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the two retrofits are combined, the emissions reductions obtained from each can be considered additive. (38 FR 15197, June 8, 1973)
APPENDIX O The following guidelines are intended to assist in the development of regulations and procedures to comply with the requirements of $ 51.18.
1. With respect to facilities which would significantly affect air quality because of emisisons arising from associated mobile source activity, review procedures should cover any facility which can reasonably be expected to cause or induce sufficient mobile source activity so that the resulting emissions might be expected to interfere with the attainment or maintenance of a national standard. The likelihood that there will be such interference will vary with local conditions, such as current air quality, meteorology, topography, and growth rates. For this reason, it is not practicable to establish definitive nationally applicable criteria as to the types or sizes of such facilities which should be reviewed. There are, in however, certain types of facilities which generally should be considered for review. Experience and estimating techniques have indicated that the air quality impact of certain types and sizes of facilities is potentially signifi. cant regardless of their location. They include major highways and airports, large regional shopping centers, major municipal sports complexes or stadiums, major parking facilities, and large amusement and recreational facilities. The above examples are not meant to be exhaustive. Local conditions must be considered in determining which types of facilities will be subject to new source review. .
New source review procedures must also consider the impact of a new or modified source in political jurisdictions other than the one in which it is located. Construction or modification of that source must be prevented if the impact in another political jurisdiction is great enough to interfere with attainment or maintenance of a national standard, whether or not there is significant impact in the political jurisdiction of the facility.
2. Frequently, a substantial amount of information will be needed to make the determinations required by $ 51.18. In addition to general information on the nature, design. and size of a facility, data on its expected mode of operation also will be needed in order to estimate the types and amounts of air pollutant emissions likely to be associated with it. The operational data needed to make such estimates may include time periods of operation, antipicated numbers of employees and/or patrons, expected transportation routes, modes, and habits of employees and/ or patrons, and so on.
Data on present air quality, topography, and meteorology and on emissions from other sources in the affected area may also be necessary.
In those cases where an environmental im. pact statement (EIS) has been or will be prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act or similar State or local laws, the EIS may well be an excellent source of information to aid in making the determinations required by $ 51.18. Accordingly, agencies responsible for new source reviews are encouraged to make such use of EIS wherever possible in order to avoid needless duplication of information gathering and analysis.
3. Wherever possible, modeling techniques for approximating the effects of facilities with associated mobile source activity on air quality should be used. A simplified relationship between emission density (pollutant mass/ time/area), size of an area (such as & parking lot) and maximum downwind concentration of carbon monoxide is given in figure 1. This relationship was derived using & technique similar to one used by Hanna. The relationships depicted in figure 1 are based on assumptions of flat terrain, average atmospheric stability (class D) with a steady wind speed of 1 meter/second, constant wind direction, even distribution of emissions at ground level over the area, and insignificant edge effects. Various assumptions are needed to calculate precisely the emission density from a facility. including vehicle speeds within the area, the distribution of automobile ages (which will determine which vehicle emission factor to use), the average area occupied by a vehicle, the fraction of the total area which may be occupied by vehicles, and the maximum number of vehicles running simultaneously for 1-hour and 8hour periods (to determine if either carbon monoxide ambient air quality standard will be exceeded).
Prior to employing the emission density-air quality relationship in figure 1, other factors may first have to be considered in determining whether ambient air quality standards will be exceeded. These factors include measured or estimated existing air quality, the impact of any point sources planned on or near the facility and the impact of any trai. fic routes on or near the facility passing within the close proximity of critical receptors. Also, consideration should be given to any factors which differ substantially from the assumptions made in the figure 1 relationship, such as topography, meteorology, aerodynamic effects, and spatial distribution of motor vehicles, height of emission, and any facility configuration which would constrain the dispersion of pollutants (such as a parking deck).
1 Hanna, S. R., A Simple Method of Calculating Dispersion from Urban Area Sources, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, vol. 21, pp. 714-777 (1971).
In addition to providing an estimate of the impact of individual area sources, relationships similar to those depicted in figure 1 can be of value in determining which types and sizes of facilities should be subject to review.
