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Three major textile firms' employed 133,421 in 1968 according to EEO-1 Reports filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Black employees comprised 15,602 of the total, or 11.7 percent. As these companies are located predominantly in Southern states, this 11.7 percent represents underutilization of Negroes.

What should be underscored, however, is the gross underutilization of Blacks in the higher paying and more prestigious job categories. Blacks hold only 394 of the 24,914 white collar jobs-or a meager 1.6 percent. And all but 66 of the Negro white collar employees are in the category of office/clerical, the lowest paying of the white collar jobs. Thus, while only 45.2 percent of total white collar employees are in office/clerical jobs, 83.2 percent of total Black white collar employees hold these jobs.

Blacks hold almost none of the upper level white collar jobs. There are only 16 Black officials/managers out of 8,437 (0.2 percent); 8 professionals out of 2,112 (0.4 percent); 33 technicians out of 1,612 (2.0 percent); and 9 salesmen out of 1,497 (0.6 percent).

In looking at blue collar employment, it should be noted that while Negroes comprise 13.5 percent of blue collar workers, they hold only 285 of the 15,984 craftsmen's jobs-a mere 1.8 percent. Craftsmen positions are the highest paying of the blue collar jobs. Blacks are heavily concentrated in the lower paying operatives, laborers and service worker categories.

1 Burlington Industries, Inc., Dan River Mills, Inc., J. P. Stevens Co., Inc.

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1 Burlington Industries, Inc., Dan River Mills, Inc., J. P. Stevens Co., Inc.

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1 Burlington Industries, Inc.; Dan River Mills, Inc.; J. P. Stevens Co., Inc.

2 The figures do not account for actual total employment due to a discrepancy in the reporting of 1 company in 1966.

[From the Los Angeles Times, Thursday, Mar. 13, 1969]

(By Jack Jones)

Aerospace industry efforts to step up hiring and advancement for minority group employees were sharply criticized here Wednesday by U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission members who said results have not matched the publicity.

"What I heard today," said Chairman Clifford L. Alexander Jr. after several hours of testimony at the Federal Office Building, "were a great many statements of good intentions."

"There were a great many glossy brochures, a great many percentages based on low figures and almost no advancement in the hiring, promotion and full utilization of workers available here-minority and female," he added.

Hearings today will focus on the movie production industry and Friday on the three major television networks along with three of the area's largest whitecollar employers-Occidental Life, Bank of America and Security Pacific National Bank.

Alexander obviously was irked Wednesday by explanations that qualified minority talent is hard to find and by "meager results" he felt were made to appear substantial.

He suggested many companies are not really seeking out capable minority people and are not going far enough to insure equal advancement opportunities for those hired.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which set up the commission and which requires equal employment by companies doing business with the government, is "the law of the land," he stressed.

"It is about time these corporations-many of whom are screaming for law and order obey the law themselves."

Appearing to present accounts of company programs in the minority hiring field were executives of McDonnell Douglas Corp., Lockheed Aircraft Corp., North American Rockwell Corp. and TRW Systems.

Hughes Aircraft, unable to be heard in the tight schedule, submitted a written statement for the record.


Nor was industry alone in getting sharp questioning from the commissioners. An international representative for the International Assn. of Machinists (IAM), which bargains for many aerospace workers, also was taken over the statistical hurdles on apprenticeship programs and the ethnic makeup of union leadership. Merl R. Felker, McDonnell Douglas director of personnel operations in Santa Monica, emphasized that his company has trained thousands of persons under federal manpower programs and is committeed to hire and train 500 "hard-core" jobless under the nationwide JOBS program.

The company, he said, "has a commitment and a belief in merit employment." But-as with other executives-commissioners asked pointed questions about the percentage of minority people in manager and official categories.

For McDonnell Douglas, Felker said, 44% of the managers and officials are minority persons.

Commissioner Vicente T. Ximenes, who paid particular attention to the Mexican-American employment figures during the hearing, asked Felker if he thought it was fair to say the company's minority work force has increased by 961% since 1961 "when you started with practically nothing?"


Felder said that was the year his company (then Douglas) signed its Plans for Progress agreement and really begin "going out into the community to implement it."

Like other aerospace executives, he pointed out that work cutbacks and loss of contracts have caused decreases in overall employment, "but our percentage of white-collar minorities still increased."

Lockheed's Dudley Browne, group vice president of finance and administration, recited companywide figures to show 5,400 Negroes, 2,922 Spanish-surnamed Americans, 1,295 Orientals and 109 American Indians were employed.


But in the Los Angeles area, he said, minority hiring has been hampered because plants in the San Fernando and Antelope Valleys are long distances from minority areas.

