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comes within their charge. The number of They, in their turn, served to drill the men bannermen in Peking, under pay, is estimated, forming the force. Beside these foreign guns, inclusive of the before mentioned divisions, at a brigade of one thousand men use the obsolete eighty thousand men, as it is the policy of the swivel -gun, fired from a bench, or tripod, and reigning dynasty to exercise a kind of espion- carrying a ball weighing from four ounces to a age over the various high officials at the pro- pound. vincial capitals. There is a Tartar General A camp is in existence at Hai Tien, in the commanding the garrison, which consists of vicinity of the summer palace of Yuen Ming bannermen and their families. Special quar- | Yuen, composed as follows: Three battalions of ters are assigned to them, to isolate them, as it infantry, each eight hundred and seventy-five were, from the Chinese inhabitants; but, de- men, armed with Remington rifles; two thouspite the precautions taken to insure their loy- sand cavalry; one battery of field artillery of alty and purity of descent, they have mixed and four twelve-pound guns, and one howitzer batintermarried among the citizens, and adopted tery of four guns. These troops, which are all the Chinese language, manners, and customs. foreign drilled, are composed of native Chinese As soldiers these men have become useless, alone. They are kept as a sort of reserve in and their maintenance costs the Government the event of an attack on the capital. large sums of money. They are seldom called The available force for the defense of Peking upon to drill, either at Peking, or the out- numbers: stations. Receiving but small pay, they are permitted to engage in any occupation or traffic. Infantry. Their allowance from the throne is paid to them



1,750 in rice or grain, by a system of orders upon the

Artillery (with 32 guns).
Bai, nermen.

imperial granaries, which orders they sell to
the highest bidder. The arms in use among


.96,750 the banner force are swords, bows and arrows, spears, and a few muzzle-loading rifles.

Within eighty miles from Peking, is the city The regular army of the capital consists of of Tientsin, the residence of the Viceroy, Li natives of the provinces of Chihli and Shan- Hung Chang, the joint commander-in-chief of tung. The infantry is constituted as follows: the Chinese army. The troops at Tientsin are Four battalions of eight hundred and seventy- a large body, and may be said to be mainly comfive men and officers, each armed with muzzle- posed of men from Anhwei, a province of Cenloading rifles of Russian manufacture (these tral China, the home of the Viceroy. With few battalions are well acquainted with European exceptions the whole of the officers commandtactics, each man having received instruction ing the force are natives of this province. Owat Tientsin before proceeding to join the force); ing to this fact, the Central Government at Peone battalion, or cadet corps, under the au- king have some reason to fear a popularémeute in thority of the Hei wu fu, or Court of the Ha- favor of Li, and, as a rule, adhere to any decisrem (it is composed of five hundred young ion or conform to any suggestion he may make. men, and their arms are bows, arrows, and The garrison is quartered in and around the spears); three battalions of eight hundred city, in camps surrounded by high walls, and men each, mostly armed with matchlocks, strongly fortified. At each angle of the structswords, and shields. The Prince of Chun, ure, Armstrong, Krupp, and Vavasseur guns are father of the present Emperor, has a body- mounted. Their size varies from twelve to guard of two hundred men, armed with various forty-pounders. At the more exposed posiChinese weapons.

tions, such as over the gates, Gatling guns and The cavalry are mounted upon stout, wiry mitrailleuses are to be found. Within the inMongolian ponies, supplied to them from the closures there are mud huts built for the solimperial stud grounds. There are also five diers, and wooden buildings for the officers. divisions of one thousand men each, armed The most rigid discipline prevails. Opium with Enfield carbines, Chassepôts, and spears. smoking is punished, on the second offense, by

The artillery consists of twenty-four field cutting off an ear; on the third offense, the reguns, nine and twelve-pounders (two horses maining ear, and should the person be detected and six men being attached to each gun; the a fourth time, he suffers the death penalty. guns are mostly brass, smooth-bore, of Russian Women are forbidden to enter the camp, and manufacture), and six Armstrong breech-load- gambling is also prohibited. The drill of iners. The necessary instruction for working the fantry and artillery is upon the German method guns was given to the sergeants attached to throughout. The cavalry force still adheres to each gun at Tientsin, by an English instructor. the old Chinese style, intermixed with a little





of the English method, learned by a few of the nese army are only approximate, as each viceofficers some years back. The total force at roy has the immediate control of the soldiers Tientsin is as follows:

in his province, and a larger number exists on

paper than is actually available. The actual Infantry.

• 35,000

command, as to the movements of the men, is Artillery.

