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a tribute of respect to her unparalleled devotion and was truly awful. Our people tell us, that these formidable ani. heroism, ordered a frigate to escort her in safety. Let
mals freqently upset canoes in the river, wben every one in them
is sure to perish. These came so close to us, that we could reach those who may have enjoyed such a moment, fancy
them with the butt-end of a gun. When I fired at the first, the raptures with which they greeted each other. The
which I must have bit, every one of them came to the surface of occupiers of their castle were obliged to quit it at a the water, and pursued us so fast over to the north bank, that it day's notice, and ordered to refund whatever property was with tbe greatest difficulty imaginable we could keep before they had destroyed, and which, Ian Ciar, was not
them. Having fired a second time, the report of my gun was fol
lowed by a loud roaring noise, and we seemed to increase our dis. tardy in enforcing. They, afterwards, lived long and
tance from them. There were two Bornou men among our crew happy, and, as the chief, in 45, took the side of neither
who were not so frightened as the rest, having seen some of these of the contending parties, the estate is still in the pos- creatures before on lake Tchad, where, they say, there are plenty session of Ian Ciar's descendants, who, with a degree of them. However, the terrible hippopotami did us no kind of of pride, which may be justified, exhibit to the visiting
mischief whatever ; they were only sporting and wallowing in the
river for their own amusement, no doubt, at first when we interstranger, the sword and the whistle which their brave
rupted them ; but had they upset our canoe, we should have paid ancestor won from O'Hanlen, and which, among other dearly for it. relics of antiquity, are kept at Dunolly house, as some “ We observed a bank on the north side of the river shortly afof the proofs of the unflinching bravery which marked
ter this, and I proposed halting on it for the night, for I wished the Macdougalls of Lorn.
much to put my foot on firm land again. This, however, not one of the crew would consent to, saying, that if the gesvo roua,
or water elepbant, did not kill them, the crocodiles certainly would THE RIVER NIGER.
do so before the morning, and I thought afterwards that we might
have been carried off like the Cumbrie people on the islands near [Through the kindness of our London publishers, we Yaourie, if we had tried the experiment. Our canoe is only large
enough to hold us all when sitting, so that we have no chance of have been favoured with a sight of a few sheets of
lying down. Had we been able to muster up thirty thousand Lander's Travels, the adventurous discoverer of the
cowries at Rabba, we might have purchased one which would bave termination of the Niger, now in the press, from which carried us all very comfortably. A canoe of this sort would have we extract the following interesting sketch of a noc- served us for living in entirely, we should have had no occasion to turnal voyage down that mighty river.]
land, excepting to obtain our provisions; and, having performed
our day's journey, might have anchored fearlessly at night. “ We passed several beautiful islands in the course of the day, all
“ Finding we could not induce our people to land, we agreed to cultivated and inhabited, but low and flat. The width of the
continue on all night. The eastern horizon became very dark, and river appeared to vary considerably, sometimes it seemed to be two
the lightning more and more vivid ; indeed, I never recollect having or three miles across, and at others, doubled that width. The
seen such strong fork lightning before in my life. All this de current drifted us along very rapidly, and we guessed it to be run
noted the approach of a storm. At eleven p.m. it blew somewhat ning at the rate of three or four miles an hour. The direction of
stronger than a gale, and at midnight the storm was at its height. the stream continued nearly east. The day had been excessively
The wind was so strong, that it washed over the sides of the cawarm, and the sun set in beauty and graudeur, shooting forth
noe several times, so that she was in danger of filling. Driveri rays tinged with the most beavenly hues, which extended to the
about by the wind, our frail little bark became unmanageable; zenith. Nevertheless, the appearance of the firmanent, all glo
but at length we got near a bank, wbich in some measure prorious as it was, betokened a coming storm ; the wind whistled
tected us, and we were fortunate enough to lay hold of a thorny through the tall rushes, and darkness soon covered the earth like
tree against wbich we were driven, and which was growing neara veil. This rendered us more apxious than ever to land some.
ly in the centre of the stream. Presently we fastened the canoe where, we cared not where, and to endeavour to procure shelter
to its branches, and wrapping our cloaks round our persons, fov for the night, if not in a village, at least under a tree. Accord
we felt overpowered with fatigue, and with our legs projecting ingly, rallying the drooping spirits of our men, we encouraged
half over the sides of the little vessel, which, for want of room, them to renew their exertions by setting them the example, and
we were compelled to do, we lay dowp to sleep. There is someour canoe darted silently and swiftly down the current. We were
thing, I believe, in the nature of a tempest which is favourable enabled to steer her rightly by the vividness of the lightning,
to slumber, at least so thought my brother ; for, though the thunwbich flashed across the water continually, and by this means
der continued to roar, and the wind to blow,--though the rain also we could distinguish any danger before us, and avoid the nu
beat in our faces, and our canoe lay rocking like a little cradle, merous small islands with which the river is interspersed, and
still he slept soundly, which otherwise might have embarrassed us very seriously.
