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8.10 Detonation flame arresters shall be designed and constructed to minimize the effect of fouling under normal operating conditions.
8.11 Detonation flame arresters shall be capable of operating over the full range of ambient air temperatures anticipated.
8.12 Detonation flame arresters shall be of first class workmanship and free from imperfections which may affect their intended purpose.
8.13 Detonation flame arresters shall be tested in accordance with section 9.
9.1 Tests shall be conducted by an independent laboratory capable of performing the tests. The manufacturer, in choosing a laboratory, accepts that it is a qualified independent laboratory by determining that it has (or has access to) the apparatus, facilities, personnel, and calibrated instruments that are necessary to test detonation flame arresters in accordance with this standard.
9.1.1 A test report shall be prepared by the laboratory which shall include:
22.214.171.124 Detailed drawings of the detonation flame arrester and its components (including a parts list identifying the materials of construction).
126.96.36.199 Types of tests conducted and results obtained. This shall include the maximum temperature reached and the length of testing time in section 14.2 in the case of Type II detonation flame arresters.
188.8.131.52 Description of approved attachments (reference 9.2.6).
184.108.40.206 Types of gases or vapors for which the detonation flame arrester is approved.
220.127.116.11 Drawings of the test rig.
18.104.22.168 Record of all markings found on the tested detonation flame arrester.
22.214.171.124 A report number.
9.2 One of each model Type I and Type II detonation flame arrester shall be tested. Where approval of more than one size of a detonation flame arrester model is desired, only the largest and smallest sizes need be tested provided it is demonstrated by calculation and/or other testing that intermediate size devices have equal or greater strength to withstand the force of a detonation and have equivalent detonation arresting characteristics. A change of design, material, or construction which may affect the corrosion resistance, or ability to resist endurance burning, deflagrations or detonations shall be considered a change of model for the purpose of this paragraph.
9.2.1 The detonation flame arrester shall have the same dimensions, configuration, and most unfavorable clearances expected in production units.
9.2.2 A corrosion test shall be conducted. In this test, a complete detonation flame arrester, including a section of pipe similar to that to which it will be fitted, shall be exposed to a 20% sodium chloride solution
spray at a temperature of 25 °C for a period of 240 hours, and allowed to dry for 48 hours. Following this exposure, all movable parts shall operate properly and there shall be no corrosion deposits which cannot be washed off.
9.2.3 The detonation flame arrester shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of at least 350 psig for ten minutes without rupturing, leaking, or showing permanent distortion.
9.2.4 Flow characteristics as declared by the manufacturer, shall be demonstrated by appropriate tests.
9.2.5 Detonation flame arresters shall be tested for endurance burn and deflagration/ detonation in accordance with the test procedures in section 14. Type I detonation flame arresters shall show no flame passage when subjected to both tests. Type II detonation flame arresters shall show no evidence of flame passage during the detonation/deflagration tests in section 14.3. Type II detonation flame arresters shall be tested for endurance burn in accordance with sec. tion 14.2. From the endurance burn test of a Type II detonation flame arresters, the maximum temperature reached and the test duration shall be recorded and provided as part of the laboratory test report.
9.2.6 Where a detonation flame arrester is pr ded with cowls, weather hoods and deflectors, etc., it shall be tested in each configuration in which it is provided.
9.2.7 Detonation flame arresters which are provided with a heating arrangement designed to maintain the surface temperature of the device above 85°C shall pass the required tests at the maximum heated operating temperature.
9.2.8 Each finished detonation arrester shall be pneumatically tested at 10 psig to ensure there are no defects or leakage.
10.1 The manufacturer shall afford the purchaser's inspector all reasonable access necessary to assure that the device is being furnished in accordance with this standard. All examinations and inspections shall be made at the place of manufacture, unless otherwise agreed upon.
10.2 Each finished detonation arrester shall be visually and dimensionally checked to ensure that the device corresponds to this standard, is certified in accordance with section 11 and is marked in accordance with section 12. Special attention shall be given to the checking of welds and the proper fitups of joints (see sections 8.5 and 8.6).
11.1 Manufacturer's certification that a detonation flame arrester meets this standard shall be provided in an instruction manual. The manual shall include as applicable:
11.1.1 Installation instructions and a description of all configurations tested (reference paragraph 9.2.6). Installation instructions to include the device's limitations.