He also pointed to cutbacks in which "our minority employes were disproportionately affected because of their relatively low standings in seniority . . ." He noted that Lockheed is about to install a 300-employe plant in the WattsWillowbrook area.

He was quizzed closely about the ethnic makeup of the executive force, basically Anglo, and about the number of Negroes, Mexican-Americans and other minority workers promoted to supervisory positions during the past year.

Harry Winston, Lockheed-California Co. director of industrial relations, said 1,689 professionals (mostly engineers) were added last year of whom 124 were minority persons.

Ximenes observed that all the policies aimed at upgrading minority workers into white-collar jobs "have been a failure.”

The commission has pointed out that Negroes and Mexican-Americans make up 20% of the population here, but that both groups are generally concentrated at lower occupational levels with Negroes holding only 3.4% of the white collar jobs and Mexican-Americans only 4.4%.

"Maybe,"Ximenes told Winston, "what you need is a training program for hard-core management rather than hard-core unemployed." He said, "Management has a fine statement of policy, but a series of gate keepers close the doors to minority people."

Two other executives questioned by the commission were Elmer P. Wohl, staff vice president for administration of North American Rockwell Corp., and Dr. D. DeLauer, vice president and general manager of TRW Systems.

Wohl said his company has made equal opportunity "an integral part of line management responsibility" and that white-collar minority employment is increasing at his company "against a decline in our total number of available white-collar jobs."

But commissioners were not happy with Wohl's statement that of 6,690 in the official and manager category, there are only 58 blacks and 66 MexicanAmericans.


Alexander noted that the increase in two years was so small that it will take 15 years to reach a proportion of even 3%.

DeLauer also presented figures to show that TRW is trying to maintain an active minority hiring and advancement program but triggered quick commission reaction when he said:

"The problem is there is an insufficient number of adequately educated and trained minority personnel to satisfy the (highly technical) needs of our industry."

Alexander challenged him to look to universities and the community and asked, "Did you know that a black college graduate makes less than a white dropout?"


Told by DeLauer that TRW is looking for people, Alexander retorted, "You can go out and find them. There are people in your industry who have done significantly better than you."

Herbert C. Ward, IAM International representative, said he says he thinks his union has a "good, fair" apprenticeship program, but was quizzed about the entrance test-which commissioners said tends to shut out Negroes and MexicanAmericans.

He conceded he is the union's only black international representative and that there is only one Mexican-American. But he explained that they are chosen from business representatives who are elected.


Two Negroes-George W. Sherard, an engineer-physicist, and Lloyd Napier, a Texas-educated lawyer working as a contract analyst-testified that discrimination in aerospace companies had held them back from promotions they felt they deserved.

Sherard said Caucasians with less experience had been promoted over him and Napier told the commission he has spent seven years at the same grade level.

[From the New York Times, Thursday, Mar. 13, 1969]



LOS ANGELES, March 12.-Almost nine out of 10 persons employed in aerospace, one of this area's largest and most prestigious industries, are white persons of the category known locally as "Anglos."

Only 11.1 per cent of the industry's employes are Negroes or persons with Spanish surnames, even though those two groups make up 20 per cent of the Los Angeles area population.

Minorities get even fewer jobs in motion pictures and network television, two other industries that have important centers here.

The Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has brought about 25 staff people and commissioners from Washington this week to try to find out and publicize why Negroes and Mexican-Americans-who are presumed to comprise most of the Spanish-surnamed persons in the official records are so little employed in these three industries.

The commission also wants to know why the few minority employes in these industries fare so poorly in promotions and in moving into positions of management.


A string of personnel managers of the largest aerospace companies appeared before the commission today, testifying voluntarily. The commission will hear from the motion picture industry tomorrow and from television Friday.

The personnel managers read into the record long descriptions of programs that their companies had established, some many years ago, to increase the number of minority employes on their payrolls.

But, under questioning by Clifford L. Alexander Jr., the commission chairman, and his colleagues, most of the corporate officials conceded that the results of their efforts had been unimpressive.

Mr. Alexander dramatically illustrated the slow rate of progress. An official of North American Rockwell Corporation, which makes or helps to make space vehicles, rockets, nuclear reactors and airplanes, among other things, had testified that since December, 1966, the company's Negro officials and managers had increased from 46 to 58 and its Mexican-American officials and managers had increased from 46 to 66.

Mr. Alexander had brought to the hearing room a silent portable calculator and a young woman to operate it. The calculator buzzed for a moment and the operator handed a note to Mr. Alexander.

He studied it briefly and said to the startled company official that it would take 15 years, at the present rate of increase, for Negroes to obtain 3 per cent of the management jobs of the corporation.

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