8,000 Cavalry.

vested in the Tsung Ping and the Titu, or

the commander-in-chief and brigadier-general Total...


of each province. Each battalion carries a

number of triangular flags bearing the surname The arms used by the infantry are of various

of the general in command of the division, so patterns-Enfield muzzle-loaders, Snider, Win

that a major portion of the force, when seen on chester, Remington, Chassepôt, needle-guns review or escort duty, is turned into flag-bear(German pattern), Albini, and a few repeating rifles. The artillery are armed with Armstrong, vailing, numberless grievances have to be heard,

ers. Owing to the lax system of payment preKrupp, Bochüm (Broadwell's principle), and Vavasseur nine and twelve-pounder field-guns. and frequent.

and risings among the soldiers are numerous Ten batteries of Gatling guns and French mi

The real standing army of China, in which trailleuses serve for this arm of the service.

is comprised the soldiery of the treaty ports, The cavalry are armed with Sharp's repeating provincial capitals, customs barriers, and guards carbines and lances. At a distance of twenty-five miles from Tien Luh Ying or green banner division. They

at the high officials yamens, are known as the tsin, the Viceroy caused a large walled mili

render purely nominal service, leading a lazy tary city to be erected, in 1876, upon the banks life, and engage, under the cognizance of their of the Peiho. The occupants of this place commanders, in trade. Should the general number:

commanding, or the viceroy, order an inspecInfantry.

tion, they are drummed together to pass musArtillery.

ter. The viceroys and officials have of late Total.....

years made extensive purchases of foreign ..55,000

breech - loading arms and artillery of modern They are in every respect similar to the Tien

construction. It may be safely asserted that tsin garrison, both as regards discipline and nearly every pattern of rifle is in the hands of

Since the year 1865, European drill in the Chinese troops; but by far the greater porstructors, of various nationalities, have been

tion of the army have the Remington rifle. Owengaged in teaching the Chinese foreign tac- ing to its simplicity, accuracy and simple mechtics; and those men who showed in any way a anism, it is the favorite arm. The artisans proficiency in their attainments were dispatch

at the arsenal near Shanghai and Tientsin turn ed to various points, where garrisons existed, out, by the aid of machinery, about five thouto impart the knowledge acquired. The Ger

sand rifles weekly. The various gunmakers of man successes in 1870 led the Viceroy, Li, to Europe and the United States have agents in adopt the tactics then used by the Prussian China, who are pressing the respective qualifiarmy. A sub- lieutenant in the German army,

cations of the rifles in their charge upon the who was well versed both in infantry and artil

officials. Winchester, Sharp, Albini, Snider, lery drill, was engaged. After a service of ten Chassepôt, and German rifles may be seen in years, during which time he made the Chinese the service, but the Remington has the lead in acquainted with the science of artillery and point of the number in use. The ships comwith field duties, he has returned to Europe.

prising the Shanghai and Foochow squadrons Traveling southward, we come to the treaty

are all armed with this gun. port of Chefoo. Here, again, a Prussian officer

The artillery in use is also of a mixed kind; is occupied in drilling the soldiery. The num

some of the batteries being composed of brass ber of men of all branches of the service at this smooth-bores, and others of Armstrong muzzle post is:

and breech-loaders, and a few Krupp and Gat

ling guns. There are no cavalry stations at Infantry...

15,000 the southern ports whatever. The officers of Artillery.

the army are all mounted, and carry the short Total...

curved sword as a defensive weapon. During

actual warfare the commanding officers generAt nearly every treaty port, a garrison of for ally are in the rear of the army. eign-drilled troops is maintained. The figures In case of service proving too arduous, or the given herewith as to the actual state of the Chi- ' number of men being insufficient to repress







any brigandage or insurrection, there are in tionalities, are in the employ of the imperial the empire a number of disbanded soldiers. customs, whose services are available at a short Their services were in requisition during the notice. The capabilities of the Chinese as to late rebellion, and they gain a livelihood by their soldierly qualities may be summed up hanging around the mandarins' residences. | briefly. The history of Colonel Gordon's small These soldiers are called Chwang Yung, or force during the Taiping rebellion plainly shows braves. When no longer required they are that if they are properly armed, trained, and disbanded. These gentlemen are the princi- led by officers enjoying their confidence, they pal actors in any agitation against foreigners, furnish material for admirable soldiers. Fruand are to be hired for any purpose whatever. gal and temperate, hardy and enduring, they The best men for soldiers that China can boast undergo hardships and privations without comof are natives of the province of Hunan, Ho-plaint. With men like Gordon and Giquel to nan, and Anhwei. They form the major por- lead and spur them on, they make formidable tion of the army of the north-west. Averag- soldiers. The total of the Chinese army may ing five feet in height, they are strongly-built, be put down as follows: and are capable of bearing great fatigue and

Infantry. hardships. These men have always received

320,000 Infantry in the North-west.