“ The wind kept blowing hard from the eastward till midnight, “ But though we could perceive almost close to us several lamps
when it became calm. The rain then descended in torrents, acburning in comfortable-looking huts, and could plainly distinguish
companied by thunder and lightning of the most awful description. the voices of their occupants, and though we exerted all our;
We lay in our canoe drenched with water, and our little vessel strength to get at them, we were foiled in every attempt, by rea
was tilling so fast, that two people were obliged to be constantly son of the sloughs and fens, and we were at last obliged to abandon
bailing out the water to keep her afloat. The water-elephants, as them in despair. Some of these lights, after leading us a long way,
the natives term the hippopotami, frequently came snorting near eluded our search, and vanished from our sight like an ignus fa
us, but fortunately did not touch our canoe. The storm contituus, and others danced about we knew not how, But what was
nued until three in the morning of the 17th, when it became clear, more vexatious than all, after we had got into an inlet, and toiled
and we saw the stars sparkling like gems over our heads. Thereand tugged for a full half hour against the current, which in this
fore, we again proceeded on our journey down the river, there little channel was uncommonly rapid, to approach a village from
being sufficient light for us to see our way, and two hours after, which we thought it flowed, both village and lights ,seemed to
we put into a small, insignificant fishing village, called Dacapnie, sink into the earth, the sound of the people's voices ceased of a
where we landed very gladly. sudden, and when we fancied we were actually close to the spot,
“ Before we arrived at this island, we had passed a great many we strained our eyes in vain to see a single hut, all was gloomy,
pative towns and villages, but in consequence of the early hour at dismal, cheerless, and solitary. It seemed the work of enchant
which we were travelliog, we considered it would be imprudent ment; every thing was as visionary as sceptres grasped in sleep.'
to stop at any of them, as none of the natives were out of their We had paddled along the banks a distance of not less than thirty
huts. Had we landed earlier, even near one of these towns, we miles, every inch of which we bad attentively examined, but not a
might bave alarmed the inhabitants, and been taken for a party of bit of dry land could any where be discovered which was firm
rollers, or, as they are called in the country, jacallees. They enough to bear our weight. Therefore, we resigned ourselves to
would have taken up arms against us, and we might have lost our circumstances, and all of us having been refreshed with a little
lives ; so that for our safety we continued down the river, although cold rice and honey, and water from the stream, we permitted the
we had great desire to go on shore." canoe to drift down with the current, for our men were too much fatigued with the labours of the day to work any longer.
“ But here a fresh evil arose which we were un prepared to ProfessionAL JEALOUSY.-The trial of an English medical genmeet. An incredible number of hippopotami arose very near us, tleman, Dr. Southcote, lately took place at Dieppe. A blacksmith and came plashing, snorting, and plunging all around the canoe, of this town, while engaged at work, some time since, received a and placed us in imminent danger. Thinking to frighten them spark in his eye (a very common accident in his trade), wbich prooff, we fired a shot or two at them, but the noise only called up, duced that very painful disease called staphyloma. For this he from the water and out of the fens, about as many more of their was successfully treated by Dr. Southcote, after the failure of the unwieldy companions, and we were more closely beset than be- French practitioners. He even relieved the patient by an advance fore. Our people, who had never in all their lives been exposed
His French contemporaries in a canoe to such buge and formidable beasts, trembled with fear instituted a prosecution against him, for practising without a li. and apprehension, and absolutely wept aloud, and their terror was cense, and proved their case by the evidence of the fellow wbom not a little increased by the dreadful peals of thunder which rat- he had cured, and to whom he had, in addition, rendered pecuniary tled over their heads, and by the awful darkness which prevailed, assistance! Dr. Southcote has been, in consequence, convicted broken at intervals by flashes of lightuing, whose powerful glare and sentenced to fine and imprisonment.
DEATH OF THE MAJOR, alias THE SCOTTISH
A MEMOil of the Early Operations of the Burmese War, by Lieut. H. Lister Maw, is in the press.
A Treatise on the Preparation of Printing Ink, both Black and Coloured, by WILLIAM SAVAGE, author of Practical Hints on Decorative Printing, is announced for immediate publication.
