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Mr. VAN DEERLIN. It has been testified you had 55,000 telephone calls thus far. How many telephone calls does Army recruiting normally get in a comparable period of time, say a month or 6 weeks?
Mr. KESTER. Nothing of that magnitude, Mr. Van Deerlin, The calls to local recruiters would be broken down as to each local recruiting station and we don't have that statistic. I am talking about calls coming into the central answering service which are then referred to local recruiters. We have noted a sharp build-up in the number of calls as the test has gone along. The intensity of the showing of messages has increased and the calls have tended to follow that pattern.
Mr. Van DEERLIN. How have you done on persuading young men to raise their right hand and sign the paper as a result of the campaign thus far?
Mr. KESTER. I would hate to say anything definitive at this point. The number of enlistments in the combat arms for March approximately doubled. I don't want to draw any big conclusions from that because it was a small number to start with.
Mr. Van DEERLIN. The number of voluntary enlistments for the month of March has approximately doubled ?
Mr. KESTER. In the combat arms of the Army, infantry, armor, and artillery, and this is the area of enlistments the Army is particularly concerned with.
Overall, we don't have a significant increase in enlistments at this time, but we have attacked it in phases. More of the ads appear later in the year and we expect young men also to enlist when they get out of high school in May and June and we targeted on these young men most, and March and April tend to be the poorer enlistment months.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. This is a more restrictive area of enlistment you referred to—"combat arms." What is the average monthly enlistment for this type of service as compared with overall Army enlistments?
Mr. KESTER. It would help if I gave you figures. We have about 300. We have about 300 people enlisting monthly in combat arms as against a requirement of about 6,500, so you see we have a tremendous shortage of men who volunteer for skills in the infantry, armor, and artillery. This amounts on an annual basis to about 75,000 or 80,000 of the approximately 320,000 young men we need.
In fiscal 1971, the current fiscal year coming to a close, we expect to draft 170,000 men and enlist 150,000 overall, so you see we have more than 50 percent of enlisted accessions being drafted into the Army right now.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Is it true that your overall voluntary enlistment figures for the first full month under this program which began March 1 or 2—that is, for March 1971-was actually below the comparable months for 1970 and below the month of February 1971 ?
Mr. KESTER. Well, you can't do that.
Mr. WOLLSTADT. I don't think it is the case according to information I have.
This is on all of the services?
Mr. KESTER. The Army, I believe, was slightly below the 1970 figure. However, the enlistment rate tends to be a function in part of the
draft call and the draft call was lower in 1971 than it was in 1970, so when you factor that out I think you come out with very little statistically significant variation.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. In any event, you suggested there may be an ongoing benefit here. I assume a raise in pay, which the House already has passed, doubling the pay for recruits, might be almost as appealing as the opportunity to drag race a tank.
What efforts were made before you undertook this "paid" campaign to obtain better free time on the air?
How were your figures on page 8 compiled, showing the relative success of the Air Force and Navy in getting free time on the air as compared with the Army and Marine Corps, which seemed to have done worse than the Army?
Mr. WOLLSTADT. We got figures from each of the services and assembled them and made a comparison.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Did the stations give you a statement of what is carried and you totaled it up?
Mr. WOLLSTADT. I think that is the way it worked. Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Well, does anybody know how it works? General Kidd. In the case of the Air Force, we have a contract with an organization called Broadcast Advertisers Reports, Inc., and they run surveys for us, listening surveys, checking the number of spot announcements, particularly Air Force spot announcements. This way we can get a trend or whether the number of announcements on free time are increasing or decreasing and can extrapolate from these reports and convert into dollars an estimation of the value of free radio and TV time.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. What effort was made to get a step-up in quality of the time that you were given on television or radio?
Mr. WOLLSTADT. I believe each of the services has made that effort on a continuing basis and whether there is any special effort made just prior to this, I don't know. I don't know of any special campaign that was conducted right at this time.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Because, as you know, some licensees like Ward Quaal of the WGN chain in Chicago, Mr. McGannon of the Westinghouse chain, and others elsewhere, express resentment at being asked to accept money for something they said they had been giving you. It occurs to me, with an attitude like that on the part of licensees, a prodigious effort-far less costly than this campaign-might have been undertaken to persuade the licensees to do better by the Army. Was there such an effort ?
Mr. KESTER. There was no crash effort before the test began to do this. But I think, sir, that we have seen that the loss of public service time now has been negligible. You mentioned WGN and we had been told that WGN had been running eight public service announcements for all of the Armed Forces per month. Losing that amount of public service time is not really a significant loss when we are talking about a problem of this magnitude.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Did you make any contact with the Advertising Council, with the hope of getting a concentrated campaign through the Ad Council ?
Mr. KESTER. We have talked to the Advertising Council periodically about this. I don't mean to criticize the broadcasters on the subject because there are many, many claimants for the limited amount of public service time that is available. We realize there are other good causes which they have to pay attention to as well as Army recruiting
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. But one of the services the Advertising Council performs is to take a worthy program and zero in on 1 or 2 months with a campaign, at which time they assure the licensee they are not going to be bothering them with any other campaign. This comes in professional form, and it gets them some remarkably good time.
Mr. WOLLSTADT. As far as I know, there were no special contacts with the Advertising Council preceding this test.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Have you found radio to be as unavailable to you as television in good time? Obviously, there is not the same prime time consideration in radio; it's called "driving time.” But what prompted you to spend more than $5 million on radio alone?
Mr. KESTER. There is a prime time in radio. It is a different prime time than in television. We put more money into radio because we thought that for this particular audience radio might be more effective than reaching them by television.