A technique incorporating the figure 1 relationship exists and will be available to the States and through the regional offices. Seyeral additional techniques to evaluate the impact of indirect sources of carbon monoxide are currently under study and will be made avallable when developed.
The following publications are among those describing other available techniques for estimating air quality impact of direct and indirect sources of emissions:
(1) Turner, D. B.; Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates, PHS No, 999– AP-26 (1969).
(2) US EPA; Compllation of Alr Pollutant Emission Factors OAP NO. AP-42 (Feb. 1972).
(3) Briggs, G. A.; Plume Rise; TID-25075 (1969), Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va. 22151.
(4) Mancuso, R. L., and Ludwig, F. L.; Users Manual for the APRAC-1A Urban Ditfusion Model Computer Program, Stanford
Research Institute Report prepared for EPA under contract. CPA 3-68 (1-69) (Sept. 1972). Avallable at Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va. 22161.
(5) Zimmerman, J. R., and Thompson, R. S.; User's Guide for HIWAY, paper under preparation, Met. Lab., EPA, RTP, N.C.
(6) USGRA: Proceedings of Symposium on Multi-Source Urban Diffusion Models, OAP Publication No. AP-86 (1970).
(7) Air Quality Implementation Planning Program, volume I, Operators Manual, PB 198–299 (1970). Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va. 22151.
(8) Hanna, S. R.; Simple Methods of Calculating Dispersion from Urban Area Sources, paper presented at Conference on Air Pollution Meteorology, Raleigh, N.C. (Apr. 1971). Avallable at Clearinghouse for Federal Sclentific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va. 22151.
(9) ASME: Recommended Guide for the Prediction of Dispersion of Alrborne Efluents, United Engineering Center, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017 (1968).
(10) Slade, D. H. (editor): Meteorology and Atomic Energy 1968, USAEC (1968).
Figure 1. - Relationships of emission density, area source size, and carbon monoxide concentrations
SUBCHAPTER C-AIR PROGRAMS
PART 52-APPROVAL AND PROMULGA. Sec. TION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS
52.126 Subpart A-General Provisions
52.127 Sec. 62.01 Definitions,
52.128 62.02 Introduction.
52.129 62.03 Extensions. 62.04 Classification of regions.
52.130 62.05 Public availablity of emission data.
52.131 62.06 Legal authority. 62.07 Control strategies.
52.132 62.08 Rules and regulations. 62.09 Compliance schedules.
52.133 62.10 Review of new source and modifica
52.135 62.11 Prevention of air pollution emer
52.136 gency episodes. 62.12 Source surveillance. 62.13 Air quality surveillance; resources;
52.170 Intergovernmental cooperation
52.171 62.14 State ambient air quality standards.
52.172 62.15 Public availability of plans.
52.173 62.16 Submission to Administrator.
52.174 62.17 Severability of provisions.
52.175 62.18 Abbreviations.
52.176 62.19 Revision of plans by Administrator. 62.20 Attainment dates for national
standards. 62.21 Significant deterioration of air 52.220 quality.
52.221 62.22 Maintenance of national standards. 52.222
52.223 Subpart B-Alabama
52.224 62.50 Identification of plan.
52.225 62.51 Classification of regions.
52.226 62.52 (Reserved) 62.53 Approval status. 52.54 Attainment dates for national 52.227
standards. 62.55 (Reserved) Subpart C—Alaska
52.228 62.70 Identification of plan. 62.71 Classification of regions.
52.229 62.72 Approval status. 62.73 (Reserved] 62.74 Legal authority. 52.75 (Reserved
· 52.230 52.76 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.77–52.79 (Reserved] 52.80 Intergovernmental cooperation. 52.231 62.81 Attainment dates for national standards.
52.232 62.82 Extensions.
52.233 62.83 Transportation and land use con
52.235 52.84 Compliance schedules.
52.236 Subpart D-Arizona
52.237 62.120 Identification of plan.
52.238 62.121 Classification of regions.
52.239 52.122 Extensions. 62.123 Approval status.
