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(c) There shall be an efficient drainage and plumbing system for the establishment and premises, and all drains and gutters shall be properly installed with approved traps and vents.

(d) The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable, with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant. Every establishment shall make known, and whenever required shall afford opportunity for inspection of, the source of its water supply and the location and character of its reservoir and storage tanks.

(e) The floors, walls, ceilings, partitions, posts, doors, and other parts of all structures shall be of such materials, construction, and finish as will make them susceptible of being readily and thoroughly cleaned. The floors shall be kept water-tight. The rooms and compartments used for edible products shall be separate and distinct from those used for inedible products.

(f) The rooms and compartments in which any meat or product is prepared or handled shall be free from odors from dressing and toilet rooms, catch basins, hide cellars, casing rooms, inedible tank and fertilizer rooms, and stables.

(g) Every practicable precaution shall be taken to keep establishments free of flies, rats, mice, and other vermin. The use of poisons for any purpose in rooms or compartments where any unpacked meat or product is stored or handled is forbidden, except under such restrictions and precautions as the chief of bureau may prescribe. The use of bait poisons in hide cellars, inedible compartments, outbuildings, or similar places, or in storerooms containing canned or tierced products is not forbidden, but so-called rat viruses shall not be used in any part of an establishment or the premises thereof.

(h) Dogs shall not be admitted into official establishments.*i [Reg. 8, sec. 3]

8.4 Sanitary facilities and accommodations; specific requirements. Adequate sanitary facilities and accommodations shall be furnished by every official establishment. Of these the following are specifically required:

(a) Dressing rooms, toilet rooms, and urinals, sufficient in number, ample in size, conveniently located, provided with windows to admit direct, natural light, properly ventilated, and meeting all requirements as to sanitary construction and equipment. These shall be separate from the rooms and compartments in which meat and products are prepared, stored, or handled. Where both sexes are employed, separate facilities shall be provided.

(b) Modern lavatory accommodations, including running hot and cold water, soap, towels, etc. These shall be placed in or near toilet and urinal rooms and also at such other places in the establishment as may be essential to assure cleanliness of all persons handling any meat or product.

(c) Properly located facilities for disinfecting and cleansing utensils and hands of all persons handling any meat or product.

(d) Cuspidors of such shape as not readily to be upset and of such material as to be readily disinfected. They shall be sufficient in number and accessibly placed in all rooms and places designated by

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**For statutory and source citations, see note to 8 8.1.

the inspector in charge, and all persons who expectorate shall be required to use them.** [Reg. 8, sec. 4]

8.5 Equipment to be easily cleaned; that for inedible products to be marked. Equipment and utensils used for preparing, processing, and otherwise handling any meat or product shall be of such materials and construction as will make them susceptible of being readily and thoroughly cleaned and such as will insure strict cleanliness in the preparation and handling of all meat and products. Trucks and receptacles used for inedible products shall bear some conspicuous and distinctive mark and shall not be used for handling edible products.*1 [Reg. 8, sec. 5]

8.6 Scabbards for knives. After January 1, 1939, scabbards and similar devices for the temporary retention of knives, steels, etc., by workers and others at inspected establishments shall be constructed of rust-resisting metal or other impervious material and shall be of a type that may be readily cleaned.* [SRA, BAI 371, Mar. 1938]

8.7 Rooms, compartments, etc., to be clean and sanitary. Rooms, compartments, places, equipment, and utensils used for preparing, storing, or otherwise handling any meat or product, and all other parts of the establishment, shall be kept clean and sanitary.** [Reg. 8, sec. 6]

8.8 Operations, procedures, rooms, clothing, utensils, etc., to be clean and sanitary. (a) Operations and procedures involving the preparation, storing, or handling of any meat or product shall be strictly in accord with cleanly and sanitary methods.

(b) Rooms and compartments in which inspections are made and those in which animals are slaughtered or any meat or product is processed or prepared shall be kept sufficiently free of steam and vapors to enable bureau employees to make inspections and to insure cleanly operations. The walls and ceilings of rooms and compartments under refrigeration shall be kept reasonably free from moisture.

(c) Butchers and others who dress or handle diseased carcasses or parts shall, before handling or dressing other carcasses or parts, cleanse their hands of grease, immerse them in a prescribed disinfectant, and rinse them in clean water. Implements used in dressing diseased carcasses shall be thoroughly cleansed in boiling water or in a prescribed disinfectant, followed by rinsing in clean water. The employees of the establishment who handle any meat or product shall keep their hands clean, and in all cases after visiting the toilet rooms or urinals shall wash their hands before handling any meat or product or implements used in the preparation of the same.