150,000 great attention in Chinese military circles, as


80,000 they are considered very brave. As to the Cavalry in the North-west.. qualifications of the officers of the army, the Artillery.. old-fashioned trials of strength, sword and Artillery in the North-west.. spear exercise, are still in vogue in the service;


.600,000 but a number of young men who have received, and are receiving, instruction in Germany, This strength, by calling out the braves, can France, and England, and who have also profit- be at any time brought to a total of one million ed by the lessons of instructors in China, have The army of the north-west is now rechanged, and will doubtless improve and re- ceiving reinforcements from the south, and a generate the tactics of the army.

large number of troops will be massed upon Turning to the army in Kansuh and North the Mongolian frontier to repel any attack made west China, under the command of Tso Tsung in that quarter. In addition to the above force Tang, we find, according to the latest advices, there are upon the inland waters of the empire that it consists of about one hundred and eighty about two thousand small sailing gunboats, each thousand men-one hundred and fifty thousand armed with one gun and manned by twenty-five infantry, twenty thousand cavalry, and ten thou- or thirty men. Their discipline is lax, but their sand artillery. The best guns are in use in services might possibly be available in war time. Kansuh. Krupp mountain guns, siege guns of They are principally employed in the supprestwenty and forty-pounders, and Gatling guns sion of smuggling, in conveying native officials are to be found. Here, again, the infantry are to and fro, and convoying powder and warlike armed with Remington and Martini - Peabody stores into the interior. Their locomotion is rifles, and the cavalry with Remington revolv- effected by a large striped blue and white sail, ers and Sharp's carbines. The munitions of and also twelve or more oars, or long sweeps. war are in great quantities, and supplies to the The pay of these men is very small, being at force are constantly on the road from Shanghai, the rate of two or three dollars a month, but Nanking, and Tientsin arsenals. This body this is eked out by making the most out of any of men is in a good state of efficiency. The unfortunate that comes into their clutches. At only drawback to warfare in China rests on the every lekin (inland-tax) station, two or more of vile roads, want of bridges, and slow means of the boats are to be found, to aid the officer in transport; and this state of affairs is extremely charge in his collection. apparent in North-west China, where mountain What the ultimate position, or personnel, of passes and gorges are numerous. Should Rus- the Chinese army may be in the future, if drillsia attack the Chinese in this quarter she willed by such men as Colonel Gordon, it is diffifind her work difficult. The passes can be de- cult to surmise; but there is no doubt of the fended by good men to the last extremity. fact that, until a uniform method of arming,

The number of foreigners engaged in China drilling, and general equipment is established consists of one German at Chesoo, one German throughout the empire, in lieu of the present at Shanghai, one Frenchman in the North-west, system, which permits each viceroy to adopt two Englishmen, one at present traveling (Gen- his own ideas of military matters, the Chinese eral Mesney), and one at Formosa; but a large army, taken as a whole, cannot cope with Eunumber of old officers, and men of various na


ropean force.


This I saw once, or dreamed it in a dream:
A child had strayed from out the palace gate
Far up a meadow slope, led on and on
By butterflies, or floating thistle-down,
Till now he played close on a precipice,
And stretched to reach the rolling globes of down
As they sailed out across the dizzy gorge.
A laggard saw him from the distant road,
And thought, “No use for me to go-too late:
Had I but seen him ere he reached the verge,
Or if it had been yesterday- just there
I stood, and flew my goshawk: 'tis too late.”
He twirled his scarf, sighed, hummed a foolish tune,
And turned, pitying himself without a chance
For great emprise, and idled on his way.
A whole hour passed: the daughter of the king
Suddenly saw the boy, still at his play,
(For every blue-eyed flower had smiled its best,
And beckoned, nodding to him, to hold him back),
And few and saved him, clasped upon her heart.