52.240 62.124 (Reserved)
52.241 62.125 Control strategy and regulations:
Control strategy and regulations:
Particulate matter Control strategy and regulations:
Nitrogen dioxide. [Reserved Review of new sources and modica
tions. Source surveillance. Attainment dates for national
standards. Transportation and land use con
trols. Rules and regulations. Compliance schedules. Resources. Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.
Subpart E-Arkansas Identification of plan. Classification of regions. Approval status. Compliance schedules. (Reserved) Resources, Attainment dates for national standards.
Subpart F-California Identification of plan. Classifications of regions. Extensions. Approval status. General requirements. Legal authority. Control strategy and regulations:
Particulate matter, San Joaquin
Valley Intrastate Region. Control strategy and regulations:
Particulate matter, Metropolitan
Los Angeles Intrastate Region. Regulations: Particulate matter,
Southeast Desert Intrastate Re
gion. Control strategy and regulations:
Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los An
geles Intrastate Region, Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide, Metropolitan Los Angeles, Intra
state Region. Prevention of alr pollution emer
gency episodes. [Reserved] Review of new sources and modifica
tions. Source survelllance. Resources. [Reserved] Request for 2-year extensions. Attainment dates for national
standards. Transportation and land use con.
trol. Compliance schedules. Control strategy: Photochemical
oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.
Subpart M-Hawaii Sec.
Sec. 52.320 Identification of plan.
52.620 Identification of plan. 52.321 Classification of regions.
52.621 Classification of regions. 52 322 Extensions.
52.622 Extensions. 52.323 Approval status.
52.623 Approval status. 52.324 Legal authority.
52.624-52.627 (Reserved] 52 325 Attainment dates for national 52.628 Attainment dates for national standards.
standards. 52.326 Transportation and land-use con
Subpart N-Idaho trols. 52.327 Compliance schedules.
52.670 Identification of plan. 52.328 Control strategy: Photochemical
52.671 Classification of regions. oxidants (hydrocarbons) and car
52.672 Extensions. bon monoxides.
52.673 Approval status.
52.674 Legal authority. Subpart H-Connecticut
52.675 (Reserved) 52.370 Identification of plan.
52.676 Control strategy: Sulfur oxidok 52.371 Classification of regions.
Eastern Washington-Northern 52.372 Extensions.
Idaho Interstate Region. 52.373 Approval status.
52.677 Compliance schedules. 52.374 Attainment dates for national 52.678 (Reserved) standards.
52.680 Attainment dates for national Subpart Delaware
standards. 52.420 Identification of plan,
Subpart 0 Illinois 52.421 Classification of regions. 52.422 Approval status.
52.720 Identification of plan. 52.423–52.427 (Reserved
52.721 Classification of region. 52.428 Attainment dates for national
52.722 Approval status. standards,
52.723 Prevention of air pollution amor52.429 Compliance schedules.
52.724-52.725 (Reserved) Subpart 1-District of Columbia
52.726 Rules and regulations. 52.470 Identification of plan.
52.727 Attainment dates for national 52.471 Classification of regions.
standards. 52.472 Approval status.
52.728 Transportation and land use con52.473 (Reserved)
trols. 52.474 Legal authority.
52.729 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 62.475 (Reserved)
52.730 Compliance schedules. 52.476 Compliance schedules.
Subpart P-Indiana 52.477–52.478 (Reserved) 52.479 Source survelllance.
52.770 Identification of plan.
52.771 Classification of regions. 52.480 (Reserved)
52.772 Extensions. 52.481 Attainment dates for national
52.773 Approval status. standards.
52.774 (Reserved) 52.482 Transportation and land use con
52.775 Legal authority. trols.
52.776 Control strategy: Particulato mat52.483 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide
ter. and photochemical oxidants (hy 52.777 Control strategy: Photochomion drocarbons).
oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.484 Resources.
52.778 Compliance schedules. 52.485 Intergovernmental cooperation.
52.779 Air quality surveillance.
52.780 Review of new sources and modischSubpart K-Florida
tions. 62.520 Identification plan.