PORTRAIT OF LORD BROUGHAM.
THERE are very few of our citizens, who, in their perambulations through the streets of Glasgow, can have missed observing the ideot musician, wbo lately attributed to himself, the lofty title of the Scottish Paganini. His figure was one which was peculiarly striking, and ever attracted the notice of the delineator or painter of character. The expression of his countenance was in fact a study for the Physiognomist, and the seat of the finer passions of the soul, viz. the mouth, might have afforded materials for the elucidation of Lavater's most interesting theories. Alas, that figure is now beneath the sod, and that open mouth is for once and for ever closed! The Cholera, that fearful scourge of the world, has borne away from the Trongate, another of its wellknown characters, and deprived the younger portion of our population of a pastime, in which, at least, for the comfort of the poor musician, they frequently too warmly indulged. The poor fellow bade adieu to the miseries of life, and to the mockeries of music, on Wednesday; and has left behind him a character and a name, which mayhap will outlive many of his wiser and more fortunate contemporaries. How strange is posthumous fame! Blind Alick is associated with the history of our City at the close of the last and the commencement of the present century, and the poor Major, who has no grave-stone to mark where his ashes rest, stands every cbance of being recollected, when those who have marble mausoleums are utterly forgotten !
The Mayor's musical knowledge, although, like many other ambitious characters of the age, be attributed to himself a great name, was neither very scientific nor tasteful. His instrument was not like that of Mori's, manufactured in Cremona. It was his own handiwork, while bis bow, which he wielded with a peculiar fire, resembled more the orehestra-ruling sceptre of Dragonetti, than any thing that we have ever seen applied to a common violin. His most famous Concerto was founded on that most grateful of all melodies to a droughty musician, “ Jenny put the Kettle on," the very thought of which, so moved the minstrel himself, that it fairly set him in motion, and made him caper as nimbly as if he had got lessons from Terpsichore herself.
We believe the poor Major never knew either the bliss or the woe of matrimony. His form and bearing, in fact, were not well calculated to win a woman's heart, and without gaining that citadel of the affections marriage is nought but misery. If he was pot united to woman by the ties of love and the blessings of the church, he was nevertheless, bound to ber by the mystic bond of pelf and business. The fact is, the musician formed a co-partnery in his peripatetic wanderings with one, who, although she had never studied at the Academie de Musique at Paris, was a first rate danseuse. Around the violently excited violinist she frisked and pirouetted, if not with the grace of a Taglioni, with all the grimace of a Gri. maldi. This interesting personage was no other than the well known “ Coal Mary," who realized, in her cast of countenancer and in the number of her reticules, (Scottice pokes) the truth of her noble and aristocratical designation. The co-partnery continued long, and was carried on, we believe, with success. The duet and the pas de deur, touched many hearts, and the performers hence touched many coppers. A dispute, as in many more lucrative co-partneries, arose, from a supposition of a mal-division of profits. It was alleged, on the part of his fair partner, that the Major was appropriating, to himself, a too great proportion of the pelf. This called for an explanation on the part of the musician, who, out of the honourable feelings of his breast, and, no doubt, with no feelings of selfishnes, slyly, yet, boldly, stated, to Coal Mary's allegation, “weel, Mary, my binny, I'll tak a' the bawbees, and you'll get a' the pennies !"
Whether this speech soothed the suspicions of Mary towards the musician, in truth we know not, and it is at this honr, alas ! of little moment to speculate, whether it did or did not. The Cremona of the Major now bangs silent in his lonely cabin in the Double Dykes, whence its owner was carried away, under the pangs of the disease which now peculiarly affects the poor and naked, while the reticules of Mary will occasion no disputes among her numerous heirs—we mean the heirs of poverty and wretchedness as to whom these momentos of the pirouetter now belong !
Peace to the manes of the Major and his Mary!
We have just seen the most faithful and beautifully executed portrait, of that distinguished individual Lord Brougham and Vaux that has ever yet appeared. It is a mezzotinto engraving by the celebrated “ Lapton," after a painting by “ Lonsdale."
The Chancellor is represented as if listening to some applicantthe eyes and the whole countenance are most powerfully expressive, and the effect of a searching and comprehensive mind appears equal to the most obtruse or complicated circumstances that might on any occasion present themselves.
As a work of art it is most creditable, both to the painter and engraver—the attitude is easy and well chosen—there is no appearanee of restraint or stiffness, as if sitting for a picture, and indeed, the drawing, throughout, is managed with artist-like dexterity. Were we inclined to find any fault, it would be, that the legs appear rather too long, and gradually tapered, for the muscular dimensions of the body.
