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9 But foolish questions 9 But the frivolous questions proand genealogies and posed by the Judaizers, and the gestrifes and fightings about nealogies by which they pretend to the law ? resist ; for they prove individuals rightly descended are unprofitable and false. from Abraham, and their s!rifes and (See 1 Tim. vi. 4. 2 Tim. fightings about the law, resist ; for ii. 14. 16. 23.)

they are unprofitable and destitute of

foundation. 10 An heretical man? 10 An heretical teacher, who, after after a first and second a first and second admonition, contiadmonition ? reject. 3 nues in his evil courses, cast out of

the church, and have no farther communication with him, because he is irreclaimable.

the breaking of the peace of the church. But, as the apostle saith, the heretic sinneth being self condemned, I rather think heresy, is such an error in opinion as results from pravity in the will. For, if a person after prayer and sincere examination, embraces or rejects opinions in religion, according as they appear to him to be true or false, without being biassed by vicious inclinations, can he be blamed, even although he should maintain these opi. nions with firmness, and suffer for them?

2. After a first and second admonition. Some copies want the words, and second. But the best and greatest number of MSS. together with the Syriac and Vulgate versions, have these words. See Mill in loc. Nou stil, denotes an admonition which puts a right mind into the person admonished. Titus was not to reject an heretic, till he had tried by a first and second admonition to bring him to repentance, and on trial found him incorrigible.

3. Reject. II epeat8, Cast him out of the church. In this manner, the apostle himself treated Hymeneus and Alexander, 1 Tim. i. 20. By this apostolical Canon, an obstinate heretic, after a first and second admonition without effect, is be cast out of the church, to prevent the faithful from being led astray by his false doctrines and vicious example.---This method of treating heretics is worthy of attention. For, as Benson observes, the Spirit of God doth not order heretics to be banished and their goods confiscated, far less doth he order tiem to be imprisoned, tortured, and burnt, if they will not retract their errors. He doth not even give allowance to rail at, or speak evil of them. Such methods of treating heretics, never proceeded from the college of the apostles, but from the synagogue of Satan. To disown a wicked man'as a brother Christian, and to avoid all familiar society with him, and to cast him out of the church by a public sentence of excommunication, is what the church, and every society hath a right to do, agreeably to our Lord's rule, Matth. xviii. 15. 17. and is all that should be done in such a case. See 2 Thess, üi. 14. note 2.

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11 Knowing that he 11 Eιδως ότι εξερραπτάι that is such is subverted, ο τοιουτος, και αμαρτάνει, and sinneth, being con

ων αυτοκατακριτος. demned of himself.

12 When I shall send 12 Οταν πεμψω Αρτεμαν Artemas unto thee, or Ty- προς σε η Τυχικον, σπουδαchicus, be diligent to come

σον ελθειν προς με εις Νιunto me to Nicopolis ; for

κοολιν εχει γαρ κεκριχα I have determined there to winter. .

παραχειμασαι. 13 Bring Zenas the 13 Ζηναν τον νομικών και lawyer and Apollos on Απολλω σπουδαιως προπεμtheir journey diligently, ψον, ίνα μηδεν αυτοις λειthat nothing be wanting unto them. 14 And let our's also

14 Μανδανείωσαν δε και learn to maintain good οι ημετεροι καλων έργων works for necessary uses, προιςασθαι εις τας εναγκαιthat they be not unfruit

ας χρειας, ίνα μη ωσιν ακαρful.



Ver. 11.-1. Knowing that such a person is perverted. Estius says, the word εξερραπται is commonly applied to buildings, and signifies to be over turned from the foundation. According to others, it signifies to be turned out of the way. Wherefore, when it is said of an heretic that he is perverted, the meaning is, that he is so utterly depraved, that there is no hope of his amendment.

2. Being self condemned. Doddridge, who thinks heresy consists in denying the fundamental doctrines of the gospel, interprets self condemned, of the heretic's furnishing by his actions matter of condemnation against him. self; just as some are said to condemn others, Matt. xii. 41, 42. Heb. xi. 7. who afford matter for condemning them.-Grotius, Barlow, Hammond, Hallet, Benson, &c. by the heretic's condemning himself, understand his cut. ting himself off from the church by separation or otherwise ; a punishment which the church inflicts on its faulty, or unsound members.— I think this mark of an heretic that he is self-condemned, implieth that an heretic is one who teacheth erroneous doctrines knowing them to be erroneous. For as Whitby justly observes, no man who acts according to his judgment, how erroneous soever it may be, is self-condemned by that action.

