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The above statistics have been drawn from the State reports; the intention having been to include only State and county institutes. In one instance when the counties having had institutes are enumerated but the number of institutes is not given, each county has been credited with one institute. This is indicated by a star in the table.

Table 19 presents the statistics of 36 private normal schools having 279 instructors and 8,524 students, of whom 6,197 are classed as normal students.

In the best of these schools the pedagogical training is modelled very closely upon that of the public normals, and while for obvious reasons the latter are more likely to fulfil the conditions required for a high order of training, the private normals bear a worthy part in the work. The South has been especially indebted to schools of this class for the sapply of teachers qualified by virtue of their character and attainments to shape and direct the education of the freedmen. Eleven of the 30 schools included in the table are engaged at the present time in the preparation of teachers for this particular branch of educational work.

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING. Thus far our attention has been confined to the amount of provision made by the States for the training of elementary teachers.

The kind of training which is fostered is, if possible, a matter of greater consequence. In a measure this is indicated by tho requirements for admission to the normal schools, the subjects embraced in the courses of training, and the duration of those courses.

These conditions necessarily vary with varying economio and social conditions of the States, there being, however, sufficient uniformity to indicate substantially the same purpose throughout the country,

Differences, which upon a cursory view of the facts appear to be great, are generally found to arise, not from difference of opinion as to the essentials of the training, but from a difference in the organization of the schools.

These fall naturally into two classes: one including the schools that combine academic and professional training, and the other those that confine themselves to professional work.

The former very generally admit pupils at 14 years of age, but this, however, implies admission to the general course of study. In no case apparently is it thought advisable to begin the distinctive training for the teacher's work at an earlier age than 16 years, which is the age generally adopted for the admission of women to normal schools for the second o lass ; 17 years being the usual age required for men.

As a rule, schools of the second class also require that candidates for admission shall offer a high-school diploma, or equivalent.

In schools of the first class the course of training and study is from 2 to 4-years duration; in those of the second the course of training is 1 or 2 years.

The conception of special training for elementary teachers, exemplified in the normal schools, may perhaps be best shown by the programmes of normal schools.

For the purpose of such illustration selections must necessarily be made of schools adapted to communities differing in social and industrial conditions.


Two-years course. --Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, book-keeping, physics, astronomy, chemistry, physiology, botany, zoology, mineralogy, geology, geography, language, reading, orthography, etymology, grammar, rhetoric, literature and composition, penmanship, drawing, vocal music, gymnastics, psychology, science of educa-> tion and art of teaching, school organization, history of education; civil polity of Massachusetts and of United States, history, school laws of Massachusetts.

Four-years course.-In addition to the studies named above, the four-years course includes advanced algebra and geometry, trigonometry and surveying, advanced chemistry, physics and botany, drawing, English literature, general history, Latin and French required; German and Greek as the principal and visitors of the school shall decide.

The visitors, at the request of the principal of the Worcester school, may have authority to substitute German for French, as they think the interests of the school from time to time demands.

The above is an enumeration of the studies. The order of the studies in the course is determined by the principal of each school, with the approval of the visitors of that school.

Course of instruction.-Conneotiout Normal and Training School,

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Course of instruction.State Normal School, Albany, New York.

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There are three classes of students for whom instruction should be provided.

The first and largest class includes those who wish to prepare for teaching in the common schools in country, town, or city, and who enter the normal school having the minimum amount of scholarship and but little of that mental discipline which results from a full and efficient course of school instruction. These must learn both the matter they are to teach and the method of teaching it, in the normal school. The school must afford them both academic and professional instruction.

Another class of students for whom provision is made is composed of those who have completed the course of study in high schools and academies, and of those who may not possess the scholarship of the high-school graduato, but who are teachers of age

* From report of the State superintendent, Hon. J. W. Holcombe, for 1885–86.

and experience, and because of their greater maturity are able to keep pace with these graduates.