The same objection applies to the hands, but these are not the essential points of such a picture as this, nor are we sure, that in making this assertion, we may be correct. Mr. Lupton is a firstrate mezzotinto engraver, and on this subject he seems to have exerted his talents to the very utmost. Nothing can be more clear in the lights, por more delicately touched in the details, without in the least disturbing the repose or general effect of the whole. This print will surely have a very extensive sale. The patriot's friend-the admirer of genius——the lover of justice and exalted morality, will surely all show their respect for an individual, who possesses and practises all of these great qualities, to the utmost of human power, by securing one of these prints, the best likeness yet published. In particular, we think those who have bad long, tedious and vexatious law suits, equitably, satisfactorily, and expeditiously settled by his promptitude and energy, will furnish themselves with a memorandum of the man to whom they are so much indebted.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
« Atticus" is under consideration. We fear, however, that he is too personal for our columns.
Lines “ On the Cholera" are put into the bands of our poetical critic.
“ E. H.” and “ W. S. M." have been received.
“ 0. P. Q.'s" East Country Reminiscence will appear as soon as possible.
On referring to the MS. of the last number of the “ Tales, Sketches and Traditions of the Gael,” we find that our ingenious correspondent is correct, and that we have been in error, when we substituted Og for Hug, we were in part led into this mistake from the existing differences of opinion regarding Celtic orthography, not being aware to what rule the writer of the article adhered. As it is necessary for the sake of the majority of our readers to give explanations of such Gælic phrases and cognomens as may be used, we shall feel obliged by the author furnishing them himself, as we daresay he will think-Is mairg a rachadh air a bhannaig is a theanna aig fein. If he will be at the trouble of doing this, he shall find, that in future, we shall only act according to the old proverb, take little more than cuid an l' searraich do'n cliatha.
A MORNING JOURNAL OF LITERATURE, FINE ARTS, FASHION, &c.
GLASGOW, SATURDAY, MARCH 10, 1832.
MORAL POETS OF GREAT BRITAIN.-No. IV. and would advance him in that church, but he declin
ed this proposal with the warmest gratitude. In 1719, DR. DODDRIDGE.
he was placed under the tuition of Mr. Jennings, at The study requisite to qualify a clergyman, for the Kilworth, where he was soon distinguished for his arduous duties of his profession, demands of him un- piety and diligence. Besides attending academical wearied and persevering attention. He must not only lectures, and reading the volumes to which his tutor be zealous in the service of the great congregatiou, referred, he had, in one year, perused sixty books, but he must be unceasing in the less obtrusive exer- read, not superficially, but with care and close study. cises of the closet. Such a life, conscientiously pursued, Dr. Doddridge entered upon his ministerial labours in a life dedicated to the interests of another and more en- 1722, and of his devotion to these labours, after a during scene, a life in which the traveller to Zion does long trial, we are sufficiently assured, by the following indeed exist and move in bodily presence, amidst letter :-“I have been wonderfully supported in the his fellow mortals ; yet, his soul already breathes the midst of almost incessant labours for the space of atmosphere of Paradise, his eye is fixed upon the twenty-seven years. I esteem the ministry the most celestial city, his Heaven has already commenced; for desirable employment in the world, and find that deon earth he walks with his Father and his God! Na- light in it and those advantages from it, which, I think, ture demands, however, that such a life should at times
hardly any other employment on earth would give have its hours of comparative relaxation, studies, more ethereal in their nature, must, occasionally, take In October, 1725, we find him residing at Market precedence of the more severe ; and hence the number
Harborough. The diligence of Dr. D. had, at an early of pious ministers who have assumed the lyre, attuned period of his studies, elicited the approval of his tutor it to songs of gratitude and praise, and thus converted Jennings, who had given it as his opinion, that, in case their hours of recreation to the benefit and improve- of his removal, our author was the most proper perment of mankind.
