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dated therein. None of the other Federal penal or correctional institutions has a board of trustees and there is no need of further continuing the board of the National Training School.
The plan also provides for the abolition of the Codification Board established for the purpose of codifying existing administrative law and the transfer of its functions to the Division of the Federal Register in the National Archives. The work of this board has now progressed to the point where a separate board is no longer necessary and the future work of keeping the codification up to date can more efficiently and economically be carried on by the editorial staff of the Federal Register.
I find it necessary and desirable in order to accomplish the purposes of the Reorganization Act to abolish the National Bituminous Coal Commission and to transfer its functions to the Secretary of the Interior. Thus the task of conserving the bituminous-coal resources of the country may be carried on directly by the head of the Department principally responsible for the conservation of fuel and other mineral supplies. The Congress placed this Commission in the Department of the Interior, but experience has shown that direct administration will be cheaper, better, and more effective than through the cumbersome medium of an unnecessary commission.
The transfer to the Department of the Interior of the Bureau of Insular Affairs in the War Department and its consolidation with the Division of Territories and Island Possessions in Interior is a functional transfer of obvious desirability. Under the provisions of existing law, however, I shall direct, where necessary, that certain correspondence from the Governor General of the Philippines shall be transmitted to the President through the Department of State.
The plan provides for the transfer to the Department of the Interior of the Bureau of Fisheries from the Department of Commerce and of the Bureau of Biological Survey from the Department of Agriculture. These two Bureaus have to do with conservation and utilization of the wildlife resources of the country, terrestrial and aquatic. Therefore, they should be grouped under the same departmental administration, and in that Department which, more than any other, is directly responsible for the administration and conservation of the public domain. However, I intend to direct that the facilities of the Department of Agriculture shall continue to be used for research studies which have to do with the protection of domestic animals from diseases of wildlife; and also where most economical for the protection to farmers and stockmen against predatory animals.
The plan also provides for the transfer of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Commission to the National Park Service in the Department of the Interior in order that this great memorial may be administered as a part of the similar work of the Park Service.
Included in the plan is a provision to transfer to the Department of Agriculture the Rural Electrification Administration, now operated as an independent establishment. The work of this administration in its educational as well as its lending functions is clearly a part of the rural life activities of the country and should, therefore, be administered in coordination with the other agricultural activities of the Government.
The Inland Waterways Corporation is transferred to the Department of Commerce from the War Department. This corporation, which operates inland waterways transportation facilities, should be coordinated with the administration of other aids to commerce and industry.
I propose to transfer to the Federal Security Agency, for administration in the Office of Education, the film and radio functions of the National Emergency Council. These are clearly a part of the educational activities of the Government and should be consolidated with similar activities already carried on in the Office of Education. Similarly, Government participation in the work of the American Printing House for the Blind, except fiscal functions relating to trust funds, is transferred from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Federal Security Agency, in order that this work may be coordinated with the other work for the blind now being carried on in the Social Security Board.
The plan provides for the abolition of the National Emergency Council and the transfer to the Executive Office of the President of all its functions with the exception of the film and radio activities which go to the Office of Education, Subject to appropriations by the Congress these activities transferred to the White House would be administered in the manner best designed to give the President the information he requires from all parts of the country.
The National Emergency Council was established by Executive order in 1933 and is composed of the President, the Vice President, the Members of the Cabinet and the heads of some 23 independent establishments. Its usefulness as an actual council, which met weekly under my chairmanship, was very great in the period of the emergency which then confronted the country, but, as time has gone on, it no longer operates as a council but does continue to carry on important activities which are indispensable to the President of the United States, as well as to other branches of the Government, and the public. It maintains an information service and a press intelligence service, it publishes the United States Government Manual, and it carries on through State and central staffs an important work of coordinating and reporting.
The information service makes available general information concerning all phases of governmental activity and is provided for all who submit questions or inquiries by mail, by telephone, or by personal call. In one sense it may be called a post office address-"Uncle Sam, Post Office Box No. 1, Washington, D. C."-to which persons who want information about the Government but do not know the exact division or agency of the Government to which to apply, may write with confidence that their questions will be answered or else sent on to the proper agency for direct reply.
The press intelligence service carried on in the Council is not a service for giving intelligence to the press, but rather for making available to responsible persons in the Government, both in the executive and in the legislative branches, a clipping service, which shows what the press of the country has printed. The partial consolidation of clipping services in this unit-a consolidation which should go further-already has resulted in economy and convenience. A clipping service of this kind, on a smaller scale, was maintained for many years in the White House but it was not then available to other branches of the Government. Its return to the White House with the additional feature of availability to all the rest of the Government will promote efficiency without violating tradition.
The publication of the United States Government Manual makes available to every citizen a simplified textbook of information as to the organization and availability of the Federal agencies. Published in loose-leaf form, it is sold by the Superintendent of Documents of the Government Printing Office.
