraordinary size. Even the hills of Attica are said to have been once clothed with forests;f and the present scantiness of its streams may be owing, in a great measure, to the loss of the shades which once sheltered them. Herodotus observes, that, of all countries in the world, Greece enjoyed the most happily-tempered seasons. But it seems difficult to speak generally of the climate of a country, in which each district has its own, determined by an infinite variety of local circumstances. Both in Northern Greece and in Peloponnesus the snow remains long on the higher ridges; and even in Attica the winters are often severe. On the other hand, the heat of the summer is tempered, in exposed situations, by the strong breezes from the northwest (the Etesian winds), which prevail during that season in the Grecian seas; and it is possible that * The currant-vine appears to thrive here better than in any other part of Greece. f Plato, Critias, p. 111. Herodotus may have had their refreshing influence chiefly in view.
Greece lies in a volcanic zone, which extends from the Caspian—if it does not extend still farther east—to the Azores, and from the 45th to the 35th degree of latitude,” the greater part of the world known to the Greeks. Though no traces of volcanic eruptions appear to have been discovered in Greece, history is full of the ef. fects produced there by volcanic agency; and permanent indications of its physical character were scattered over its surface, in the hot springs of Thermopylae, Troezen, AEdepsus, and other places. The sea between Peloponnesus and Crete has been, down to modern times, the scene of surprising changes wrought by the same forces; and not long before the Christian era, a new hill was thrown up on the coast near Troezen, no less suddenly than the islands near Thera were raised out of the sea. Earthquakes, accompanied by the rending of mountains, the sinking of land into the sea, by temporary inundations, and other disasters, have in all ages been familiar to Greece, more especially to Peloponnesus. And hence some attention seems to be due to the numerous legends and traditions which describe convulsions of the same kind as occurring still more frequently, and with still more important consequences, in a period preceding connected history; and which may be thought to point to a state of elemental warfare, which must have subsided before the region which was its theatre could have been fitted for the habitation of man. Such an origin we might be inclined to assign to that class of legends which related to struggles between Poseidon and other deities for the possession of several districts; as his contests with Athené (Minerva) for Athens and Troezen;t with the same goddess, or with Heré (Juno), for Argos, where he was said, according to one account, to have dried up the springs, and, according to another, to have laid the plain under water;3 with Apollo for the isthmus of Corinth.| We might be led to put a like interpretation on the poetical traditions, which spoke of a period when several of the islands between Greece and Asia, as Delos and Anaphe," and even Rhodes,” and Cyprus,tt were yet covered by the sea, out of which they rose at the bidding of some god. And still greater weight may seem to belong to a tradition preserved by the priests of Samothrace, an island famous for its ancient mystic worship, who told of a great convulsion, which had burst the barriers that once separated the Euxine from the Ægean, and had opened the channels of the Bosporus and the Hellespont.ft. It would not be difficult to connect this tradition with a poetical legend, in which Poseidon was said to have struck the land called Lycaonia, or Lyctonia, with his trident, and to have scattered its fragments, as islands, over the sea. 35 But the vast magnitude of the changes described by these legends may
reasonably awaken a suspicion that they were mere fictions, which did not even spring out of any popular belief, but were founded on an opinion which prevailed in the Alexandrian period of Greek literature among the learned, and which was adopted in its full extent by the elder Pliny. ... Thus, we find Callimachus speaking generally of islands as formed of the fragments which Poseidon had severed with his trident from the mountains." Pliny is more explicit: he does not hesitate to deliver, as a notorious fact, that nature had torn Sicily from Italy; Cyprus from Syria; Euboea from Boeotia;+ and, again, Atalanté, Macris, and Ceos,t from Euboea; and that the sea had not only burst through the straits of the Bosporus, the Hellespont, Rhium, and Leucas—though in this last instance the channel was notoriously artificial—but that it had taken the place of the land in the Propontis, and in the gulfs of Corinth and Ambracia. We may, perhaps, most safely conclude, not that these late writers had access to any better information than we now possess on this subject, but that they were less afraid of raising a great pile of conjecture on a very slender basis of facts.
THE Earliest inhabitants of Greece.
All we know about the earliest inhabitants of Greece is derived from the accounts of the Greeks themselves. These accounts relate to a period preceding the introduction of letters, and to races more or less foreign to that which finally gave its name to the country. On such subjects tradition must be either vague and general, or filled with legendary and poetical details. And, therefore, we cannot wonder that, in the present case, our curiosity is in many respects entirely disappointed, and that the information transmitted to us is in part scanty and impersect, in part obscure and confused. If we only listen to the unanimous testimony of the ancients, we find that the whole amount of our knowledge shrinks into a very narrow compass : if we venture beyond this limit, we pass into a boundless field of conjecture, where every step must be made on disputable ground, and all the light we can obtain serves less to guide than to perplexus. There are, however, several questions relating to the original population of Greece which it may be fit to ask, though we cannot hope for a completely satisfactory answer, if for no other purpose, at least to ascertain the extent of our knowledge. This is the main end we propose in the following inquiry; but we shall not scruple to pursue it, even where we are conscious that it cannot lead to any certain result, so far as we see any grounds to determine our opinion on the most interesting points of a dark and intricate subject.
The people whom we call Greeks—the Hellenes—were not, at least under this name, the first inhabitants of Greece. Many names have been recorded of races that preceded them there, which they, in later times, considered as
* H. in Del., 30–36. + N.H., iv., 20.
f N. H., ii., 90.