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that are needed and highly desired by the community, and also provide jobs for the types of people who need jobs, the unemployed or the under-employed and so forth.
Senator MONDALE. Are these jobs which require training, or only a modest amount of training?
Mr. LEVITT. Some of them, could be done with a modest amount of training, and they could use people right out of the community. For example, we feel there is a great need for senior citizen centers, and we believe he could get them started rapidly by using store fronts. It takes between 2,500 and 4,000 square feet to set up a senior citizen center. Two or three or possibly four people could operate each unit on a 7 day & week basis. It requires some furniture, and game and related equipment. We can actually set these up for about $25,000 each plus annual thereafter, rental, depending on the scale of operation. We could use up to 100 of these,
Senator MONDALE. In other words the number of employees you are talking about
Mr. LEVITT. We could use at least 100 employees to operate those senior citizens centers.
Senator MONDALE. Program number one is 1,675 employees who could be employed immediately because training isn't required and program two would provide 24,143 jobs where some kind of training is required.
Mr. LEVITT. Yes. Let me just clarify this one thing. When we say that we can start them immediately that doesn't mean we can grind them out overnight. We can start action on them if funds were available now and it would take a little while to grow up to the 1,600 or 1,700 jobs we indicated.
The second program, it would be an expansion basically of many of the existing services we have now, for example, our library department would like to build up its services to provide a greater number of hours of service; to build more branches, to provide more books.
Senator MONDALE. Would this program provide employment to the unemployed, the unskilled ?
MR. LEVITT. Most would require skill. Presumably the people that we bring into our system would eventually qualify for many of these jobs through their on the job training through their off the job training. These programs would have to be coordinated. We don't think you could do this just by bringing people on to a job and eventually making a librarian out of them. We don't think that could happen. There has to be addon's in the form of supplemental training programs.
Senator MONDALE. It is also the case in the second category not only would training be required, but you estimate a capital cost of over a billion dollars?
Mr. LEVITT. Yes, sir. This would require the buildings, the equipment, the real estate, everything that goes into this type of thing. It would not be purely a make-work program where you would use a minimum amount of equipment. The first program we think we could do with a minimum capital amount and that is why we could get started faster, but they would be useful programs, it would not be in the category of just putting people on the payroll.
Mr. Ames. Senator, if I may make a comment. We discussed this at quite some length this morning because I was concerned with that aspect of it after having read the report and would like Mr. Zuck to make a comment in that regard.
Mr. Zuck. In programs of this type—it's really not proper to assume that they would totally result in employment for unemployed and underemployed people whom we presently assume are either unskilled or have very minimal skills. The city presently has many vacancies for jobs for which there is no funding problem at all, but the problem is obtaining people who have the requisite skills to fill them. So that in a program such as is shown under program No. 2, really I don't believe you could expect more than 20 percent of those jobs could be filled by people from the unskilled category.
I think that our technology has changed tremendously in the last several decades so that even on large-scale construction projects, where formerly we had large masses of common labor employed, today we no longer do and have large numbers of skilled people.
Senator MONDALE. Do you know what the unemployment rate in the city of Los Angeles is?
Mr. ZUCK. Out of personal knowledge; no, sir. What I have see reported in the newspapers and Department of Labor releases, it runs about 3.5 percent overall.
Senator MONDALE. That's citywide?
Senator MONDALE. Then you have pockets of unemployment such as Watts and East Los Angeles where it might run 20 or 25 percent.
Mr. Ames. This would also have to be qualified, by the State people. In some cases there are age level areas too. It runs extremely high in certain age groups and then lower in other age groups in the same areas. So an overall picture is one that you would have to obtain or a more detailed report would have to come to you from the State Department of Employment.
Senator MONDALE. We have witnesses coming up, I believe, who specialize in these areas of community action efforts and I think this would help focus on those areas in addition to what you now have.
Perhaps we can have a few observations describing those civil service changes that are designed to bring more disadvantaged into public employment. What is the nature of those changes and how many have been employed or do you expect will be employed under those regulations?
Mr. AMES. I think in this case we will have Mr. Miller who handles our manpower programs which include New York City manpower, adult work experience, and new careers, give you a breakdown of what we have done.
Mr. MILLER. Senator, we found ourselves approximately 2 or 23 years ago operating manpower programs designed to train and employ the disadvantaged and yet a very hard light of reality fell upon our own system and our own structure, and because of this, the mayor ordered a reevaluation of the city hiring policy procedures.
We found that even though we were very adept in training the disadvantaged, we had a great difficulty getting them through the merit system and into permanent city employment. Most of these hurdles no longer exists because of the changes that have been made. There are five basic areas that we found were really barriers to the client population on our programs. The first of these were the almost standard requirements for the need for high school graduation, and actually having the diploma.
The second area was certain months or years of specific skills and experience which the disadvantaged did not have.
The third was a successful work history. Obviously the disadvantaged did not have a successful work history.
The fourth was some problems with our arrest and conviction record requirement.
The fifth was a prohibition against those enrollees who were either on probation or parole.
All of these items have been successfully eliminated for the successful graduates of our manpower programs. Through the-office of manpower programs working very closely with the personnel department and actually merging the goals of the merit system and the goals of the training programs. Our enrollees can now compete on an equal basis for jobs in approximately 30 to 35 different entry level classifications throughout the entire civil service system.
If they perform for a minimum of 6 months on the program, receive adequate recommendations, and they are progressing well, they can be considered eligible for the normal civil service competitive system.
Senator MONDALE. When do these new regulations go into effect?
Mr. MILLER. They have been in effect for approximately 12 months now.