11.1.2 Operating instructions. 11.1.3 Maintenance requirements.
126.96.36.199 Instructions on how to determine when arrester cleaning is required and the method of cleaning.
11.1.4 Copy of test report (see section 9.1.1).
11.1.5 Flow test data, maximum temperature and time tested (Type II).
11.1.6 The ambient air temperature range over which the device will effectively prevent the passage of flame.
(NOTE: Other factors such as condensation and freezing of vapors should be evaluated at the time of equipment specification.)
11.1.7 The maximum operating pressure for which the device is suitable.
12.1 Each detonation flame arrester shall be permanently marked indicating:
12.1.1 Manufacturer's name or trademark.
12.1.2 Style, type, model or other manufacturer's designation for the detonation flame arrester.
12.1.3 Size of the inlet and outlet. 12.1.4 Type of device (Type I or II).
12.1.5 Direction of flow through the detonation flame arrester.
12.1.6 Test laboratory and report number.
12.1.7 Lowest MESG of gases that the detonation flame arrester is suitable for.
12.1.8 ASTM designation of this standard.
12.1.9 Ambient air operating temperature range.
12.1.10 Maximum operating pressure. 13. Quality Assurance
13.1 Detonation flame arresters shall be designed, manufactured and tested in a manner that ensures they meet the characteristics of the unit tested in accordance with this standard.
13.2 The detonation flame arrester manufacturer shall maintain the quality of the arresters that are designed, tested and marked in accordance with this standard. At no time shall a detonation flame arrester be sold with this standard designation that does not meet the requirements herein.
14. Test Procedures for Detonation Arresters
14.1 Media/Air Mixtures
14.1.1 For vapors from flammable or combustible liquids with a MESG greater than or equal to 0.9 mm, technical grade hexane or gasoline vapors shall be used for all tests in this section except technical grade propane may be used for the deflagration/detonation tests in section 14.3. For vapors with a MESG less than 0.9 mm, the
specific vapor (or alternatively, a media with a MESG less than or equal to the MESG of the vapor) must be used as the test medium in all Section 14 tests.
14.1.2 Hexane, propane, gasoline and other test vapors shall be mixed with air to form the most easily ignitable mixture. (5)
14.2 Endurance Burn Test Procedure
14.2.1 An endurance burning test shall be carried out as follows:
188.8.131.52 The test rig shall consist of an apparatus producing an explosive mixture, a small tank with a diaphragm, a prototype of the detonation flame arrester and a firing source in close proximity to the test device (see Figure 1). The detonation flame arrester shall be installed so that the mixture emission is vertically upwards, or installed in the position for which it is designed and which will cause the most severe heating of the device under the prescribed endurance burn conditions. In this position the mixture shall be ignited.
184.108.40.206 Endurance burn test shall start by using the most easily ignitable test vapor/air mixture with the aid of a pilot flame or a spark igniter at the outlet. The flammable mixture may be reignited as necessary in the course of the endurance burn.
220.127.116.11 Temperature measurement will be performed on the surface of the arrester element half way between the center and its edge.
18.104.22.168 By varying the proportions of the flammable mixture and the flow rate, the detonation flame arrester shall be heated by a stable flame on the surface of the arrester until the highest obtainable temperature is reached on the ignited side or until the temperature on the side which was not ignited (protected side) rises 100 °C.
22.214.171.124 The flammable mixture proportions will then be varied again until the conditions which result in the highest temperature on the protected side are achieved. This temperature shall be maintained for a period of ten minutes, after which the flow shall be stopped and the conditions observed. The highest attainable temperature is considered to have been reached when any subsequent rise of temperature does not exceed 0.5 °C per minute over a ten minute period.
126.96.36.199 If difficulty arises in establishing the highest attainable temperature on the protected side, the following criteria shall apply. When the increase in temperature on the protected side occurs so slowly that its temperature does not rise 100 °C, the conditions which produced the highest temperature on the ignited side of the arrester will be maintained for two hours. For the condition in which the temperature on the protected side continues to rise at a rate in excess of 0.5 °C per minute for a 10 minute period, endurance burning shall be contin
ued, using the most severe conditions of flammable mixtures and flow rate, for a period of two hours. In either of these cases, at the end of the two hour period, the flow shall be stopped and the conditions observed. The two hour interval shall be measured commencing with the setting of the conditions which produce the most severe conditions of mixture and flow rate. For Type I detonation flame arresters, flame passage shall not occur during this test. For Type II detonation flame arresters, the maximum temperature obtained, and the time elapsed from the time when the most severe conditions are set to when flame passage occurs, shall be recorded. However, for Type II detonation flame arresters the test may be terminated 15 minutes after setting the most severe conditions on the protected side.
