« PreviousContinue »
meant to convey the idea of its being of a dilute or aqueous confikence. The cause here may be different; but the effect, as far as difcoverable by experiment, will certainly be the fame; dilution and attenuation being qualities not diftinguishable, as we imagine, by common feasible telts." Monthly Review, November, p. 341.
From feveral parts of Mr. Hewfon's Experimental Inquiry it ap pears, that by the term coagulable lymph, Mr. Hewfon meant, that part of the blood which gives folidity to the craffamentum, and retains a folid form when feparated from the ferum and red globules. As p. 6. "The craffamentum confills of two parts, of which one gives it folidity, and is termed the coagulable lymphs; and of another, which gives the red colour to the blood, and is called the red globules. Thefe two parts can be feparated by washing the craffamentum in water, the red particles diffolving in the water, whilft the coagulable lymph remains fulid." And again, p. 106. "We sometimes fee almoft the whole coagulable lymph collected at the top, forming a firm craft, which being free from the ferum, as well as from the globules, contracts the farface into a hollow form:" though fométimes “there is not time för its being feparated from the ferum, of which it therefore contains a confiderable quantity, and is of courfe more spongy and cellular."-In this laft fentence, the coagulable lymph is as clearly diftinguished from the ferum which it contains in forming the white crutt; as in the former it is diftinguished from the red globules, with which it anites to form the craffamentum. I have followed Mr. Hewfon in ufing the term in this ftrict and proper fenfe, though both of us have fometimes used it in a more lax way, for the white cruft itfelf found upon the craffamentum.
By the term attenuation, Mr. Hewfon meant to exprefs the ap proach of a fubitance towards the state of perfect fluidity by an alter. ation made in the fubftance iuelf; by dilation, the approach towards perfect fluidity, by the addition of fome other fubftance of greater tenuity. When Mr. Hewfon afferts, that the coagulable lymph is attenuated by inflammation, he does not mean to fay, that inflammation caufes the lymph to be of a more dilute or aqueous confiftence than usual, by the addition of ferum, or any other fluid of greater tenuity than illelf; for he exprefly fays, that "the whole mafs of blood feems to be thinner than the ferum alone; or, that the coagulable lymph feems to be fo much attenuated in thefe cafes, as even to dilate the ferum." P. 55. . But his meaning plainly is,
On the contrary, Mr. Hewon declares his opinion to be, that the more atte ared the coagulable lymph is, the less dilute is its confiftence after coagulation. "The fize is fometimes very firm, and at other times fpongy and cellular; these differences in its denfity are, 1 fulpect, in proportion to the degree of attenuation and "feffened difpofition of the blood to coagulate; for the more the lymph is attenuated, and the flower it coagulate, the more will the film be able to feparate it from the red globules and the ferum: thence perhaps it is, that we fometimes fee the whole coagulable lymph collected at the top, forming a firm cruft, &c. But when the bloo has its difpofition to coagulate lefs diminished-then-the lymph-contains a confiderable quantity of ferum, and is of courfe more spongy aud cellular.” P. 105,
It is certain likewife, that Mr. Hewfon did not think that the coagulable lymph was rendered thin, in its fluid flate, by the admixture of ferum; because he expressly fays, that the coagulable lymph, when attenuated, diluted the ferum. P. 55
that inflammation increafes the tenuity of the lymph, while circulating in the veffels, by altering its properties, and that this tenuity remains for fome time after the blood is let out of the veffels, previously to its coagulation.
The force of Mr. Hewfon's arguments, which are drawn from the properties of the fluid obferved upon the furface of blood, when a white crust is about to be formed, depends entirely upon the fuppofition, that this fluid is coagulable lymph. My experiments have, therefore, in the plainet manner fhewn thefe arguments to be inconclufive, by fhewing that the fluid is not coagulable lymph; but that fometimes, and fometimes near of it are fomething else, viz. ferum. Indeed, it is needlefs to attend to any arguments, which are defigned to prove that this fluid is thinner than ferum, as Mr. Hewfon afferts; fince the teftimony of the fenfes will foon convince any one of the contrary, who will give himfelf the trouble of examining it.