The third class includes those wlio have graduated from colleges and noiversities and who seek such professional training as will fit them to assume the duties of sale perintendents and principals of high schools.

To adapt the work of the school as fnlly as possible to the wants of all classes desiring to prepare for teaching, courses of study are provided as follows:

1. Regular English course, 3 years.
2. English and Latin course, 34 years,
3. Course for graduates of high scbools, 2 years.
4. Course for college graduates, 1 year.
5. Post-graduate course, 1 year.
6. Course for graduates of high schools, 1 year.

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Latin or Gorman... Literature

Latin or German... General history. Geometry
Latin or German... Philosophy of edu. Trigonometry


Chemistry or

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Applicants for admission to the State schools considered must be at least 16 years of age, must present certificates of good character, must signify their intention to teach in the public schools of the State, and must pass a satisfactory examination in reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography, and English grammar.

History is also required for admission to the Connecticut school.

The Michigan State Normal School may be taken as an example of the small number of normal schools which offer more extended courses of study than the preceding, and which do not limit admission to candidates who pledge themselves to teach.

Students are allowed a choice from five regular courses of study, as follows:

Scievtific, 4 years; literary, 4 years; ancient languages, 4 years; modern languages, 4 years; English, 4 years. Several special courses are also offered.

All of these courses include pedagogics and practice-teachings, and all pupils who gradnate and receive diplomas from any course are entitled to legal certificates of qualification to teach in any of the public schools of the State.

Graduates of the English course receive certificates for 5 years; of the other courses, for life.

TWO CLASSES OF NORMAL SCHOOLS. The question of the comparative adrantages of the two classes in which the normal schools of the United States may be grouped is exciting much attention at the present time.

In view of this fact, it may be well to notice the tendencies with reference to the choice between the two where circumstances are favorable to freedom of choice.

The Boston Normal School was organized in 1852 as a special school for the preparation of teachers, the plan of study and instruction being expressly arranged with that end in view.

As a result of urgent appeals for the establishment of a high school for girls various high-school studies were introduced into the Normal School, and in a few years the normal element had become entirely secondary.

Astor an experience of about 15 years it was evident that additional means must be taken to secure a sufficient number of properly qualified teachers for service in the city scbools, and in 1870 the committee on the normal schools, being satisfied “that the conrso of instruction and plan of work are such in a normal school that it cannot be most successful in connection with regular high-school work,” recommended a division of the school and the restoration of the normal school to its original standing.'

This recommendation was adopted in 1872, since which time the school has been strictly professional.

In 1873, the conduct of the Nornal School being still under discussion, inquiries were sent to various officials with a view of brivging a large and varied experienco to bear upon the points at issue.?

The correspondence published in the annual report for 1873 shows that the following superintendents of schools in cities in which normal or training schools had been established expressed the opinion that the same sbould be kept distinct from the high schoo):3

Ilon, H. F. Harrington, New Bedford, Mass.
Hon, A. P. Marble, Worcester, Mass.
Hon. E. B. Halo, Cambridge, Mass.
Hon. W. T. Harris, St. Louis, Mo.
Hon. Henry Kiddle, New York, N. Y."

In their conclusions, embraced in their report to the school committee, the committee on normal schools include the following:

" Tho experience of 21 years has inade it manifest that the norinal school should be a distinct institution, devoted wholly to the preparation of teachers." While the policy of separating the normal work

from the high school was so strongly advocated by the Bostou committee, the union of the normal school with some regalarls organized public school of elementary grade to serve the normal pupils as a school for observation and practice was urged no less strongly. It was not, however, until 1876 that the arrangement was perfected, in which year Superintendent Phil. brick said in his annual report:

"It is hardly an exaggeration to say that during almost the whole period that has elapsed since the establishment of the school the arrangements and provisions for giving the requisite normal training to female teachers for our public schools have been insufficient and unsatisfactory. But at length, after experiments and delays extending over a period of nearly a quarter of a century, we are able to say that we have a well organized and efficient normal school, established on a broad and firm

Boston Report, 1873, p. 249.
Ibid., p. 256.