14.3 Deflagration/Detonation Test Procedure
14.3.1 A detonation flame arrester shall be installed at one end of a pipe of the same diameter as the inlet of the detonation flame arrester (see Figure 2). The length and configuration of the test pipe shall develop a stable detonation (6) at the device and shall be capable, by change in its length or configuration, of developing deflagrations and unstable (overdriven) detonations as measured on the side of the pipe where ignition occurs (run-up side). For deflagration testing, two test piping arrangements shall be used on the outlet side of the detonation flame arrester (the side which is not ignited). In both of the following end arrangements, the outlet side pipe diameter shall be equal to that on the run-up side. In one arrangement, the outlet side pipe shall be at least 10 pipe diameters long with a plastic bag over the free end. (Alternate end of pipe closures are also acceptable provided they easily give way during the course of the test, and the closure allows the required gas concentration to be maintained throughout the test piping arrangement.) In the other arrangement the outlet side pipe shall be fitted with a restriction located 0.6 meters from the outlet side arrester flange. The size of the restriction for each nominal size detonation flame arrester shall be as follows:
The entire pipe shall be filled with the most easily ignitable vapor/air mixture to a test pressure corresponding to or greater than the upper limit of the device's maximum operating pressure (see 11.1.7). In order to obtain this test pressure, a device such as a bursting disc may be fitted on the open end of the device in place of the plastic bag. The concentration of the mixture should be verified by appropriate testing of the gas composition. The vapor/air mixture shall then be ignited.
14.3.2 Flame speeds shall be measured by optical devices capable of providing accuracy of -5%. These devices shall be situated no more than a distance equal to 3% of the length of the run-up pipe apart with one device no more than 8 inches from the end of the test pipe to which the detonation flame arrester is attached. In addition, each outlet arrangement described in paragraph 14.3.1 shall be fitted with an optical device located no more than 8 inches from the detonation flame arrester outlet. (7)
14.3.3 Explosion pressures within the pipe shall be measured by a high frequency transducer situated in the test pipe no more than 8 inches from the run-up side of the housing of the detonation flame arrester.
14.3.4 Using the first end arrangement (10 pipe diameter outlet) described in paragraph 14.3.1, a series of tests shall be conducted to determine the test pipe length and configuration that results in the maximum unstable (overdriven) detonation having the maximum measured flame speed at the detonation flame arrester. (These tests may also be carried out using a single length of pipe with igniters spaced at vary. ing distances from the arrester.) The flame speeds, explosion pressures and test pipe configurations shall be recorded for each of these tests. The piping configuration that resulted in the highest recorded unstable (overdriven) detonation flame speed shall be used, and the device shall be subjected to at least four additional unstable (overdriven) detonations. In the course of testing, the device shall also demonstrate its ability to withstand five stable detonations, five deflagrations (as determined by flame speed) where AP/P. was less than 1 and five deflagrations (as determined by flame speed) where AP/P. was greater than 1 but less than 10. Initiation of deflagrations shall be at several locations to generate a range for AP/P. Deflagration tests using the restricted outlet arrangement described in paragraph 14.3.1 shall then be conducted. In these tests the device shall demonstrate its ability to stop five deflagrations (as determined by flame speed) generated by the same configurations which resulted in AP/ P. being less than 1 during the deflagration tests which were conducted without the restricted end arrangements, and five defla
grations (as determined by flame speed) generated by the same configurations which resulted in AP/P. being greater than 1 but less than 10 during the deflagration tests which were conducted without the restricted end arrangements. No evidence of flame passage shall occur during these tests. The flame speeds and explosion pressures for each of these tests shall be recorded.
14.3.5 A device that successfully passes the tests of 14.3.4 shall be considered to be directional (suitable for arresting a detonation advancing only from the direction as tested) except;
188.8.131.52 A device may be tested according to 14.3.4 for detonations approaching from either direction, or
184.108.40.206 The design of the device is symmetrical where each end may be considered to be identical when approached by a detonation from either direction.
(1) Available from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103.
(2) Available from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.
(3) Available from the International Maritime Organization, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, England.
(4) Available from the International Electrotechnical Commission, 1 rue de Varembe, Geneva, Switzerland.
(5) See IEC Publication 79-1.
(6) Some data are available for the estimation of flame speeds in horizontal pipes without detonation flame arresters. Some data indicate that the presence of small obstacles, fittings or bends in the test pipe can accelerate the flame speeds appreciably.
(7) Other pressure and/or flame speed measuring techniques may be used if effective.