(d) Aprons, frocks, and other outer clothing worn by persons who handle any meat or product shall be of material that is readily cleansed, and only clean garments shall be worn. Knife scabbards shall be kept clean.

(e) Such practices as spitting on whetstones, placing skewers or knives in the mouth, inflating lungs or casings, or testing with air from the mouth such receptacles as tierces, kegs, casks, and the like, containing or intended as containers of any meat or product, are prohibited. Only mechanical means may be used for testing. Care shall be taken

**For statutory and source citations, see note to $ 8.1.

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to prevent the contamination of meats and products with perspiration.*+ [Reg. 8, sec. 7]

8.9 Paper in contact with fresh meat shipped in slack barrels; requirements. Paper used for covering or lining slack barrels in contact with fresh meat should be of a kind which does not tear during such use but will remain intact when moistened by the meat juices and not disintegrate.* [SRA, BAI 274, Feb. 1930]

8.10 Burlap wrapping for meat; meat wrapped in to be previously wrapped in paper or cloth. Since burlap used without any other material as a wrapping for meat deposits lint on the meat and does not sufficiently protect it from outside contamination, the use of burlap as a wrapping for meat will no longer be permitted unless the meat is first wrapped with a good grade of paper or cloth of a kind which will prevent contamination with lint or other foreign matter.* [SRA, BAI 360, Apr. 1937]

8.11 Wagons and cars to be clean and sanitary. The wagons and cars in which any meat or product is transported shall be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. Wagons used in transferring loose meat and products between official establishments shall be closed or so covered that the contents shall be kept clean.** [Reg. 8, sec. 8]

8.12 Second-hand tubs, barrels, other containers and tank cars; inspection and cleaning: (a) Second-hand tubs, barrels, and boxes intended for use as containers of any meat or product shall be inspected when received at the establishment and before they are cleaned. Those showing evidence of misuse rendering them unfit to serve as containers for food products shall be rejected. The use of those showing no evidence of previous misuse may be allowed after they have been thoroughly and properly cleaned. Steaming, after thorough scrubbing and rinsing, is essential to cleaning tubs and barrels.

(b) Interiors of tank cars about to be used for the transportation of any meat food products shall be carefully inspected for cleanliness even though the last previous content was edible. Lye and soda solutions used in cleaning must be thoroughly removed by rinsing with clean water. In their examinations bureau employees shall enter the tank with a light and examine all parts of the interior.** (Reg. 8, sec. 9]

8.13 Inedible operating and storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, approaches, pens, alleys, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of official establishments used for inedible products shall be maintained in acceptably clean condition. The outer premises of every official establishment, embracing docks and areas where cars and wagons are loaded, and the driveways, approaches, yards, pens, and alleys, shall be properly drained and kept in clean and orderly condition. All catch basins on the premises shall be of such construction and location and be given such attention as will insure their being kept in acceptable condition as regards odors and cleanliness. The accumulation on the premises of establishments of any material in which flies may breed, such as hog hair, bones, paunch contents,

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**For statutory and source citations, see note to 8 8.1.

or manure, is forbidden. No nuisance shall be allowed in any establishment or on its premises.*i [Reg. 8, sec. 10]

8.14 Employment of diseased persons; equines. (a) No establishment shall employ, in any department where any meat or meat product is handled or prepared, any person affected with tuberculosis or other communicable disease.

(b) Equines owned or used by official establishments on the premises thereof shall be free of diseases communicable to man. Inspectors will be alert for the detection of such diseases in work stock on the premises of official establishments.*i [Reg. 8, sec. 11]

8.15 Tagging insanitary equipment, etc. When necessary, bureau employees shall attach a “U. S. rejected” tag to any equipment or utensil which is insanitary, or the use of which would be in violation of the regulations in this subchapter. No equipment or utensil so tagged shall again be used until made sanitary. Such tag so placed shall not be removed by any one other than a bureau employee.** [Reg. 8, sec. 12]



9.1 In pens and public stock yards; 9.7 Cripples and downers.

suspects; withdrawal of as added 9.8 Tuberculin test reactors.
penalty for violations of reguia- 9.9 Marking suspects.