son to follow out the scheme of education he had inIt is, perhaps, not altogether just, to apply the troduced. Accordingly Dr. D. at midsummer, 1729, strictest canons of criticism to works thus produced. opened his academy, but, in a short time afterwards, These are, sometimes, to be considered off-shoots from he was called to another important station, that of the regular studies of their author. Generally, in- pastor to a dissenting congregation at Castlehill, in deed, they will be found to convey virtuous and cor- Northampton. This appointment appears to have rect sentiments, under the pleasing garb of poetry, but been unexpected by him, and the subject of much seit is too much to expect in them either power forcibly rious thought before he accepted it. The following to impress the reader, or genius to confer on them an incident seems to have led to that determination :abiding immortality. Our observations will apply “ Having been much urged on Saturday evening, and with peculiar force, when such works have been pub- much impressed with the tender entreaties of my lished after the death of their author, who probably. friends, I had been asking direction of Heaven, under never anticipated that the lighter studies of his leisure the apprehension of engaging in more business than I hours should meet the public eye, and whose pre- was capable of performing, considering my age, the tensions to the cultivation of poetical powers were, largeness of that congregation, and that I had no prosprobably, intended to be restricted to his domestic
pect of an assistant. As soon as ever this address was circle.
ended, I passed through a room of the house in which The author, whose name we this day introduce to I lodged, where a child was reading to its mother, and our readers was born in London, in the
1702. the only words I heard distinctly, were these, “and It is said, that his mother taught him the history of as thy days so shall thy strength be," and, although the Old and New Testament before he could read, by it ar pears be at first refused the appointment, he was thie assistance of some tiles in the chimney of the room induced, afterwards, to lcok on these words as a mes. where they sat. At an early age he was deprived sage from on high ; for, ere long, he was removed to of both his parents, a circumstance to which he al- and settled in Northampton. ludes, in his Sermon to Young People, entitled, “ The As a preacher, Dr. Doddridge was highly esteemOrphan's Hope."--" As I know the heart of an or- ed. Ile was earnest and pathetic. A strong impresphan, having been deprived of both my parents at an sion of divine truths on his own heart, expressed in early age, in which it might be reasonably supposed, ardent language, impressed the mind and attracted the a child should be most sensible of such a loss.”
attention of bis audience. He frequently visited the About the time of his father's death, he was remov- cottages of the poor, and, by his address, his kindness ed to a private school in St. Albans, under the care of and his disinterested desires for their benefit, he soon Nathaniel Wood; and, during his residence there in induced them to bail him as a father and a friend. 1716, he began to keep a diary, in which he detailed This good man felt a peculiar interest in the improvethe manner his time was occupied, and, so highly ment of the young, and published several works for were the moments prized by him, that even the that peculiar purpose. In some of these compositions hours he spent in exercise were employed in reflect- he has united the graces of an elegant style with pering upon, and recollection of the previous studies of spicuity and plainness. In 1736, he published ten serthe morning. Subsequently to the year 1718, the sub
mons, which were soon after followed by his Practical ject of our memoir was introduced by an uncle, to the discourses, and, in 1745, his highly popular work notice of the noble family of Bedford, and the Duchess, “ The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul,” was being informed of his inclination for study, informed given to the public. Of his principal work, “the Fahim, if he chose to enter the ministry of the church of mily Expositor," it is only necessary to say, that it England, she would afford him a suitable education, breathes the genuine spirit of religion, and remains an
LITERARY CRITICISM, honourable trophy to the talents of its author. Since the author's death a volume of hymnshas also been published.
By the Author of the “ NATURAL HISTORY OF ENTHUSIASM." Although Dr. Dorridge had not possessed the
Holdsworth and Ball, London, 1832. abilities which his prose works indicate, the constant and increasing course of study, to which he subjected It is the glory of our day, that there are so many himself, must have originated valuable powers and valuable helps afforded us, for the acquisition of every qualities. He rose every morning at five o'clock, and kind of knowledge. And, notwithstanding, that, in the thus secured to himself four hours of uninterrupted religious world particularly, there is much issued from seclusion from the world. He was indefatigable in the press, that is not only useless, but positively injathe pursuit of knowledge ; his memory was retentive, rious to evangelical piety—yet, if we “take forth the and the most liberal feeling towards those who differ- precious from the vile,” we shall find that they are ined from him in the less essential points of religion, was excusable, who (so far as human agency is concerned) a characteristic and amiable trait in the character of live without God, and without hope in the world. We, this distinguished Christian, who breathed away his certainly, were never more impressed with the truth soul in peace at Lisbon, whither he had gone for the of what we have now stated than, after having read a benefit of his health in the year 1751, leaving a wi.
work which has just now been published, under the dow, a son and three daughters, whom he used play- title of " Saturday Evening." The subjects of this in. fully to call, Faith, Hope, and Charity.
