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The whole aid program, of course, is a primary instrument of our national security. But the Peace Corps gives tangible expression to the fact that most Americans also believe foreign aid is justified, at least in part, by our desire to share our resources as a good neighbor. The Peace Corps therefore can help overcome the false impression abroad that the United States is only interested in the less developed nations for what we can get out of them. And thus it can help reenforce the truth which is that we are for freedom and not simply against communism, We are concerned that freedom and not just stability shall win in Latin America, in Africa, and in Asia during this decade of development.

The Peace Corps has become the most popular and talked about part of the whole aid program. Few are opposed to the Peace Corps, but I find that many have nagging doubts as to its practicality. Can it actually recruit skilled volunteers who can withstand the rigors of life and work in the tropics for 2 years? Will the less-developed countries actually find the Peace Corps useful or will they regard it as a joyride for curious American youngsters? We won't know whether the Peace Corps is a success or a failure until it has been in operation for some time. But the evidence to date strongly indicates that it will be successful on all counts.

I can testify from my own recent visit to Africa as a member of a Senate study mission that the services of the Peace Corps are desperately needed in these newly emerging nations. Most of the African States have a small nucleus of colonial-trained native administrators and technicians. But there is little or nothing between this small elite and the great mass of the people who are intelligent, but illiterate and untrained. This is where the Peace Corps can be useful, in helping to develop a middle range of training and education to bridge the education and training gap between the leaders and the people. The making of a modern nation requires that the fruits of economic progress be disseminated widely among the populace and that education shall become the norm rather than the exception.

There is no lack of interest in the Peace Corps among the less-developed countries. Twenty-five of them have already asked for a total of 20,000 corpsnien. Agreements have been signed for five projects already and training has begun in two instances. Surveyors and engineers will go to Tanganyika ; farm extension workers to Colombia; schoolteachers to the Philippines; rural development trainees to Chile; and those trained in animal husbandry to St. Lucia in the West Indies.

The response of American young people to the Peace Corps has been overwhelming. Some 11,000 completed applications have been received in Washington. Almost 4,000 persons took the Peace Corps entrance examinations in May and 1,500 took a second battery of tests. Another examination will be given in July when additional recruits will be needed. At the present time new applications are reportedly coming in at the rate of 100 a day. This is a phenomenal outpouring of interest from what some cynical commentators refer to as the beat, sick, and silent generation.

The quality of applicants has been high and many have practical skills that are in great demand. Analysis of the first 4,800 completed applications showed that 1,000 could speak Spanish and an equal number French. Over 700 knew how to run a tractor ; 616 had professional skills as carpenters; 370 were experienced in the use of biological laboratory equipment; and 270 were professional nurses.

Newspaper accounts indicate that the first two groups of 108 Peace Corps recruits that will go to Colombia and Tanganyika are already undergoing rigorous training. Those going to Colombia this fall are studying Spanish for 16 hours a week with another 10 hours for Latin American and Colombian history. There will be 6 hours a week of U.S. history and social conditions and 9 hours of community development and related technical problems that will face the volunteers in Colombia. There is also a short course on how to load and unload a mule. Altogether 60 hours of the week are filled with required training. The daily schedule begins at 5:30 a.m. and ends at 9 in the evening, 6 days a week, for 2 months. Life in the Peace Corps will not be a joyride.

One reasonably might be skeptical of the ability of these young Americans to live and work along with the local people in the less-developed countries for 2 years, but experience indicates it can be done. Small groups of American young adults have been performing Peace Corps-type activities overseas for many years. Look at the Friends Service Coinmittee, the Experiment in International Living, and a host of denominational religious organizations. They have done it. The International Voluntary Services, in fact, has conducted projects on a contract basis for the International Cooperation Administration in Vietnam, the United Arab Republic, and other countries during the last few years. Their work has been successful in every instance both in terms of a job well done and also in terms of human relations with the people they were helping.

There has been particular interest in the Peace Corps in my State of Utah since the dominant church there-the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, more commonly known as the Mormon Church-has for more than a century been sending Mormon missionaries to almost every country on earth who successfully establish rapport with the people there.