62.781 Rules and regulations. 62.621 Classifications of regions.
52.782 Request for 18-month extensions. 62.522 Approval status.
52.783 Attainment dates for national 52.523 Attainment date for national
52.784 Transportation and land uso con52.524 Compliance schedules.
52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxido. Subpart 1-Georgia
Subpart klowa 52.570 Identification of plan.
52.820 52.571 Classification of region.
Identification of plan.
52.821 Classification of regions. 52.672 Approval status.
52.822 Approval status. 52.673-62.574 [Reserved)
52.823 General requirements. 62.675 Attainment dates for national 52.824 Legal authority. standards.
52.825 Compliance schedules.
Sec. 52.826 Source surveillance. 52.827 Attainment dates for national
Subpart R-Kansas 52.870 Identification of plan. 52.871 Classification of regions. 52.872 (Reserved] 52.873 Approval status. 52.874 Legal authority. 52.875 General requirements. 52.876 Compliance schedules. 52.877 Prevention of air pollution emer
gency episodes. 52.878 Review of new sources and modifi
cations. 52.879 Attainment dates for national
standards. 62.880 Transportation and land use con
trols. 52.881 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.
Subpart Kentucky 62.920 Identification of plan. 52.921 Classification of regions. 62.922 Extensions. 52.923 Approval status. 62.924 Legal authority. 62.925 [Reserved] 62.926 Attainment dates for national
standards. 53.927 Compliance schedules.
Subpart T-Louisiana 52.970 Identification of plan. 52.971 Classification of regions. 52.972 Approval status. 62.973 Control strategy and regulations:
Photochemical oxidants (hydro
carbons). 52.974—52.975 (Reserved) 62.976 Review of new sources and modifică
tions. 52.977 (Reserved] 52.978 Resources. 62.979 Attainment dates for national
standards. 52.980 Compliance schedules. 52.981 (Reserved] 52.982 (Reserved]
Subpart U-Maine 52.1020 Identification of plan, 52.1021 Classification of regions. " 52.1022 Approval status. 52.1023 (Reserved] 52.1024 Attainment dates for national
Subpart V-Maryland 52.1070 Identification of plan. 52.1071 Classification of region. 52.1072 Extensions. 52.1073 Approval status. 52.1074 Legal authority. 52.1075 Control strategy. 52.1076 (Reserved] 52.1077 Source surveillance.
Sec. 52.1078 Attainment dates for national
standards. 52.1079 Transportation and land use con
trols. 52.1080 Compliance schedules. 52.1081 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide
and photochemical oxidants (hy
drocarbons). 52.1082 (Reserved] 52.1083 Resources. 52.1084 Intergovernmental cooperation.
Subpart W- Massachusetts 52.1120 Identification of plan. 52.1121 Classification of regions. 52.1122 Extensions. 52.1123 Approval status. 52.1124 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.1125 Compliance schedule. 52.1126 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52.1127 Attainment dates for national
standards. 52.1128 Transportation and land use con
trols. 52.1129 Control strategy: Photochemical
oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.
Subpart X-Michigan 52.1170 Identification of plan. 52.1171 Classification of regions. 52.1172 Approval status. 52.1173 (Reserved] 52.1174 Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.1175 Compliance schedules. 52.1176 Reviews of new sources and modif
cations. 52.1177 Attainment dates for national
Subpart Y–Minnesota 52.1220 Identification of plan. 52.1221 Classification of regions. 52.1222 (Reserved] 52.1223 Approval status, 52.1224 General requirements. 52.1225 (Reserved) 52.1226 Attainment dates for national
standards. 52.1227 Transportation and land use con
trols. 52.1228 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.
Subpart Z-Mississippi 52.1270 Identification of plan, 52.1271 Classification of regions. 52.1272 Approval status, 52.1273 Attainment dates' for national
Subpart AA-Missouri 52.1320 Identification of plan. 52.1321 Classification of region. 52.1322 [Reserved] 52.1323 Approval status.' 52.1324 General requirements. 52.1325 . Legal authority.