valuable volume are well chosen, and full of interest Of the poetry of Dr. Doddridge, we cannot speak
to every class of sincere Christians, besides, being in terms of high admiration. It is exactly of that ca
discussed in that bold and luminous style which chalibre which a well-educated and studious individual racterise the writings of the author of the “Natural might be expected to write. A competent judge has
History of Enthusiasm.” Unlike the ephemeral and selected and published some of his best specimens ; but
sectarian productions of the cautious, compromising even in these we do not discern the stamp of genius,
religionist, it will induce, to a salutary exercise of inso distinctly defined, as to induce us to describe their
tellect on the part of the reader, such as cannot fail to anthor as a poet of the first rank, in the records of the
impress him with a certainty and satisfaction that its English muse. The specimen with which our read
author, is one who would preserve the completeness and ers are probably most familiar is the thirty-third of
consistency of Apostolic virtue. It deserves, and we the paraphrases of the church of Scotland. The com
have little doubt, will soon obtain a place in the first
shelf of the library of every Minister of the Gospel, and pilers, however, have made important alterations, a presumptive proof of the indifference of the ori- Student of Theology ; while its general diffusion ginal :
among private Christians would do much for the preventing of Antinomian delusion, and for restoring
the vigorous faith of the primitive age—making us What, tho' no flow'rs the fig-tree clothe,
men of holy action—of promptitude and courage, as Tho' vines their fruit deny ;
well as men of meditation. We are certain, that The labour of the olive fail,
such of our readers as may be prevailed upon to perAnd fields no meat supply.
use the work, will thank us for having drawn their Tho' from the fold, with sad surprise,
attention to it. My flock cut off, I sec;
The following extract, made ad aperturum libri, Tho' famine pine in empty stalls,
and without our intending to determine by it the Where herds were wont to be.
author's reputation, will give some knowledge of the
original style of thought, and luminous expression, Yet, in the Lord will I be glad,
which brighten and adorn every page of the volume. And glory in his love ;
It is from the Sermon “ ON THE STATE OF SECLU-
The place of our trial is as effec
tively a prison, as if our sky were a bemisphere of brass. We God is the treasure of my soul,
may indeed look out freely on every side upon the populous reThe source of lasting joy ;
gions of illimitable space; but with the inhabitants of those regions
we can hold no parley. Or if we look within the walls, it is still, A joy which want shall not impair,
and it is always true, that “ the things eternal,” that is to say, the Nor death, itself, destroy.
permanent and universal principles of the moral system—the conDR. DODDRIDGE.
stant tendencies and ultimate issues of good and evil, are hidden
and unseen ; while those things that are (aspooraipe) for a season So firm the saint's foundation rest,
-"the things temporal,” do, by their irregularities, their comHis hopes can ne'er remove;
plexity, their very insignificance, as well as their obtrusive glare, Sustain'd by God's Almighty band
serve more to conceal than to display—more to confound than And shelter'd in his love.
to illustrate, the great axioms of eternal virtue. The attrac
tions, the dangers, the urgent interests of the present state, The olive and the fig, may fail,
form (may we say) a screen which, with its gaudy and va
rious colours, its painted pomps and trickeries, hangs ou every The vines their fruit deny;
side before the eye of man, encircling bis theatre of exercise, and Famine, through all the fields prevail,
fencing out from his knowledge the great world of intellectual life. And flocks and herds may die.
That the rule of seclusion is the law of the divine government
might be inferred, with soine degree of certainty, from what we God is the treasure of my soul,
behold of the actual construction of the material universe. Why A source of sacred joy ;
is it that the solid frame-work of nature (the purpose and inten
tion of which can be nothing else than to sustain conscious beings) Which no affliction can controul,
instead of presenting a continuous surface, that unigbt be travers Nor death, itself, destroy.
ed from side to side, is actually broken up into innumerable In alluding to Dr. Doddridge, as a poet, we must,
globes ; and these globes suspended in thin space at incalcalable
distances one from anotber? Why is it that, to obtain standingin justice, quote his celebrated lines on the motto of roorn for his intelligent family, the Creator has taken a latitude, a his family, “ dum vivimus vivamus.” :
a height, a depth, which to created minds is equivalent to absolute
infinitude? Why, unless it be to give effect to this necessary law Live, while you live, the epicure would say,
of seclusion and separation? We say that there is seen, legibly And seize the pleasures of the passing day ;
inscribed upon the breadth of the midnight skies, a truth succinct. Live, while you live, the sacred preacher cries,
ly expressed in the words,-“ The things eternal (universal) are And give to God each moment as it flies.
unseen." And that special arrangement of the material system is
peculiarly worthy of notice, which, while all intercourse between Lord, in my view, let both united be,
neighbouring worlds is effectively prevented, allows the vastness I live in pleasure, while I live to Thee.
of the creation to be a spectacle to each portion of it. In truth,
nothing in physical philosophy is so amazing as the means by which objects, much more remote one from the other than the utmost range of calculation can extend to, are made perceptible one to the other. If the mere greatness of creation is wonderful, there is even a higher, or a more superlative wonder, in the fact that this greatness should be cognizable from every point; or that, at any point where a percipient being may bave his station, thither, as to a centre, the lines of knowledge should converge, so that the mind of that being should gatber to itself true and distinct notices of whatever floats within the inn measurable sphere of stellar light!