Your next paragraph relates to an inconfiftency into which you fuppofe I have fallen by afferting, that the blood may, at the fame time, have an increafed proportion of coagulable lymph and ferum. "How these two oppofite principles in the blood (one giving it denfity, and the other tenuity) can both be augmented at the fame time, and from the fame caufe, we own ourfeives at a lofs to conceive." Review, P. 342.
I have no where faid, that the coagulable lymph and ferum are increafed by the Jame caufe; on the contrary, I have exprefsly attributed their increafe to different caufes, as in the following paffages: That the proportion of coagulable lymph is increased by inflammation, will be allowed by all,' &c. Obf. on the Blood, p. zz. • We need not wonder, that the watery liquors, which are drunk plentifully in thefe diforders, should thin the blood.' Ib. p. 28.
Neither have I faid that it (viz. the fame thing) is at the fame time thicker and thinner. But I have faid, that the proportion of coagulable lymph and ferum are fometimes increased at the fame time; and I cannot fee the difficulty, either of conceiving the poffibility, or allowing the reality of this fact. Whenever we fee the craffamentum of a very firm texture, or covered with a strong buffy coat, and throwing off a great quantity of ferum, (which is the cafe in violent inflammatory diforders after repeated bleeding) then we fee the proportion of lymph and ferum increafed at the fame time. And whenever this happens, the whole mafs of blood will look thia as it flows from the vein; though the craffamentum, by having more than its ufual proportion of coagulable lymph, will be of an increafed tenacity.
The laft part of your criticifm, which I fhall beg leave to take notice of, would have been obviated by comparing Mr. Hewfon's expreffions with mine, in our different accounts of the experiment made on the blood of flaughtered fheep. You would not, I think, have imagined, that our difference might arife in part, from the ambiguous ufe of a term. "One caufe of fallacy, indeed, we difcern, in the different idea annexed to the term coagulation. Mr. Hey ob. ferves, that the last blood was more vifcid as it flowed, though it was the longest in coagulating completely. Now vifcidity differs only in
degree from coagulation, and therefore this might appear to Mr. Hewson as a very fpeedy, though incomplete coagulation." Review, p. 342. The following comparison of our defcriptions of the laft itage of the experiment will fet this matter in its true light:
Mr. Hewfon fays,
My account runs thus, 1. "That blood which flowed laft appeared the moft vifcid; or, fuffered a partial coagulation as it flowed. Obf. p. 28.
1. "The blood-which flowed when the animal became very weak, was quite fluid as it came from the veffels. Exp. In. 70.
2. "Yet had hardly been re- 2. "Yet was the latest in coceived into the cup before it con-agulating completely, and had the gealed-And-coagulated in an in- foftelt craffamentum." Ib. ftant after it once began." Ib. 71.
So that, whatever was the caufe," the refults" of our experiment, as you observe, "were directly contrary" to each other.
The defign of my little effay has led me to take notice of the opinions of feveral authors whom I respect; but I have aimed at doing this with fuch candour as I wish to experience from others. From fome excellent writings, and a fhort perfonal acquaintance, I judged Mr. Hewson to be a perfon of great ingenuity and induftry and I fincerely join with you in thinking, that experimental philofophy. fuftained a great loss by his death.
Before I conclude this letter, permit me to offer one query for your confideration, Whether it does not tend to caft obscurity on the theory of fizy blood, to speak of a change in the nature of the coagulable lymph, as a thing diftinct from a change in its quantity ? For if the proper definition of coagulable lymph be, that which gives tenacity to the craffamentum, and retains a folid form, when feparated from the other conftituent parts of the blood; it plainly follows, that when there is no tenacity in the craffamentum, nor any thing in the blood that retains a folid form after the feparation of the ferum and red globules, there is then no coagulable lymph. It is furely very unphilofophical to fay, that the coagulable lymph, in fuch a cafe, remains undiminished, but has changed its properties; for the idea we have of this fubitance is, that of fomething exhibiting thefe properties. I am, Gentlemen, your obedient humble fervant,
Leeds, Jan. 27, 1780.
