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mon defense and security and to protect the health and safety of the nation.
"c. The processing and utilization of source and special material flowing in interstate and foreign commerce shall be regulated in order to provide for the common defense and security and to protect the health and safety of the nation.
“d. Source material, special material, production facilities and utilization facilities are affected with the public interest, and regulation by the United States to the production, and utilization of atomic energy and of the facilities used in connection therewith is necessary in the public interest to assure the common defense and national security and to protect the national health and safety.
"e. The necessity for protection against interstate damage occurring from the operation of facilities for the production or utilization of source material or special material places the operation of those facilities in interstate commerce,
"f. Funds of the United States may be provided for the development of atomic energy under conditions which will provide for the common defense and security and promote the general welfare.
"g. It is essential to the common defense and security that title to all special material be in the United States.
"467 Purpose of Act. It is the purpose of this Aet to effeetuate the policies set out in section 1 fat by providing, among others, for the following major programs relating to atomie energy:
"447 A program of assisting and fostering private research and development to encourage seientifie progress;
"427 A program for the control of seientifie and technical information which will permit the dissemination of sueh information te encourage seientifie progress, and for the sharing on a reciprocal basis of information concoming the practical industrial application of atomie energy is seen as effective and enforceable safeguards against its use for destructive purposes can be devised;
"437 A program of federally condueted research and development to assure the Government of adequate seientifie and technical accon plishment;
"447 A program for Government control of the produetion, owner ship, and use of fissionable material to assure the common defense and seeurity and to insure the broadest possible exploitation of the fields and
"46) A program of administration which will be consistent with the foregoing policies and with international arrangements made by the United States, and which will enable the Congress to be eurrently informed se as te take further legislative action is may hereafter be appropriate.
Sec. 8. PURPOSE.-It is the purpose of this Act to effectuate the policies set forth above by providing for
"a. a program of conducting, assisting, and fostering research and development to encourage maximum scientific progress;
"6. a program for the control and dissemination of restricted data so as to encourage scientific progress, subject to appropriate safeguards;
"c. a program for Government control of the possession, use, and production of atomic energy and special material directed so as to
AMEND ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1946
make the maximum contribution to the common defense and seourity and the national welfare;
"d. a program to encourage widespread participation by private enterprise and others in the development and utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes to the maximum extent consistent with the common defense and security and with the national health and safety, and
"e. a program of administration which will be consistent with the foregoing policies and programs and with international arrangements, and which will enable the Congress to be currently informed so as to take further legislative action as may hereafter be appropriate.
"Sec. 11. As used in this Act
"a. The term agreement for cooperation means any agreement made by or in the name of the President with a foreign country covering activities specified in sections 53 (D), 51 (B), and 14 and subject to the provisions of section 123.
". The term "atomic energy' means all forms of energy released in the course of or as a result of nuclear fission or nuclear transformation.
"c. The term 'atomic weapon means any device, exclusive of the means for transporting or propelling it, utilizing atomic energy, the principal purpose of which is for use as or for development of a weapon.
"d. The term 'byproduct material' means any radioactive material (except special material) yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the processes of producing or utilizing special material.
“e. The term 'Commission' means the Atomic Energy Commission.
sf. The term 'common defense and security' means the common defense and security of the United States.
"g. The term "defense information means any information in any category determined by any agency of the United States authorized to classify information, as being information respecting the national defense.
"h. The term 'design means specifications, plans, drawings, blueprints, and all matters involved in the making or formation of such items including the research and development involved therein.
". The term "Government agency means any executive department, commission, independent establishment, corporation wholly or partly owned by the United States of America which is an instrumentality of the United States, or any board, bureau, division, service, office, officer, authority, administration, or other establishment in the executive branch of the Government.
“j. The term 'international arrangement' means any international agreement hereafter approved by the Congress or any treaty during the time such agreement or treaty is in full force and effect but does not include any agreement for cooperation. (From section 8 (a) (1).)
“K. The term Joint Committee means the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy.