And this I saw, or dreamed it in a dream :
There spread a cloud of dust along a plain;
And underneath the cloud, or in it, raged
A furious battle, and men yelled, and swords
Shocked upon swords and shields. A prince's banner
Wavered, then staggered backward, hemmed by foes.
A craven hung along the battle's edge,
And thought, “Had I a sword of keener steel —
That blue blade that the king's son bears, — but this
Blunt thing - !” he snapt and flung it from his hand,
And lowering crept away and left the field.
Then came the king's son, wounded, sore bestead,
And weaponless, and saw the broken sword,
And ran and snatched it, and with battle-shout
Lifted afresh he hewed his enemy down,
And saved a great cause that heroic day.




penetrable, if due precaution is exercised. It

is approached by a passage-way some thirty It has already been stated that the jail is in feet wide, between the court-house and the St. the rear of the court-house. The south wall is a James Hotel. On the north side of the courtfew feet farther south than the line of the cor- house is a narrower passage. Running out in responding wall of the court-house. This is the a straight line from the rear wall of the courtstrongest county prison in the State, and is so house to a fence inclosing the back-yard of the situated as to be rendered a fortress almost im- | hotel, is a wooden wall, close planked and about twelve feet high. It extends in a similar man- thieving, or rape are assigned to the Little ner northward from the court-house, thus bar- Tank. The four cells in this are in two rows, ring on both sides the only approaches there back to back, the rows being separated by a are to the jail. Behind this wall is the outer narrow passage (for ventilation and drainage), yard of the jail. In the wall north of the court strongly grated above and at either end. The house is a large double door, seldom opened. cells are eight feet by nine, seven and a half The approach to it is rarely used. The wall on feet high, and are covered with heavy granite the south (next the hotel) has two doors--one, slabs. In the rear wall of each is a small gratrather small, for persons, and the other for wag- ing, to admit air. The doors are made of heavy ons. The prisoners are never admitted into plate - iron, doubled and securely riveted. In the outer yard, for the wall inclosing it could the upper part of each door is a small wicket, not have been intended to afford security of any that closes with an iron shutter opening outkind, unless to prevent the passing of anything ward and barred on the exterior. Sometimes through the grated windows of the jail by per- a prisoner is favored by being allowed to atsons outside.

tach a string to this shutter, that he may close The inner court of the jail, in which the kitch- it at his will. When once closed, he can not en and pump are situated, and where the pris- open it. Surrounding the group of cells is a oners are frequently admitted to find sunlight, wide passage. Prisoners are generally permitis upon the north side of the jail, and is sur-ted to exercise in this area, but are always lockrounded by a high brick wall. The eastern ed in their cells at five o'clock in the afternoon, wall of this court faces the rear of the court- when supper is served. house, and the western wall forms one of the Each Tank has a door communicating with four sides of the Big Tank.

the jailer's office. These doors are secured by There are four entrances to the jail confines a heavy grating that opens inward upon the —the main entrance, through a hall that leads Tank, and a solid plate-iron door that opens to the jailer's office; a door on the south side, into the office. Neither Tank has a window. opening into the jailer's apartments; a heavy In the arrangement of this costly and secure iron door that communicates between the inner prison there is a single defect-another door court and the outer yard; and another that is in the Little Tank, a superfluous and unnecesnever used, and the existence of which is known sary thing. This is the door that is never used. to but few. This door fills an important part The wooden wall that blocks the entrance to in this history.

the outer yard of the jail is but a portion of a Criminals held for minor offenses, and wom- wall that runs almost entirely around the jail, en, and insane persons awaiting examination Tanks, and court, the only discontinuation of it by the Commission of Lunacy, are placed in being the court-house wall. the large, well aired compartments in the sec- The court-house and jail run back in the diond and third stories. Those charged with or rection of Market Street about half the depth found guilty of graver crimes are placed in one of the block. The wooden wall behind the jail or the other of the two divisions of the Tank. forms the rear inclosing fence of several yards, This latter is a prison of remarkable strength. belonging to cottages facing on Market Street. It is divided into two compartments—the Little One more fact must be mentioned as showTank and the Big Tank-separated from each ing the absurdity of an attack upon the jail. other by a wall about thirty feet high, that | The court - house is two stories in hight. To reaches a roof lighted through corrugated glass each story there are eight windows looking set in iron. The walls surrounding the whole down upon the approaches to the jail. These are made of brick, and are thick and massive. windows are provided with iron shutters. Four Imbedded in the center of the walls, and run- men, armed with rifles, could have been staning their entire length and hight, is a network tioned at each of the thirty-two windows. Furof heavy iron bars, crossed and riveted. It thermore, the windows of the St. James Hotel would require a persistent bombardment with could have been similarly filled with men; and artillery to demolish such a wall; for, if the in addition to all this, armed defenders could brick should be thrown down, the iron would have occupied the windows of the jail that stand.

peered over the wall, and could have swarmed Both the Little Tank and the Big Tank are behind the parapet of the jail. arranged on the same plan. The former con- Taking all these facts into consideration, it tains four cells, and the latter, fifteen. The de- is not idle to assert that it would have required scription of one will apply to the other, with the extraordinary strength and determination to exception of this difference in the number of make the jail disgorge in open fight. cells. Those under charge of murder, horse- But there was another way of doing it.


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