SIbid., pp. 266, 270.

Ibid., p. 272.

foundation. It is in charge of an able and experienced corps of instructors. The standard of qualifications for admission is high, and it was, perhaps, the first normal school in the country to require of its candidates, as a preparation for entrance, the completion of a high-school course of instruction.' Its course of training is but 1 year, but is exclusively professional. Tho four great pedagogical branches-psychology, physiology, ethics, and logio-are here judiciously handled. The methods of teaching the common-school branches are taught both theoretically and practically. A large granmar school for boys, and a large primary school with pupils of both sexes, afford amplo opportunity for the training of the pupil teachers in the actual work of the school-room."

In the St. Louis Normal School, which completes its third decade the present year, the professional work has always been made paramount.

In 18721 a district school was selected and placed in charge of the principal of the normal school to serve the normal pupils as a school of observation, and in 1880. all academic features were abandoned, and the school was made strictly a professional one, with a 2-years course.

While the example of two of the leading normal schools of the country is thus seen to be in favor of an organization entirely distinct from the high school, it may be observed that two of the largest cities, viz, New York and Philadelphia, maintain schools of the opposite type. According to so competent authority as Mr. Philbrick, even here, however, there is a movement towards the separation of the two functions. In the circular previously alluded to, Mr. Philbrick says: “In the New York and Philadelphia schools, where the general education and the special training are carried on simultaneously, we observe the gradual evolution of the distinctly professional department, composed of the post-graduate pnpils. As soon as such a department is clearly differentiated, as is the case with the normal department of the San Francisco school, it only remains to place this department under a competent master, wholly devoted to its management and training, and we have the realization of the ideal type of the normal school."

It should be added that in New York and Philadelphia there is a special reason for continuing a general course of study in the normal schools, since neither of these cities possesses a high school for girls apart from the normal, whereas Boston and St. Louis have such schools. In the former only high-school graduates are admitted to the normal school; in the latter high-school graduates or those passing equivalent examinations. The four cities agree substantially as to the scholastic attainment, which is the proper basis for professional training. On the whole, a careful examination of the present status and past history of the city normal schools in the United States confirms the opinion expressed by Mr. Philbrick that "the history of the modifications of the provisions for the professional training of teachers in our cities, which have been going on during the last quarter of a century, makes it clear that tho tendency has been, and is now everywhere, towards the purely professional normal school, with its school of practice comprising pupils of all grades and both sexes, thoroughly equipped and provided with teachers of the highest order, thus serving the purpose of a school of observation and a practice school.

For obvious reasons it is not so easy to limit the State normal schools to tho professional training of teachers as it is the city normals. The disposition in favor of buch specialization is, however, manifest where it seems at all practicable. It is accomplished, as we have seen, in the Connecticut school, and it is the ideal aimed at in many States where its accomplishment is not yet possible.

In his report for 1886, Hon. A. S. Draper, superintendent of publio instruction, New York, says:

"The normal schools might spend less time with foundation work than they are doing now. If they should receive no pupils but such as are fairly educated, and should confine their labors to special training in methods and practice, they would accomplish larger results. If this position cannot be taken at once, it should at least be determined upon and worked up to as rapidly as circumstances will permit. The standard of admission to the normal schools should be advanced, and the graduates of responsible institutions of learning, who may desire to fit themselves for teachers, should be encouraged to come to our normal schools for short courses of professional training."

Hon. D. L. Kiehle, superintendent of public instruction, Minnesota, in his report for 1885–86 calls attention to the fact that the preparatory class has been dropped from two of the State normal schools, and adds:

“These schools are receiving their share of the students and graduates of high schools, and as soon as our schools shall furnish the necessary supply the normal schools will be ready to give exclusivo attention to professional work in training teachers.” The conditions under which most of the State normal schools are operat

"Repts. 1872 and 1873.

2 St. Louis Normal Ropt. 1880-'81, p. 65.

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