". The term 'operator' means any individual who manipulates the controls of a utilization or production facility.
“m. The term 'person' means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group the United States, ef any agoner thoreof, any government other than the United States, any political subdivision of any such government or other entity and any legal successor, representative, agent,
AMEND ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1946
or agency of the foregoing, but shall not inelude the Commission or officers or employees of the Commission in the exereise of duly authorized funetions.
"n. The term 'produce when used in relation to special material, means to manufacture, make, produce, or refine special material, as distinguished from source material as defined in this Act, or tó separate special material from other substances in which such material may be contained or to make or to produce new special material.
"0. The term “production facility' means any equipment or device capable of sueh the production of special material and any important component part especially designed for such equipment or device, as determined by the Commission.
"p. The term 'research and development means theoretical analysis, exploration, and experimentation, and the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes.
"q. The term 'restricted data' means all data concerning design, manufacture or utilization of atomic weapons, the production of special material, or the use of special material in the production of power, but shall not include any data which the Commission from time to time determines pursuant to the provisions of this Act may be published without adversely affecting the common defense and security.
“r. The term 'source material means uranium, thorium, or any other material which is determined by the Commission pursuant to the provisions of this Act to be peeuliarly, essential to the produetion of fissionable materials to be source materials but includes ores only if they contain one or more of the foregoing materials, in such concentration as the Commission may by regulation determine from time to time.
(s. The term 'special material means plutonium, uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, any other material which the Commission, pursuant to the provisions of this Act, determines to be capable of releasing substantial quantities of energy through muelear ehain reaetions of the material special material or any material artificially enriched by any of the foregoing; but does not include source materials, as defined in this Act.
6t. The term “United States', when used in a geographical sense, includes all Territories and possessions of the United States and the Canal Zone.
"u. The term "utilization facility' means any device, except an atomic weapon, capable of making use of special material or peculiarly adapted for making use of atomic energy and any important component part especially designed for such equipment or devices, as determined by the Commission,
"SEC. 21. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION.—There is hereby established an Atomic Energy Commission, which shall be composed of five members. Three members shall constitute a quorum of the Commission. The President shall designate one member as Chairman of the Commission. Each member of the Commission shall be a citizen of the United States. The Chairman shall be the principal officer of the Commission, shall preside at all meetings of the Commission, and may designate any member of the Commission as an Acting Chairman during his absence to act in his place and stead in the performance of his duties under this Act. Action of the Commission shall be determined by a majority vote of the members present, and the Chair. man or Acting Chairman shalí have a vote on all matters before the Commission. The Commission shall have an official seal which shall be judicially noticed.
"SEC. 22. MEMBERS.-Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. In submitting any nomination to the Senate, the President shall set forth the experience and the qualifications of the nominee. The term of office of each member of the Commission taking office prior to June 30, 1950, shall expire at midnight on June 30, 1950. The term of office of each member of the Commission taking office after June 30, 1950, shall be five years, except that (A) the terms of office of the members first taking office after June 30, 1950, shall expire, as designated by the President at the time of the appointment, one at the end of one year, one at the end of two years, one at the end of three years, one at the end of four years, and one at the end of five years, after June 30, 1950; and (B) any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed, shall be appointed for the remainder of such term. Any member of the Commission may be removed by the President for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office. Each member, except the Chairman, shall receive compensation at the rate of $18,000 per annum; and the Chairman shall receive compensation at the rate of $20,000 per annum. No member of the Commission shall engage in any other business, vocation, or employment than that of serving as a member of the Commission. No member of the Commission shall be appointed until he has filed with the Joint Committee a complete and accurate record of all financial interests he may have in any company engaging in the manufacture or in the operation of production or utilization facilities or in the production or utilization of special materials or in the discovery or processing of source materiał. No person shall be employed by the Commission until he has filed with the Commission a complete and accurate record of all financial interests he may have in any company engaging in the manufacture or in the operation of utilization facilities or in the production or utilization of special material or in the discovery or processing of source material. All such