9. 10 Hogs suspected of cholera or 9.2 Marking animals “U. S. con

swine plague; cripples and demned" found diseased; dispo

downers. sition,

9. 11 Emergency slaughter; inspection 9.3 Hogs plainly showing on ante

prior to. mortem inspection affection with 9. 12 Temperatures where disease sushog cholera or swine plague.

pected; disposition of animal 9.4 Animals showing symptoms of showing.

rabies, tetanus, milk fever, or 9. 13 Pregnancy or recent parturitions. railroad sickness.

9. 14 Vaccine animals. 9.5 Immature animals; animals dead 9. 15 Hog-cholera or swine plague susor in dying condition.

pects. 9.6 Animals suspected of being dis- 9. 16 Disposition of condemned anieased; disposition of on post

mals. mortem inspection or otherwise. Section 9.1 In pens and public stock yards; suspects; withdrawal of as added penalty for violations of regulations. (a) An ante-mortem examination and inspection shall be made of all cattle, sheep, swine, and goats about to be slaughtered in an official establishment before their slaughter shall be allowed.

(b) Such ante-mortem inspection shall be made in pens on the premises of the establishment in which the animals are about to be slaughtered, except as provided in paragraph (c):

(c) At each official station where there are public stockyards, upon approval of the chief of bureau, ante-mortem inspection may be conducted at the scales or in the pens of the yards. Inspection under this paragraph shall be performed only on animals presented for inspection by an official establishment. Except as provided in $$ 9.13–9.15, every animal marked as a suspect on such inspection shall be slaughtered at an official establishment of the official station at

**For statutory and source citations, see note to § 8.1.

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which the inspection was made. If any such animal be not so slaughtered or disposed of in compliance with $$ 9.13–9.15, then thereafter no ante-mortem inspection shall be done under this paragraph for the official establishment which presented the animal for inspection, and ante-mortem inspection for that establishment shall be performed only in pens on its premises in accordance with paragraph (b). When the chief of bureau is satisfied at any time that inspection at scales or in pens of public stockyards is being used for unfair or unjust purposes by an official establishment or by any one in whose behalf it presents animals for inspection under this paragraph, then he shall require ante-mortem inspection for that establishment thereafter to be made only in accordance with paragraph (b). The chief of bureau may at any time withdraw ante-mortem inspection, in whole or in part, from any public stockyards.

(d) If an animal marked as a suspect on inspection at public stockyards is not slaughtered by the establishment by which it was presented for inspection, then such animal shall be removed from the place of inspection only under the supervision of a bureau employee, and, until slaughtered in compliance with paragraph (c) or dísposed of pursuant to 88 9.13–9.15 shall remain under the supervision of a bureau employee. Every animal marked as a suspect on inspection in the pens of an official establishment shall be slaughtered on the premises of that establishment unless disposed of pursuant to $$ 9.13–9.15.

(e) The withdrawal of ante-mortem inspection from public stockyards, in whole or in part, shall not be a substitute for, but shall be in addition to, any penalty for violating the regulations in this subchapter elsewhere prescribed by the regulations in this subchapter or prescribed by the Meat-Inspection Act.** [Reg. 9, sec. 1]

*88 9.1 to 9.16, inclusive, issued under the authority contained in 34 Stat. 1260–1265 ; 21 U.S.C. 71-79, 83–91. *The source of $$ 9.1 to 9.16, inclusive, is BAI order 211 rev., Sept. 1, 1922.

9.2 Marking animals “U. S. condemned" found diseased; disposition. All animals plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection any disease or condition that under the regulations in this subchapter would cause condemnation of their carcasses on post-mortem inspection shall be marked “U. S. condemned” and disposed of in accordance with § 9.16.*+ [Reg. 9, sec. 2, par. 1]

9.3 Hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection affection with hog cholera or swine plague. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with either hog cholera 1 or swine plague shall be marked “U. S. condemned” and disposed of in accordance with $ 9.16.

If a hog has a temperature of 106° F. or higher, and is of a lot in which there are symptoms of either hog cholera or swine plague, in case of doubt as to the cause of the high temperature, after being marked for identification, it may be held for a reasonable time, under the supervision of an inspector, for further observation and taking

* For instructions regarding the disposition on ante-mortem inspection of swine injected with hog-cholera virus or hyperimmune swine, see 88 11.11, 11.12.

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**For statutory and source citations, see note to $ 9.1.

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