Senator MONDALE. How many city employees have been hired who would not have been hired otherwise except for these changes?
Mr. Miller. That would have to be viewed in relationship to the size of our program. Our adult work experience program, the KennedyJavits program, has only 70 slots. Out of the 70, over 40 have been employed in civil service.
Our Neighborhood Youth Corps where, years ago, as the county testified, there were many thousands. We now only have 152 for the entire city component. Countywise there are only 724. This is in relationship to the fantastic needs of the young high school dropout.
Our new careers component is very small. We only have 25 new careerists slots because of the very basic nature of city government. First of all, the funding problem and two, the basic duties performed by city government are nonhuman services related. We are a nuts and bolts type operation. The county government has all of the human services areas such as the hospitals and welfare, and so forth.
Senator MONDALE. Now as I understood the changes in your civil service rules, and this was primarily a rules change-except for training costs which should require Federal expenses—you changed the nature and the procedures and requirements for employment in the city of Los Angeles. Am I correct in that?
Mr. MILLER. Yes. The changes were sort of brought into focus by our being involved in the operations of our manpower programs.
Senator MONDALE. In other words, now an applicant for employment with the city who does not have a high school degree can nevertheless apply, knowing that that will not be a bar?
Mr. MILLER. Depending on the classification.
Senator MONDALE. For instance a parolee could come and apply for employment. In the past the fact he was on parole or had a criminal record might bar him.
Mr. MILLER. If I may put that in perspective, Senator, the way that the city has merged the goals of training programs with the goals of the merit system, is by utilizing a very well known and accepted method of qualifying individuals and that is the work sample method. By the individuals being on the program, and being trained within various city departments, and actually doing the job and at the same time being involved in our educational classes and counseling programs, they are showing to the city that they can perform, and by this work sample they are proving they can do it.
Senator MONDALE. And you have a very good idea of what the potential might be. I assume that the regulations that you have liberalized are rather widespread.
Mr. MILLER. That's true.
Senator MONDALE. And what you are trying to do here might have national implications if it works. I am trying to get some idea of the potential here for public jobs for disadvantaged if there were a national policy to do what you are doing here in Los Angeles. That is why I asked how many people do you think have jobs today who wouldn't have had them except for your program.
Mr. Zuck. Perhaps I can throw a little light on that.
What the city has done is to make certain modifications in our policies which makes it possible for persons with limited backgrounds to compete where before they might not have had that opportunity.
Mr. Zuck. Now, as Mr. Miller pointed out, of the 70 slots that we have been authorized, we filled 40.
Senator MONDALE. Is that the Kennedy-Javits
Mr. ZUCK. Yes. Now this needs to be viewed against the perspective of what city employment is like.
Senator MONDALE. The Kennedy-Javits slots are all federally funded, are they not?
Mr. Zuck. Yes, sir. But in terms of what city employment is like, out of 45,000 employees, we have determined there are about 10,000 jobs for which people with limited abilities could qualify. Now our turnover rate runs at about 10 percent year which gives us about 1,000 positions for which they can compete.
What has been modified by the city's civil service commission and personnel department at the request of the mayor has been several of our policies, so that persons in the manpower program can now compete for regular civil service positions, whereas they previously might not have been able to.
Basically, a policy was established of accepting 6 months of successful experience in one of the city's manpower programs, including an endorsement by the supervisor, as substitution for high school lacking, work experience lacking, an unsatisfactory work history, or a conviction record. For many years, in addition, the city has accepted pertinent experience in lieu of education lacking, and has considered convictions only, not arrests, except for a limited number of specifically designated sensitive classes of employment. Recently, the civil service commission established a special class of manpower trainee to which persons can be appointed to acquire training and experience pending achievement of permanent civil service status. This action was taken to further implement the goals of our manpower programs.
(Three job bulletins are attached as examples; see job requirements.)
A MANPOWER TRAINEE performs a variety of routine, unskilled and semi-skilled tesks
in order to obtain practical work experience in the mainter.ance, construction,
craft, custodial, gardening, clerical, mechanical, and technical fields. DO YOU QUALIFY?
You are qualified if you have successfully completed six months of participation in the City of Los Angeles Adult Work Experience or Neighborhood Youth Corps programs. Prior to the interview a letter of favorable recommendation must be submitted to the Personnel Department from the Office of Urban Development; and from the supervisor who trained you, including a favorable statement from the City department in which you have been trained. Your record will be reviewed
and must be approved by the Personnel Department prior to Certification. riote: Employment as a Manpower Trainee is limited to a maximum of two years, during which time the trainee is expected to qualify for employment in a regular City class.
HOW DO YOU APPLY?
1. First, contact your Manpower Counselor about this job.
Then come to Room 100, City Hall South, 111 East First Street, Los Angeles,
Your examination score will be based entirely on an evaluation of your training, experience, and personal qualifications in the interview,
Bring your military discharge papers with you if you are a veteran.
Your name will be re
You may take the interview only once every six months.
This examination will be open until sufficient applications are received, and may be closed without prior notice.
THIS EXAMINATION IS TO BE GIVEN
Code No. 3111 .
Open No. 259
Obtain applications and infor
Apply now by mail or in permation in Room 100, L.A. City Hall South, 111 East First
son: PERSONNEL DEPT., Room
100, L.A. City Hall South, 111 Street, or ot City Hall Branches
$452 to $476
East First Street, 624-5211, or in San Pedro, Van Nuys, Watts,
Room 101, Von Nuys Branch West L.A., and Westchester.' SEE REVERSE SIDE FOR FURTHER INFORMATION City Hall. Fare PDR 10
40-963 О - 70 - 21