The missionaries are usually young men and sometimes young women-in their early twenties. They live with the people of the country in which they are visiting for 242 years. In this period they become well acquainted with the customs and traditions of these people, and, of course, fluent in their language.

Most of them return to Utah enthusiastic about helping those whom they have served to a better life. We in Utah know therefore that it is possible to find young men and women who will dedicate themselves with devotion to an endeavor like the Peace Corps—we know that the Peace Corps can be made a success.

Apart from the very real contribution which the Peace Corps can make to the development of the less-developed countries, I am also impressed with the educational value this experience can be to the young Americans involved in it The Peace Corps offers an almost unparalleled opportunity for young Americans to gain a realistic appreciation for the quality of life and thought in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. This is important because it increases the presently small supply of Americans who have some knowledge and understanding of the new and resurgent nations that are beginning to play such a significant role in world affairs.

The combination of these many factors has convinced me that the Peace Corps should be given permanent status by act of Congress, and as a cosponsor I therefore urge action on the present bill before this committee.

SUMMARY INDEX

49

9

(Names of witnesses are listed alphabetically in contents)

Page
AFL-CIO cooperation with Peace Corps.

110
Africa, need in, for "Middle Manpower”.

168
African countries attitude toward Corps_
African Research Foundation :
Method and amount of financing of_

171
Mobile-regional approach by--

169, 173
Agricultural skills, major importance of contribution of..

162
Agricultural techniques, need to know basic_-

193
Aiken, Senator George D.:
Examination of witnesses:
Melina, F. Robert-

138
Rice, Andrew E.

142-143
Row, W. Harold.--

152–153
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr--

52-56
Airplanes, authority to hire and/or purchase-

104
Allowances and pay for volunteer---

36, 84, 99-100
American Council on Education's conception of project development.

157
American idealism, the Peace Corps as representative of...

13
Annual dollar outlay for individual participants----

45
Appropriations requested---

52
Arab States, relationship of Corps policy to view of

26–29, 62
Attitudes of certain nations toward the Corps..

57
Authorization request, summary of_

104
Benefits volunteers will bring back to the United States---

67
Breakdown of funds scheduled for universities and private agencies --- 22
Capehart, Senator Homer E.:
Examination of witnesses:
Kuhn, Roger S.

90
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr.---

80-93
OARE.

21, 72, 101, 191
Oareer Planning Board..

7
Carlson, Senator Frank :
Examination of witnesses:
Moyers, Bill D------

98
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr.

95-98
Chile project:
Agreement with Notre Dame for...

23
Cost----

23
Information on.-

82
"Christian motivation,” definition of...

123
Church, Senator Frank :
Examination of witnesses :
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr.----

61-71
Civil service:
Status to apply to certain employees--

92
Waiver of examinations and other prerequisites to employment--- 95
Claims provision of S. 2000---

89
Colombian project:
Costs of.---

73, 75
Information on.

21, 100, 191
Negotiation of

74
Number of volunteers to be trained.

37
Payment of allowances to volunteers---

76
Relation of Corps to host government..

71
Training for.--

37
Volunteers for, appear well qualified...

192
251

Colorado State University Research Foundation:

Page
Recommendations by---

140
Study by, and results of_

139
Communist bloc countries :
Possible joint projects with...

117
Relation of Corps to-----

63
Conflict-of-interest question.

90
Contract with Notre Dame University---

23, 98
Cost reimbursement basis of contractual relationships-----

76
Crossroads Africa, Inc., difference between Peace Corps operations and.. 48
Cuba viewed as ineligible for Corps programs-

63
Demand for Peace Corps skills by other Americans working abroad.

45
Differences between ICA university contract program and that contem-
plated by the Corps.

25
Discipline and responsibility, maintenance of..

93
Economic aid program, Corps not viewed as an--

60
English language, desirability of teaching---

107
Evolution of Peace Corps proposal.-

1
Exchange program, comparative cost of Peace Corps and.

113
Existence of a demand for volunteers..

15
Expenditures, provisions in S. 2000 for--

103
Experience of private and official agencies considered in organization of
the Corps----

.18
Flexibility in operation --

116
Foreign currencies, use of_

10
Foreign nationals, participation of...

5, 116
Foreign policy techniques, new direction in----

112
Fulbright, Senator J. W.:
Examination of witnesses :
Pollak, Harry H..

_112-113
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr.---

20-27
Gore, Senator Albert:
Examination of witnesses:
Kelly, William P.