Ver. 12.–1. When I shall send Artemas to thee, or Tychicus. Tychicus is often mentioned in St. Paul's epistles. But of Artemas we know nothing: only from this passage it appears, that he was a faithful and able teacher, and fit to supply Titus's place in Crete.



11 Knowing that such a 11 Knowing that such a teacher is person is perverted, and utterly depraved: and in teaching sinneth, being self con- false doctrine from worldly motives, demned.

sinneth, being self-condemned. 12 When I shall send 12 When I shall send either ArteArtemas to thee, or Ty- mas to thee or Tychicus, to supply chicus,? Make haste to thy place in Crete, leave the come to me at Nicopolis, churches there to his management, for I have determined to and as speedily as possible come to me winter there.

at Nicopolis, for there I have deter

mined to winter. 13 Diligently help for- 13 Diligently supply Zenas the ward on their journey lawyer and Apollos (See Acts xviii. Zenas the lawyer,1 and 24.–28.) with whatever is necessary Apollos, that nothing may for their journey, that in coming to be wanting to them. me, nothing, which they need, may

be wanting to them. 14 And let ours also 14 And, that the expense neceslearn to practise honest sary to such offices may be defraytrades, for necessary uses, ed, Let our disciples in Crete also that they may not be un- learn to follow honest trades for supfruitful.

plying what is necessary to themselves, and that they may not be un

fruitful in good offices to others. 2. Come to me at Nicopolis. There were cities of this name in Macedonia on the confines of Thrace, and in Epirus, and Pontus. The one in Epirus, was built opposite to Actium, and named Nicopolis, or the city of victory, in memory of the victory which Augustus obtained over Anthony and Cleopatra. L'Enfant is of opinion that this is the Nicopolis of which the apostle speaks: And that while he wintered there, he visited his disciples in Illyricum, Rom. xv. 19. Other commentators think the apostle meant Nicopolis in Macedonia, situated near mount Hæmus on the confines of Thrace. But without settling that point, I observe that the apostle's determination to winter in Nicopolis, wherever it was, shews that he was at liberty when he wrote this epistle ; consequently that it was written in the interval between his first and second imprisonments.

Ver. 13.-1. Zenas tbe lawyer, and Apollos. Zenas is mentioned in this passage only. He is called Nouixov, the lawyer, which Jerome interprets, Legis Doctorem, a teacher of the law, because he had formerly been of that profession among the Jews. Benson also is of the same opinion : and quotes Matt. xxii. 35. where one of that profession is called vouixos. But others think Zenas was a Roman lawyer.—It would seem that Zenas and Apollos were to pass through Crele, either in their way to the apostle, or to some place whither he had sent them. He therefore desired Titus to help them VOL. IV.


15 All that are with me 15 Ασσαζονται σε δι μετ' salute thee. Greet them εμου παντες.

Ασσασαι τους that love us in the faith.

φιλουντας μας εν πιςει. be . Amen. .


forward on their journey, by supplying them with such necessaries as they were in want of, that they might not be retarded.

Ver. 15.-1. Salute them wbo love us in faith. By this description of the persons in Crete to be saluted in his name, the apostle expressly excluded the Judaizing teachers, on whom he put that mark of disrespect, to make them sensible how much he disapproved of their conduct.

15 All who are with me salute thee. Salute them who love us in the faith.' Grace be with all of you.? Amen.

15 All my fellow-labourers who are with me in Colosse, wish thee health. Present my good wishes to them in Crete, who shew their love to me by maintaining the true faith of Christ. The favour and blessing of God be with all of you. Amen.

2. Grace be with all of you. By the expression all of you, the apostle intimated that this epistle was intended, not for Titus alone, but for the churches in Crete ; the members of which were to be taught the things in this letter, and to be exhorted and even reproved, agreeably to the directions contained in it.


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