And if so amazing an apparatus has been had recourse to for the purpose of conveying to us a knowledge of the greatness of the creation—if God, after extending his productive power incalculably, has superadded to the whole a lustre which exbibits all to all; so likewise has he enabled us, by fair methods of inference and analogy, to attain the belief that all worlds are like our own) the homes of life and intelligence : and we are then, by the same rules of analogy, led to suppose that the occupants of each of these widely separated spheres are, like ourselves, contined to their several birth-places--are, like ourselves, interdicted correspondence with the universal realm, and denied (as we) the benefitif indeed it were a benefit, that might accrue from a more extensive experience than that which belongs to their home history.
This same law of seclusion wbich we see legibly written upon the material universe, is also carried out through all the arrangements of our own world, and in many modes takes effect, until each individual of mankind is straitened in his sphere, and shut up within a circle exceedingly small; so that if his particular experience be compared with the entire experience, not indeed of the universe, but only of the buman race, or even of one generation of the race, the disproportion is incalculable; and so it is certainly true to him, that “the things eternal (universal) are unseen;" while the things which he actually beholds are those only that are partial, and " for a season,”
To effectuate the purposes of the moral system, and to secure the necessary conditions of the exercise of principles, it is not enough that man should be confined to one world ;-be must, within that world, be again and yet again secluded : and this is done by various means; as first The entire human family is parcelled out through time, by the succession of generations : and as the term of life barely measures two of the periods wherein the race is renovated, each generation knows only its immediate predecessors ; and, except so far as tradition and history convey to it (like fragments from a wreck) some loose particulars of the knowledge of the more ancient races of men, each generation, each successive renk, comes forward as a novice upon the stage of life, knowing absolutely nothing of all that is to follow it, and almost nothing of wbat preceded it.— The rolling and swelling flood of human life moves on in billows so brief and proud, that, in rising to the brow of each watery ridge, nothing of the general expanse is beheld ;--nothing seen, but the surge and fall of the precursive
Then moreover it is implied in the very supposition of a system wherein many independent impulses are incessantly traversing each other, that each single train of events shall present as much of intricacy, of confusion, and of apparent anomaly, as of order, or abstract principle :--every man, in his private sphere, las to do, not with the average result of general rules; but with the special chances of single throws; the incidents and occasions that come athwart him, for the trial of his motives, are fortuitous combinations, more than instances that might exemplify any given rule. Every man meets with at least as many exceptions, or seeming exceptions, as cases in point. Mueh ambiguity attaches to the course of affairs, and ordinarily, that which is most obtrusive, or is most importunate, and clamorous, in urging its pretensions, is precisely wbat ought to be disregarded, aud put out of the question of right and wrong. Comparatively few of the matters that come under the band of mari, range themselves clearly beneath general principles. Scarcely does he catch a glimpse, amid every day's hurry and care, of the working of abstract moral laws; but rather tempted, every hour, to believe that exceptions, if not more frequent, are at least inore valid than general rules.
The faculty of generalization is indeed given to man; and he has also the propensity to employ it; and there are individuals who, in the exercise of this power, gain acquaintatice with whatever is true and permanent : but, in looking to the mass of mankind, moral generalization does scarcely more than bud, or give some ivert indications of its existence, just as the chrysalis does, of the possession of the instincts of its future activity. Every circumstance of vulgar life opposes the disposition of the soul to spring upward, or stretch the wing of meditation towards a higher sphere : -the smallness of common affairs, as well as their urgency; their uniformity, or sameness of recurrence; and their multiplicity ;the contaminations of life, and its ridicule also ; the absurdity and the folly that infest all parts of human conduct, as well as the abjectness of the miseries that affict mankind, are all so many causes of depression, or of limitation, that coufine man to a spot on the surface of earth, and hedge about his prospect.