The coordinating and reporting functions of the Council have to do with the presentation to the President of factual information, independently gathered, as to the progress and effect of our governmental activities. Through its State offices the Council has been able to facilitate the various Federal programs particularly with respect to State and local governments.
The plan also includes certain general provisions in order to accomplish fully the purposes of the act. In addition to the transfer of bureaus and other units, it is necessary also to transfer certain functions of heads of departments; to transfer records, property, and personnel; to transfer funds; and to provide that the power of appointment occasionally, and sometimes apparently quite accidentally, vested in a subordinate official of a department, shall be vested in the head of the department. It is impossible to exercise the proper direction and supervision over subordinate units unless the definite power of appointment, fixing of compensation, transfer, and promotion or dismissal of personnel is vested in the principal responsible head. In no other way can the purpose of consolidating similar functions under a single head as required by the act be accomplished in practice.
It is one of the five purposes of the Reorganization Act "to reduce expenditures to the fullest extent consistent with the efficient operation of the Government." This is an important purpose in each phase of the plan here presented. The Reorganization Act prohibits abolishing functions-in other words, basic services or activities performed. Therefore, the reduction in expenditures must necessarily be brought about chiefly in the overhead administrative expenses of the agencies affected. In a great many cases the economies to be effected by Reorganization Plan No. II will be the result of improved efficiency which will, as the plan works out, require fewer persons to perform the work or will require the employment of less temporary assistance.
In the case of the consolidation of the foreign services, it is estimated that the administration by a single administrative unit in the Department of State will achieve a saving of $20,000 a year and that consolidation of the three field forces will make it possible to drop alien employees and, by a more effective use of personnel, to save an additional $100,000 a year when the readjustments have been made.
The total administrative expense of all of the agencies affected by this plan is about $25,000,000 per annum.
The reduction of such expenditures, which it is probable will be brought about by the taking effect of the reorganizations specified in the plan, is estimated at $1,250,000 per annum. Certain of these economies can be brought about at once. Others will require a gradual readjustment in machinery and business practices of the agencies affected.
May I repeat what I said in my message transmitting Reorganization Plan No. I, that in this as in future reorganization plans not every person will agree on each and every detail. Out of the many groupings and regroupings proposed, a few of the individual agencies conceivably could be placed elsewhere, but I have been seeking to consider the functional purpose of each agency as required by the Reorganization Act itself and have made this plan with the sole purpose of improving the service rendered by the Government to its citizens in accordance with the purposes set out in the act.
In view of the fact that it is now May 9, and that any reorganization plan must lie before the Congress for 60 calendar days, and because the reorganization of an intradepartmental character require a great deal of research and careful painstaking detailed work, I do not propose to send any further general reorganization plans to the Congress at this session.
However, there are certain transfers, abolitions, and consolidations of committees, commissions, and boards which I propose to do by means of Executive and military orders under existing law as complementary to Reorganization Plan No. 11 when it becomes effective.
Then, also, by mere administrative procedure, some small agencies which have been listed in various publications as independent establishments but whose independence has no basis in law or in formal Executive or military orders, may be reassigned to an appropriate placement by administrative procedure on the part of their repective heads.
Not all of the interdepartmental transfers and consolidations that are necessary and desirable have been accomplished in this Reorganization Plan No. II. I am directing the Bureau of the Budget to study these problems in order that they may be included in plans to be transmitted to the Congress at its next session.
For example, in order to save money and to do the work more efficiently there are some units which should be divided so that a part of the work may be done by one agency and a part by another. Take, for example, the business of mapping. It is obviously important that the work of making surveys and accumulating data for maps should be done in the various agencies which are concerned primarily with the purpose for which the map is being drawn. On the other hand, the business of manufacturing maps might very well be consolidated in order to save money, and to manufacture better maps.
I have considered the desirability of transferring the jurisdiction over deportable aliens from the Immigration and Naturalization Service in the Department of Labor to the Department of Justice, but I find that this matter will require further study, or perhaps legislation, and therefore it is not included in this plan.
I have also considered the problem of certain public lands insofar as they present overlapping jurisdiction between the Departments of the Interior and Agriculture.
Insofar as crops, including tree crops, are involved there is something to be said for their retention in the Department of Agriculture. But where lands are to be kept for the primary purpose of recreation and permanent public use and conservation they fall more logically into the Department of the Interior.
I hope to offer a reorganization plan on this early in the next session. There are other types of work carried on in the Federal Government where it may prove necessary and desirable to divide the functions now being carried on by a particular unit so as the better to serve the basic purpose for which the work was undertaken. Such problems I shall continue to study with the view of sending other reorganization plans involving both interdepartmental and intradepartmental reorganizations to the Congress at its next session. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
THE WHITE HOUSE,
May 9, 1939.
REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. III
Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, April 2, 1940, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1939, approved April 3, 1939
DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY
SECTION 1. Fiscal Service of the Treasury Department (a) Establishment of Fiscal Service-(1) The office of the Commissioner of Accounts and Deposits, the Division of Bookkeeping and Warrants, the Division of Disbursement, the Division of Deposits, the Section of Surety Bonds, the office of the Commissioner of the Public Debt, the Division of Loans and Currency, the office of the Register of the Treasury, the Division of Public Debt Accounts and Audit, the Division of Savings Bonds, the Division of Paper Custody, and the Office of the Treasurer of the United States and their functions are consolidated into one agency of the Treasury Department to be known as the Fiscal Service, at the head of which there shall be an officer who shall be known as the Fiscal Assistant Secretary.
(2) The Fiscal Service shall consist of the Office of the Fiscal Assistant Secretary, the Office of the Treasurer of the United States, a Bureau of Accounts, and a Bureau of the Public Debt. Except as is otherwise specifically provided herein, the Secretary of the Treasury may establish such divisions and other constituent units within these agencies as he deems necessary.
(3) The Division of Bookkeeping and Warrants and its functions are transferred to the Bureau of Accounts, at the head of which shall be the Commissioner of Accounts and Deposits, who shall hereafter be known as the Commissioner of Accounts.
(4) The office of the Commissioner of the Public Debt, the Division of Loans and Currency, the office of the Register of the Treasury, the Division of Public Debt Accounts and Audit, the Division of Savings Bonds, and the Division of Paper Custody and their functions are consolidated into and shall be administered as the Bureau of the Public Debt, at the head of which shall be the Commissioner of the Public Dept.
(5) The functions of the Office of the Treasurer of the United States shall be administered by the Treasurer of the United States. (6) Such functions as are consolidated into or transferred to the Fiscal Service and which are not allocated herein to particular agencies or offices of the Fiscal Service shall be administered through such units of the Service as may be designated by the Fiscal Assistant Secretary with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.
(7) The Fiscal Assistant Secretary shall be appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with the civil-service laws and shall receive a salary at the rate of $10,000 per annum. He shall, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, supervise the administration of and coordinate the functions and activities consolidated into or transferred to the Fiscal Service and shall perform such other duties as the Secretary of the Treasury shall direct. In the absence or disability of the Fiscal Assistant Secretary or in the event of a vacancy in that office, the Secretary of the Treasury may designate any other officer of the Treasury Department to act as Fiscal Assistant Secretary.
(b) Transfer of certain functions to Fiscal Service.-All functions vested in the Under Secretary of the Treasury and any Assistant Secretary of the Treasury pertaining to (1) the administration of financing operations; (2) the supervision of the administration of the functions and activities of the Office of Commissioner of Accounts and Deposits, the Office of the Commissioner of the Public Debt, and the Office of the Treasurer of the United States; and (3) supervision of the administration of the accounting functions and activities in the Treasury Department and all its bureaus, divisions, and offices, are hereby transferred to and consolidated in the Fiscal Service, to be exercised by the Fiscal Assistant Secretary under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury: Provided, That the functions included in item (3) shall be exercised through the Commissioner of Accounts. (c) Transfer of functions relating to accounting.-All functions vested in any other officer or employee of the Treasury Department, except those excluded by section 3 (b) of the Reorganization Act of 1939, of authorizing the installation, maintenance, revision, and elimination of accounting records, reports, and procedures, are hereby transferred to and consolidated under the Fiscal Assistant Secretary, to be exercised by him through the Commissioner of Accounts.
(d) Abolition of an office of Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.— That office of Assistant Secretary of the Treasury which is now vacant is hereby abolished; and all the functions, rights, powers, and duties of such abolished office are hereby transferred to and vested in the Fiscal Assistant Secretary, to be exercised by him under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury.
SEC. 2. Federal Alcohol Administration.-The Federal Alcohol Administration, the offices of the members thereof, and the office of the Administrator are abolished, and their functions shall be administered under the direction and supervision of the Secretary of the Treasury through the Bureau of Internal Revenue in the Department of the Treasury.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
SEC. 3. Fish and Wildlife Service.-The Bureau of Fisheries and the Bureau of Biological Survey in the Department of the Interior with their respective functions are consolidated into one agency in the Department of the Interior to be known as the Fish and Wildlife Service. The functions of the consolidated agency shall be administered under the direction and supervision of the Secretary of the Interior by a Director and not more than two Assistant Directors, who shall be appointed by the Secretary and perform such duties as he shall prescribe. The offices of Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner of Fisheries and the offices of Chief and Associate Chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey are abolished and their functions transferred to the consolidated agency.
SEC. 4. Recorder of General Land Office.-The office of Recorder of the General Land Office is abolished. The functions of the Recorder shall be exercised under the direction and supervision of the Secretary of the Interior through such officers or employees of the General Land Office as he may designate.