The receipt of a letter figned Juftus is acknowledged; the Writer has our thanks for his hints; but we have no thoughts, at prefent, of printing a General Index to our monthly collections: fee the laft page of our Review for February. If any gentleman, or bookfeller, chufes to risk a publication of that kind, we fhall be far from oppofing the defign; and any affiftance that we can lend toward carrying it into execution, may be depended on,-provided the plan be fuch as we can approve.
ttt A. Z. recommends to our notice a publication entitled, The Reftitution of all Things, by J. White. As we have not feen this piece advertised, we are at a lofs where to enquire for a copy of it.
ART. I. Conclufion of our Review of the new Edition of Shakspeare, by Steevens, &c. See Review for January.
WE E now fit down to fulfil our engagement to the Public
by prefenting them with such extracts from the annotations on Shakspeare, as, we prefume, cannot fail of proving fatisfactory to the admirers of that illuftrious Bard.
In the first Scene, Act II. of the Tempeft, Profpero says to Ferdinand,
"Have given you a third of my own life."
Mr. Theobald was diffatisfied with the reading, and altered the text, by fubftituting thread for third. Dr. Johnson restored the old reading, and apprehends that Profpero, by calling his daughter Miranda "a third of his own life," alludes to fome logical diftinction of caufes, making her the final caufe.
Though this conjecture (fays Mr. Hawkins) be very ingenious, I cannot think the poet had any fuch idea in his mind. The word thread was formerly fpelt third, as appears from the following paffage in the comedy of Mucidorus (1619):
Long mailt thou live, and when the fifters fhall decree "To cut in twain the twisted third of life "Then let him die," &c.
Mr. Tollet adopts Mr. Theobald's emendation, and obferves, that Profpero confiders himfelf as the flock or parent-tree, and his daughter as a fibre or portion of himself, and for whose benefit he himself lives. In this fenfe the word is ufed in Markham's English Husbandman (1635) "Every branch and third of the root," &c. Mr. Steevens confirms Mr. Hawkins's obfervation concerning the ancient method of fpelling the word thread, by a curious quotation from an old poem, entitled, Lingua, publifhed in 607:
"For as a fub le fpider closely fitting
The following quotation, however (continues Mr. Steevens), fhould feem to place the meaning beyond all difpute. In Acolaftus, a comedy (1529), is this paffage :-" One of worldly fhame's children, of his countenance, and THREDE of his body."
Our ingenious Editor hath well illuftrated a paffage in the Two Gentlemen of Verona, by a fimilar expreffion in a contemporary writer. Valentine fays,
"Difdain to root the fummer fawelling flower."
• I once thought (fays Mr. Steevens) that the poet had written fummer-fmelling flower: but the epithet which ftands in the text I have fince met with in the tranflation of Lucan by Sir Arthur Gorges (1614), B. VIII. P. 554.
"no Roman chieftaine should
• The original is-ripafque æftate tumentes, 1. 829. May likewife renders it" fummer-fwelled banks."-The fummer-fwelling flower, is the flower which fwells in fummer till it expands itfelf into bloom.'
The implacable hatred that Shakspeare bore to Sir Thomas Lucy, the gentleman who profecuted him for ftealing deer out of his park at Charlcott in Warwickshire, hath been frequently taken notice of. His commentators are agreed in fuppofing that the poet hath burlefqued the Knight in the character of Justice Shallow, in the Merry Wives of Windfor. He hath given the fame arms to both and indulged himself in a vein of low humour on the fimilitude of the found between luce and Loufe. [Vid. the first Scene.] King at Arms, and well known from the fhare he had in comMr. William Oldys (Norroy piling the Biographia Britannica) among the collections which he left for a Life of Shakspeare, obferves that "there was a very aged gentleman living in the neighbourhood of Stratford (where he died fifty years fince) who had not only heard from feveral old people in that town, of Shakspeare's tranfgreffion; but could remember the firft ftanza of that bitter ballad, which repeating to one of his acquaintance, he preferved it in writing; and here it is, neither better nor worse, but faithfully tranfcribed from the copy which his relation very courteously communicated to me :
*Pope in his Effay on Man defcribes the exquifite delicacy of the fenfe of feeling in the spider in a manner exactly fimilar to that of the old poet.