It is true that, in every age, the more intelligent and sagacious portion of mankind has, amid the confusion and ambiguity of the moral system rightly inferred universal principles; and, with more or less admixture of error, has reached and defined the unalterable canons of virtue. But (revelation apart) the process through which this wisdom was gained has been too abstruse, or difficult, to recommend itself to vulgar minds; and such, conversant always with instances that seem to contradict the rule, bave been prone to believe that, to pay homage to ABSTRACT TRUTH, is to worship a powerless or a sleeping divinity.
It may perplex us to contemplate the condition of man, as thus conversant as much with the anomalies as with the rules of the moral system : nevertheless the fact of bis being so, wbatever purpose it may be destined to fulfil, is manifestly only a part of the universal constitution under the conditions of which, as it seems, the innumerable families of the creation, as well as ourselves, are placed :—if men, individually, are confined to a narrow line of things, and if nations are debarred much intercourse, one with another, and if generations come and pass away with little knowledge of their precursors, and transmitting little of themselves to their successors, all this separation and seclusion is only the ramification of that great principle which, as we see, has broken up the solid material of the universe into innumerable gobules, and has swung each little sphere in the centre of an impassable solitude of space.
But how much soever of ambiguity or confusion may attend universal moral principles, so far as they are to be gathered by each individual from his particular experience, neither those principles, nor the method of establishing them, are really invalid, or vague.- The true description of them is, that they are at onoe demonstrable, or certain ; but not obtrusive. This is the uniform character of every kind of practical or theoretic wisdom in the present state ;-it is valid, and ascertainable ; but not loud or importunate in its mode of challenging attention. Whoever will, may acquaint himself with truth and virtue : but neither truth por virtue stands on the highway, or forces herself upon the notice of passengers. All this is ouly in harmony with the apparent intention of the visible world, considered as a framework for the support of a moral system. The very same law which divides the family of God into so many separate communities, imposes (within the circle of each community) a reserve, a silence, upon wisdom and virtue.
Wisdom and virtue calmly utter their maxims; but compel no attention, no obedience : they are not trumpet-tongued ; neither do they adduce, as they might, in support of their doctrine, the evidence of that great book of facts wherein is written the complete history of man. Let it it only be imagined that, in every coutroversy between the inducements of evil, and the reasons of virtue, there were exhibited to the wavering spirit all the cases in point, and all the issues of those cases, that stand upon the faithful records of the human fainily of all ages. What impetuosity of passion, wbat audacity, could resist the inference in favour of virtue ; or rush upon its guilty pleasures through the crowd of a million of victims? No such force is granted, in the present state, to the reasons of virtue ; and, turn wbich way we will, it is always true that "the things eternal are unseen—the things that are seen are temporal."
Those peculiar physical sentiments that distinguish the several stages of lite, or that naturally spring from the circumstances attending each stage, greatly intercept the transmission, or natural descent of experience, from one generation to another. The pride and heat of youthful hope render the youth, conscious as he is of vigour, impatient of paternal admonition; and then the pride and shame of the father, whose experience is in fact the history of his own follies, or crimes, again forbid, on his part, a true and candid delivery of the wisdom he has so hardly gained. That knowledge of life which the son receives from his father, is indeed valuable ; but it is scarcely more than a grain or two in quantity.
Again, the human race of each generation is divided, and effectively sequestered by—remoteness of geographical position ; by antipathy of races ; by discordancy of tastes, and modes of life; and, most of all, by diversity of speech. —Speech, the prerogative and glory of man, the instrument both of knowledge and virtue, and the principal organ of advancement in every line, has become jarred by so many discords, that, though it subserves its purposes within particular circles, it utterly refuses to favour universal intercourse ; and, on the contrary, enhances and perpetuates all those other alienations that spring from remoteness of place, or dissimilarity of habits. It is by language (the very means of communion) that mankind is severed and estranged, and almost as mach repelled, one from another, as if they were of different species, or had come together from different worlds. Who would have thought that men—the offspring of one womb, and parted perhaps only by a river or chain of mountains, should ever be reduced to the meagreness of mute signs and gestures !
But the law of seclusion does not here cease to operate. — By the perils, necessities, and straits of ordinary life, by the pressure of every day's burden, by the opposition of private interests, and the contracted motives of selfishness, every man (more or less) has his attention so cencentrated upon the small surface of his particular advantages, his hopes and his fears, that he is very far from being a free spectator of that circle or theatre of life which actually comes within his range of observation. As his purposes are partial, so are bis habits of contemplation :-he walks in one path, and gathers all the wisdom that he does at all gather, on the parrow line of that one path. Not one man in ten thousand is as wise as the facts he knows, or might know, would make him.