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liever in the so-called doctrine of the separation of church and state, but I am not a believer in inaction, and there are people who will rationalize this political principle of separation to a point where you get nothing done.

Now, we have to work through the instrumentalities that are available unless the Congress wants to set up a brand new, overall administrative organization that will cost us far more than we are contemplating. All I am saying, and I can only speak for myself as one Senator, and I have very definite views on this, is that I think we must use the voluntary organizations, and if they are voluntary, you cannot set them up nor can the Government. They have to come from the people themselves, and we have ample evidence in this country that our religious groups—Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, or Unitarian, the Congregationalists, the Methodists, the Lutherans, the Baptists, the Presbyterians, et cetera—have been able to conduct educational, medical, and technical programs overseas without attempting to indoctrinate a religious philosophy or creed.

The religious philosophy of sharing, of compassion and of humanitarianism ought to be there. In fact, what worries me about these programs is that they get so overly scientific and efficient sometimes, when the Government has them, that the very meat and very substance of them is lost. That is my point.




Let me ask you this question: Are all of your projects to be established on the basis of a request from the host country?


Senator HUMPHREY. How does that request come about, Mr. Shriver? You have traveled around a great deal now.

Mr. SHRIVER. Well, they come about in a variety of ways, as one might suspect, Senator.

Sometimes we get inquiries from embassies here in Washington asking us to come to talk to them, maybe not to the ambassador at the beginning, but to the cultural attaché or deputy chief of mission here in Washington, to talk to him about the possibilities of a Peace Corps project in his country.

We have generally checked these requests for consultations of this type with appropriate officials of the State Department, and if it is agreeable with them, why, we go and have informal discussions. If, as a result of these informal discussions, the matter moves up higher in the local embassy, we are acceptable and agreeable to going higher with it.

In some cases we get requests directly from abroad. We have a number of cases of that type of an inquiry which have come to us directly from a foreign government, but in every case I want to emphasize we do check these requests with the State Department so as to be sure we are operating in conformity with their general principles.

Sometimes we get requests to visit countries and to discuss the possibilities of the Peace Corps with the highest ranking officials of those countries. The trip that I took last month when we went to eight different countries around the world was based primarily on such requests from foreign governments.

To use a specific case in point, one of the local embassies here in Washington had contacted us informally on several occasions saying that they thought the ambassador here thought that the prime minister of a particular foreign country would like to talk about the Peace Corps. We wanted to be completely certain that we were wanted in this particular country, and we waited until we had a written invitation from the prime minister of that country, and then we went there.

Now, in every case, in the case of every country that we went to, all eight of these on this last trip, we had a written invitation from the foreign secretary or from the head of the government inviting us to come to talk about the Peace Corps.

This was in keeping with our objective of not trying to impose the Peace Corps on anybody, but to respond to invitations for consultation or for work. We have followed that in every case.


Senator HUMPHREY. Mr. Shriver, I asked the staff to get me some information and I wish to make reference to it now for the record. I have in the reports here from the mutual security program for fiscal year 1961, and we are just in the last week of that now, the estimates for ocean freight and voluntary relief supplies. The total amount estimated for surplus goods given away, exclusive of agricultural commodities, was $41 million shipped at a cost to the taxpayers of $2,300,000.

The participating agencies included the American Friends Service Committee, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, the American Mission to Greeks, American Polish National Relief for Poland, the American Red Cross, American Relief for Poland, Assemblies of God-Foreign Service Committee, Brethren Service Commission, Catholic Relief Services-National Catholic Welfare Conference, Church World Service, Congressional-Christian Service Committee, Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Foster Parents' Plan, Hadassah, Heifer Project, International Rescue Committee, Iran Foundation, Little House of St. Pantaleon, Lutheran World Relief, Medico, and the Mennonite Central Committee.

I merely point out, so that this record will be complete, that our Government has been extending substantial financial aid for oversea activities related to these very programs, to these organizations that are voluntary in nature, including several of religious orientation.

This does not mean-don't misunderstand me, Mr. Shriver—that we should relax our vigilance in terms of adhering to constitutional principles. But, by the same token, it does not mean that we ought to be paralyzed for fear that somehow or another somebody will conjure up an argument that this is a violation of a constitutional principle.

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Now, Mr. Shriver, you mentioned training facilities. What do you mean by training facilities for these Peace Corps men? Give me an example of, let us say, the training of those Peace Corps men who are going to Colombia, South America.

I saw in the Minneapolis paper that a young man by the name of Charles Akin, of Minnesota, was the first Peace Corps man from our State, and he indicated that he might go to Colombia. I saw him last weekend, and he is a bright, fine young man of 24 years of age. How is he going to be trained? He has a splendid college education. He is an athlete, he is physically fit. What are you going to do with him?

Mr. SHRIVER. Well, I tried, in my opening remarks, Senator, to describe a typical case when I described the training at Texas Western College for Tanganyika. Senator HUMPHREY. That was construction. I refer now

to teachers.

Mr. SHRIVER. The training program for Colombian volunteers will take place at Rutgers University. Like the one training people for Tanganyika, it will be a long, hard day's work every day, 6 days a week.

The one with respect to Tanganyika starts at 5:30 a.m., and continues until 9 o'clock.


Senator HUMPHREY. Will the recruit get paid?
Senator HUMPHREY. What will he get paid?

Mr. SHRIVER. $2 a day, plus his $75 accumulation against his separation from the service.

Senator HUMPHREY. What happens to that $75?
Mr. SHRIVER. It is kept here for him.
Senator HUMPHREY. Is it banked for him?