We don't know which is the more effective medium. We will be evaluating this to find out whether radio is a better buy than television. Some of the indications we have today indicate that perhaps television gets a bigger response than radio.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Do you get help from the Radio Advertising Bureau to help you get to these stations, whose rate of sales has been awfully low for the last year or two, and who might have found extra time available for you?
Mr. KESTER. We find the stations that have the time available tend to be the stations which have not sold all of their advertising time. The reason they have not sold it is that they tend to have the smaller audience. To some extent, in this business, you get what you pay for, I think. We find in television 4 percent of the Army's ads broadcast as public service announcements appeared in prime time and 96 percent were in off-hours.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Is it your belief there is any radio station in the country today that is completely sold out?
Mr. KESTER. I couldn't address it. I don't know that much about radio marketing.
The point is whether we can get a campaign that we can control and where you have some assurance of reaching your audience.
Mr. MACDONALD. I have one question.
You say you don't know much about radio. Are you in charge of the program for the services?
Mr. WOLLSTADT. Mr. Kester is in charge for Army.
Mr. KESTER. I don't know enough about the radio business to tell you whether every radio station in the country has sold out all of its time. I think it obviously must be "No."
Mr. MACDONALD. What is your background on radio?
Mr. KESTER. I am an attorney, sir.'
Mr. KESTER. Yes, sir. We rely for advice in matters of this sort on those professionally skilled in the area and for that reason the Army for years has retained an advertising agency to advise us on these matters. We see no reason at this point to question their judgment in this area.
Mr. MACDONALD. Thank you.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Was the placement schedule on radio and television for this project left entirely to the advertising agency that you have retained ?
Mr. KESTER. Yes, sir. We didn't try to second-guess them on that. That is something we considered beyond our competence.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. You have not participated in the selection of stations for this schedule of advertising !
Mr. KESTER. Not at all.
Mr. Van DEERLIN. Thank you. Now, what ground rules were established to accompany the placement of advertising ? Have you set any standards regarding agencies--what kind of programing you wanted to avoid being near?
Mr. KESTER. We gave the agency general guidance in that we wanted to reach an audience of young men 17 to 21 years old, primarily the high school graduate, young men who might be ready to enter the military service. We said to the agency, “Advise us as to what the best means is to contacting them on electronic media.” The agency had, through survey data, a list of the radio programs or the television programs which are most listened to by people in this age group.
Mr. Vax DEERLIN. Were there any instructions given—and, if so, were they given by you or the agency-in regard to avoiding adjacency to news programs?
Mr. KESTER. There were no such directions given by the Department of the Army and I am quite sure none were given by the agencies.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Any such questions should be addressed to the agencies? Mr. KESTER. Yes, we gave no instructions.
Mr. MACDONALD. Do you think it would be better for our purposes to have the agency here rather than you people?
Mr. KESTER. The agency is here, sir, but I think we can address the kinds of questions you are asking. If we cannot, we will hold them.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Do the individual services use different advertising agencies?
Mr. WOLLSTADT. Yes. Each one has a different agency.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. There have been some inquiries apparently by the J. Walter Thompson Co. in regard to Marine recruit advertising.
I don't know exactly what this covered-whether the Marine Corps was studying a similar program, or whether they wanted to profit by your mistakes, if any. Can you address yourself to that sir?
General BECKINGTON. Yes, sir. J. Walter Thompson Co. is our advertising agency, and has been for a number of years, and we have
asked them to develop for us a proposed new recruiting theme for the Marine Corps so that I believe that is what they have been involved in for us.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. What was the thrust of the inquiries that they have been making ?
General BECKINGTON. Well, we wanted to know from them if they could advise us on what theme might appeal to the young man who would be either interested in joining the Marine Corps or who might become so interested. We have had over the years three or four differing recruiting themes that have formed the sort of thrust you see on recruiting posters and billboard advertisements and so on, and it was that type of an examination and evaluation and advice we asked the J. Walter Thompson Co. to review at this time.
Mr. VAN DEERLIN. Was there also some concern that the project undertaken by your sister services might dry up some free time for the Marines, which according to figures was already below what the Army had ?
General BECKINGTON. Not at the time we asked them to do this, Mr. Van Deerlin. Our request to the J. Walter Thompson Co., who we retain on sort of a permanent—not a permanent basis, but the matter is reviewed periodically. But our request to them on this point was made back in the late winter, late December or early January time frame, as I recall, before we in the Marine Corps were aware of any plan to test paid advertising by the Army.
Mr. VAN DEERLIX. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. MACDONALD. Before you start, Mr. Brown, I would point out to the committee that we have not even seen the slides yet and probably a quorum call will come up at 10 or quarter past 12, so I thought we maybe ought to shut off questioning around 5 minutes to 12 so we can see an example of what is being shown, although I think maybe most of us have seen it on TV already, so if we could prime up our questions, it would be helpful.
Mr. Brown. I was interested in figures on page 8 also, and I would like to see further elaboration on them to include the cost of making those free spots as opposed to the results that they obtained. It occurs to me that perhaps the reason the Air Force got better treatment from radio and television, the licensed media, was they have, in fact, produced a better program in terms of free time.
I gather this $11.8 million includes only the cost, then, of the free spots as identified by the Federal Communications Commission and does not include what Harry James or the Singing Sergeants does on either side of the free spot; is that right?
General Kids. That is correct.
Mr. Brown. So maybe it is the Air Force is a better programer in terms of entertainment than the Marines or the Navy. But until we know how much they put into that part of the effort, there is no way of assessing whether the Marines are doing better or worse, relatively, than the Air Force or Navy in this regard, or the Army."
Mr. Brown. I assume it will be based on four different analyses of costs of making these programs ? Could we get a common analysis of