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plied to vegetables, to denote their dried withered state ; see Judges xvi, 7, 8. The shoot of a tree withering under the sheltering shade of the cloud, which is naturally friendly to its growth, is an apt image of the wicked brought to ruin; not for want of the natural means of thrift and prosperity, but by the immediate act of God.

“ The offspring" - literally, “ the shoot." I cannot agree with the learned Mr Parkhurst that the word 790), in Cant. ii, 12, evidently “ denotes the harmonious singing of birds.” Whence he seems to conclude that the word may signify any other harmonious singing, and may be understood here of a joyful noise, or triumphant singing.

-« shall be humbled.” Bishop Lowth observes, upon another place, that the Hebrew poets delight in the mixture of the proper with the allegorical. The most moderate degree of this mixture is when that is predicated of the figure, which is incident only to the thing figured; or vice versa: and thus far the mixture of the proper and the figurative is common in all languages, and this line in the ori. ginal presents a remarkable instance. The verb oray, in the sense of humbling, is properly, I think, applied only to men, and the fortunes of men. Here

its subject is the young shoot of a tree, put as a figure for the progeny of men. But a shoot, or a branch, shall be humbled, in our language would be a very harsh expression, and hardly intelligible.

Verse 6. -" unto all people”- rather, “ unto all peoples"

_ " a feast," a spiritual feast of the blessings of the Christian dispensation. See Bishop Lowth's excellent note upon this verse, in which he shews, with the highest evidence, the necessary reference of this prophecy to the gospel.

Verse 7. -" the face of the covering cast over all people.” Transpose with Houbigant and Bishop Lowth. -" the covering cast over the face of all peoples,” The covering' and the veil' are the mist of ignorance in which the heathen world was buried, till the appearance of our Saviour ; par. ticularly the ignorance of a future state, and of the means of obtaining eternal life.

Verse 9. " and he will save us;" rather, “ and he hath saved us."

Absorptâ morte in perpetuum, populus Dei, qui de manu mortis fuerit liberatus, dicet ad Dominum, . Ecce Deus noster quem increduli hominem tantùm putabant.” Hieron. ad locum.

“ Observo---verba prophetæ sic esse constructa, ut nos ultro invitent ad speciatim cogitandum de personâ Filii Dei, magni servatoris et salvatoris (est enim in hâc voce major emphasis) qui cum olim populo posterorum Jacobi præstitisset salutem temporalem, in fine dierum appareret in carne ad populo electo impetrandam salutem spiritualem et æternam.” Vitringa ad locum, vol. ii, p. 49, c. 1.

Verse 10. -" and Moab shall be trodden down under him, even as straw is trodden down for the dunghill;" perhaps “ and Moab shall be trodden down under him,* as straw is trodden in the waters of Madmenah.” Straw was trodden in water to prepare it for the making of bricks. (says Houbigant) qui mediis in aquis paleas frangunt, ac subigunt, ut conficiantur lateres.” Perhaps Madmenah might be famous for brickworks.

If we follow the Keri, pa for 3 (which is con. firmed by many of Kennicott's best Codd.), the common translation may stand; 66 as straw is trodden down in the dunghill.” “Solet enim stramen injici sterquilinio, et pedibus calcari ut fimus fiat.”

“ Illi aguntur


* Or rather, “ in his own place;" that is, in his own country. So Vitringa.

may be a מתבן ,מתבן not ,תבן word for straw is

Schindler apud Vitringam. But the former exposition seems by far more elegant. But the common

, .. a thrashing floor, or the place where straw is shatter. ed; and so the LXX understand it here, for they render it by charac. 73070 may come from the root OD7, and signify a roller or corn-drag. And thus the passage will be brought to the sense expressed by the LXX, which seems the best of all: _“and Moab [i. e. the land of Moab] shall be trampled under him, as the thrashing floor is trampled by the corn-drag." See Mr Parkhurst's Lexicon, an, 11.

Verse 11. “ And he shall spread forth his hands, &c. swim." _" Ita Deus potenter extendet manus suas, ut hostes hâc illâc percutiat, et tam facile illos conficiet, quam natator aquam findit.” Quidam apud Poole. “Qui natant non irruunt toto impetu, sed leviter sese expandunt, et brachia placide deducunt, aquas tamen proscindunt et superant. Ita Deus absque ullo negotio sine strepitu aut tumultu hostes perdit et profligat.” Calvin apud Poole, Compare Zach. v, 3. -" together with the spoils of their hands.” Sy

_" cum allisione manuum ejus.” Vulg. _" with the sudden gripe of his hands." Bishop

ארבות ידיך

may denote the arm above the elbow as ארבות ידים

Lowth. -" manuum suarum impressione.” Houbigant. -" and with the strength of his hands shall he bring down their pride.” Queen Elizabeth's translators. I cannot see how allision or impression may connect with any known sense of the word 37. In the Chaldee dialect Dakom 19578 signifies the thigh, as the most muscular part of the bar, or whole limb from the head of the thigh-bone downwards. In Arabic, the word 1997/1978 bears the same signification. Hence some have conjectured that D' the most muscular part of the 7), or whole limb from the top of the shoulder to the ends of the fingers. In this case, the word nig7x must be referred to the root 57, and the x at the beginning of the word must be servile. If py were ever used as the preposition of the instrument, the prophet might be supposed to pursue the image of the swimmer dashing the water on one side and the other with his arms; and the passage might be rendered thus : - And with his brawny arms he shall bring down their pride." But I find no unquestionable instance of this use of Dy, though St Jerome, Houbigant, and Queen Elizabeth's translators, must all have supposed it to be so used here. The preposition y

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