Mr. SHRIVER. It is held for him until his term of service ends.

Senator HUMPHREY. Do you set up an account for each one of these trainees?


Senator HUMPHREY. What happens if the man washes out before he goes to Colombia? Do you pay for duds?

Mr. SHRIVER. If he washes out for reasons that are, perhaps, be. yond his control, maybe a physical reason, we do intend to pay him for the period of satisfactory service that he renders to us. For example, let us say he is in training for a month before we find

а. out or he finds out that for some reason he would not be the appropriate person to send to Colombia. We feel it would be fair to give him the $75 allowance for the month of satisfactory service which he has rendered.

Now, this sum would accumulate on behalf of the other people who stay with this for a 2-year period. It would accumulate for them in this country, unless in a specific case for very good reasons the individual volunteer can show that a part or all of this $75 should be dispensed at his request, and with our approval, for the support of the education, let us say, of a brother or a sister, for the support of a parent who needs the money, or for some other legitimate reason of that type.

Senator HUMPHREY. Would that have to be assigned by a legal document?

Mr. SHRIVER. That is right; and we have asked in this bill for discretionary permission to be accorded to the Director of the Peace Corps to pass on such specific requests from volunteers.

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Senator HUMPHREY. Mr. Shriver, regarding these training facilities, do you, for example, set up standards for Rutgers University, as to what your agency believes ought to be a minimum training standard ?

Mr. SHRIVER. Yes, sir; we do. We have met with the faculties of the universities which we are using, or the colleges, in the case of Texas Western College.

We have worked out a complete curriculum, every-day classes, subjects, amount of time devoted to each subject, and so forth. This has been done in cooperation with the faculties of those institutions.

In addition to that, where a particular institution might not have all of the faculty people they need to train people for a particular country, we have gone out and brought in the best experts in this country on specific countries, and had long week-end and even weeklong conferences with then They have helped us, without compensation, too, I might add, to

I develop the best possible curriculum for each of the countries to which we are intending or expecting to send volunteers.


In the Colombia case, we have a Peace Corps training program which is rather extensive here. This is another one of the documents we would be delighted to share with the Congress as exemplifying the kind of work we are doing. It tells all about the curriculum and the training schedule, the basic courses, the distribution of instructional materials and the study hours per week, special technical lectures, attending schedule of class work, teaching staff, who they are, what kind of lectures they are going to have, a timetable for selection and counseling, and so forth.

We keep, of course, complete training records. We hope the officials of the Colombian Government, perhaps the Ambassador or Chargé d'Affaires here will go there and give lectures on living and working conditions in Colombia.

The Colombian Embassy is supplying us with documentary films on that country for exhibition.

The members of our own State Department, the Colombian desk officer and people like that, will be asked to go there, give lectures, stay for a weekend, participate in seminars, and so on, so that our people at Rutgers will get the best possible orientation physically and intellectually for their assignment overseas.

Senator HUMPHREY. Very good.



Senator LAUSCHE. How many volunteers will be in this project?

Mr. SHRIVER. We intend, Senator Lausche, to send 65 to Colombia. But at the training center we will probably have twice as many enter the training program as we ultimately send to Colombia.

The purpose of training twice as many is twofold: One, we expect that the selection process will continue during the training period. We, therefore, anticipate that some people will be dropped out by us.


We expect some people, after being in the training period for a while, will decide they do not want to go to Colombia or to be in the Peace Corps, so there will be some shrinkage of the total, and we want to be sure at the end we will have 65 qualified people.

Now, for people who have finished the course successfully, and who are still not selected to go to Colombia, we have established what we call a Peace Corps reserve or register.

These persons who have gone through a training program for Colombia, who have had a lot of additional instruction, for example, in Spanish, might be well-qualified to go to another South American country, and we could elect, at the end of the training period, to transfer them to another project in a Spanish-speaking country. We would not want to lose the benefit of the training that they have gone through.


Senator HUMPHREY. Mr. Shriver, I have just several more questions.

Do I understand, in your activity overseas, that you will have group leaders? I would like to know what the administrative structure of the Peace Corps will be. We will use again, let us say, Tanganyika or Colombia, countries concerning which you have agreements.

Mr. SHRIVER. Senator, we are trying to be as flexible as possible so we can meet the demand and needs of each particular foreign country as well as possible.

But in our legislation we have requested the power to develop at least three different kinds of personnel. One would be the basic Peace Corps volunteer person, and that is all set forth in our legislation, what we are asking for those people. We then have asked for the establishment of a group of individuals known as Peace Corps volunteer leaders.

Senator HUMPHREY. What is their responsibility? I am familiar with these categories, but

Mr. SHRIVER. Excuse me, they are like platoon leaders, you might say.

Their job is to make sure that the morale and the personnel problems of the volunteers are taken care of properly, and any administrative problems with respect to a small group, let us say 20 of the volunteers, are taken care of by them with their assistance.

Now, I want to make it clear


Senator HUMPHREY. Who will they report to, Mr. Shriver?

Mr. SHRIVER. They report to the Peace Corps staff representative in a specific country. That is another kind of an employed person working for us, who will be responsible to the Ambassador, and who would be directly responsible for the Peace Corps operations in the foreign country.

The Peace Corps volunteers and all volunteer leaders would come under the jurisdiction of this Peace Corps staff representative in the foreign country.

Now, in some cases, I want it to be clear, we may not need to use and, therefore, would not use, Peace Corps volunteer leaders. A specific case on that is Tanganyika in that we are only sending 28

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