76–77
Melina, F. Robert-

137
Rollman, Heinz -

126
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr.

24, 50, 71-80, 84. 92
Van Deusen, Rev. Dr. Robert E.-

120_121, 123
Guidelines for contracts with voluntary agencies and universities..

77
Guinea :
Attitude toward Peace Corps.--

49
Discussion of possible establishment of a project in.
Haiti, proposed project in.-

152
Hickenlooper, Senator Bourke B.:
Examination of witnesses:
Kuhn, Roger S----

51
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr.

27-28, 43-52
Humphrey, Senator Hubert H.:
Examination of witnesses:
Daniels, Michael P.

169, 171-175
Lambie, James M., Jr.-

191-193
Schneider, Louis W.

166–167
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr.

30–42
Shrum, Grant A.--.

176, 178–182
Importance of keeping Peace Corps motivation on an idealistic basis--- 118
Initial size of Corps---

112
Innovations of the Corps--

147
International agencies, desirability of coordinating with.

154
International organizations, Corps should work through.

115
Lausche, Senator Frank J.:
Examination of witnesses :
Kelly, William P.

98
Kuhn, Roger S.--

103
Shriver, Hon. Robert Sargent, Jr.---- 23, 37, 42, 50, 56–61, 84, 85, 99-108
Medical and disability benefits for corpsien..

48

64
55

Page
Missionary enterprises, statistics on.

102
Missionary organizations, question of Peace Corps contractual relations
with-

121
National Advisory Council..

7
National 4-H Club Foundation :
Activities of ----

176, 184
Educational programs--

177
Financing of programs--

186
Nature and operation of the Corps.

44, 151
Need for caution in selection of projects and choice of personnel.-

136
Need for simplicity in the Corps----

108
Number of Americans serving abroad as missionaries or in voluntary
agency work, approximate-----

43
Number of corpsmen contemplated

42
Objectives of the Corps---

81, 107
Opportunities for older and retired people---
Opportunity for recipient countries to learn more about America.

14
Paying volunteers in contract situations, question of.---

101
Peace Corps Act, S. 2000, text of.---

2-13
Personnel :
Desirability of carefully trained recruits of all ages.

155
Discussion of selection by scientific methods.

144
Essentiality of careful selection of..

143
Need for properly trained.--

145
Philippines project:
Information on.-

83
Negotiation of---

73
Point 4 program, relationship between Peace Corps and.---

114
Political or religious propagandizing, desirability of avoiding-

79
Political tests for policymaking officials.

50
Preparation for expansion of Corps---

117
Presence of voluntary agencies seen as dispelling doubts as to motives
of the Corps---

166
Private agencies:
Advocacy of cooperation with.---

165
Need for adequate appropriations and utilization of.

94, 162
Precedent for governmental financial aid to----

35
Safeguards against proselytizing by ---

166
Projected contracts with private agencies.

59
Project evaluation-coordination arrangements with AID and State
Department----

65
Projects to be based on requests from host countries.

34
Promise and potential of Peace Corps----

18, 111
Purpose of Peace Corps---

2, 27
Quality of volunteers, individual recruits as examples of_

16
Recruitment principles----

78, 84, 112
Reemployment and voting rights.----

11, 112
Relationship of staff representative to AID mission abroad..

39
Religious and political affiliations, discussion of_

90
Religious groups :
Contemplated contracts with...

77
Influence of..--

58
Newspaper stories regarding participation in activities..

19
Participation of, in activities.-

19, 21, 119, 135, 137
Question of deciding on applications of --

25
Similarities and differences between objectives of Corps and
Which have expressed interest in Peace Corps support--

24
Youth groups interest in Corps--

120
Representation allowances and expenses of a confidential character.

53
Retirement benefits for volunteers--

46, 92
Separation of church and state, relationship of, to Corps' activities.

33
Services and benefits provided for volunteers-

46
Sharing our know-how with the rest of world-

126

59

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