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(including office equipment), are hereby transferred to the Department of Agriculture and shall be administered in such Department under the general direction and supervision of the Secretary of Agriculture, who shall be responsible for the coordination of their functions and activities.
(b) Transfer of Administrative Funds.-So much of the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, or other funds available (including those available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940) for the administrative expenses of any agency transferred by this section, as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the Secretary of Agriculture for such use; and the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall allocate to the Secretary of Agriculture from such funds, such sums, and in such proportions, as he may find necessary for the administrative expenses of the Secretary of Agriculture in connection with the agencies and functions transferred by this section. In determining the amount to be transferred, the Director of the Bureau of the Budget may include an amount to provide for the liquidation of obligations incurred against such appropriations, allocations, or other funds prior to the transfer. The use of the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, or other funds transferred by this subsection shall be subject to the provision of section 4 (d) (3) and section 9 of the Reorganization Act of 1939.
(c) Transfer of other funds. All unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, or other funds, other than those mentioned in subsection (b) of this section, available (including those available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940) for any agency transferred by subsection (a) of this section shall be transferred with such agency and shall remain available to it for the exercise of its functions.
(d) Personnel.-Any of the personnel transferred by this section to the Department of Agriculture which the Secretary of Agriculture shall find to be in excess of the personnel necessary for the administration of the functions transferred by this section shall be retransferred under existing law to other positions in the Government, or separated from the service subject to the provisions of section 10 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1939.
SEC. 402. (a) Federal Loan Agency.-There shall be at the seat of the Government a Federal Loan Agency, with a Federal Loan Administrator at the head thereof. The Federal Loan Administrator shall be appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall receive a salary at the rate of $12,000 per annum.
(b) Assistant Federal Loan Administrator.-The Federal Loan Administrator shall appoint an Assistant Federal Loan Administrator, who shall receive a salary at the rate of $9,000 per annum. The Assistant Administrator shall act as Administrator during the absence or disability of the Administrator, or in the event of a vacancy in that office, and shall perform such other duties as the Administrator shall direct.
(c) Powers and duties of Administrator.-The Administrator shall supervise the administration, and shall be responsible for the coordination of the functions and activities, of the following agencies: Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Electric Home and Farm Au
thority, RFC Mortgage Company, Disaster Loan Corporation, Federal National Mortgage Association, Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Home Owners' Loan Corporation, Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, Federal Housing Administration, and Export-Import Bank of Washington. The Administrator may appoint such officers and employees and make such expenditures as may be
(d) Administrative funds.-The Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall allocate to the Federal Loan Agency, from appropriations, allocations, or other funds available (including those available for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940) for the administrative expenses of the agencies named in this section, such sums, and in such proportion, as he may find necessary for the administrative expenses of the Federal Loan Agency.
FIRST PLAN ON GOVERNMENT REORGANIZATION
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES
THE FIRST PLAN ON GOVERNMENT REORGANIZATION AND ACCOMPANYING ORDERS
APRIL 25, 1939.-Referred to the Select Committee on Government Organization and ordered to be printed
To the Congress of the United States:
Pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1939 (Public, No. 19, 76th Cong., 1st sess.) approved April 3, 1939, I herewith transmit Reorganization Plan No. I, which, after investigation, I have prepared in accordance with the provisions of section 4 of the act; and I declare that with respect to each transfer, consolidation, or abolition made in Reorganization Plan No. I, I have found that such transfer, consolidation, or abolition is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes of section 1 (a) of the act.
In these days of ruthless attempts to destroy democratic government, it is boldly asserted that democracies must always be weak in order to be democratic at all; and that, therefore, it will be easy to crush all free states out of existence. Confident in our Republic's 150 years of successful resistance to all subversive attempts upon it, whether from without or within, nevertheless we must be constantly alert to the importance of keeping the tools of American democracy up to date. It is our responsibility to make sure that the people's government is in condition to carry out the people's will, promptly, effectively, without waste or lost motion.
In 1883 under President Arthur we strengthened the machinery of democracy by the Civil Service law; beginning in 1905 President Roosevelt initiated important inquiries into Federal administration; in 1911 President Taft named the Economy and Efficiency Commission which made very important recommendations; in 1921 under Presidents Wilson and Harding_we tightened up our budgetary procedure. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson, Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover in succession strongly recommended the rearrangement of Federal administrative activities. In 1937 I proposed, on the basis of an inquiry authorized and appropriated for by the Congress, the strengthening of the administrative management of the executive establishment.
None of all this long series of suggestions, running over more than a quarter of a century, was in any sense personal or partisan in design.
These measures have all had only one supreme purpose-to make democracy work-to strengthen the arms of democracy in peace or war and to ensure the solid blessings of free government to our people in increasing measure.
We are not free if our administration is weak. But we are free if we know, and others know, that we are strong; that we can be tough as well as tender
hearted; and that what the American people decide to do can and will be done, capably and effectively, with the best national equipment that modern organizing ability can supply in a country where management and organization is so well understood in private affairs.
My whole purpose in submitting this plan is to improve the administrative management of the Republic, and I feel confident that our Nation is united in this central purpose, regardless of differences upon details.
This plan is concerned with the practical necessity of reducing the number of agencies which report directly to the President and also of giving the President assistance in dealing with the entire executive branch by modern means of administrative management.
Forty years ago in 1899 President McKinley could deal with the whole machinery of the executive branch through his 8 cabinet secretaries and the heads of 2 commissions; and there was but 1 commission of the so-called quasi-judicial type in existence. He could keep in touch with all the work through 8 or 10 persons.
Now, 40 years later, not only do some 30 major agencies (to say nothing of the minor ones) report directly to the President, but there are several quasi-judicial bodies which have enough administrative work to require them also to see him on important executive matters.
It has become physically impossible for one man to see so many persons, to receive reports directly from them, and to attempt to advise them on their own problems which they submit. In addition the President today has the task of trying to keep their programs in step with each other or in line with the national policy laid down by the Congress. And he must seek to prevent unnecessary duplication of effort.
The administrative assistants provided for the President in the Reorganization Act cannot perform these functions of over-all management and direction. Their task will be to help me get information, and condense and summarize it-they are not to become in any sense Assistant Presidents nor are they to have any authority over anybody in any department or agency.
The only way in which the President can be relieved of the physically impossible task of directly dealing with 30 or 40 major agencies is by reorganizationby the regrouping of agencies according to their major purposes under responsible heads who will report to the President, just as is contemplated by the Reorganization Act of 1939.
This Act says that the President shall investigate the organization of all agencies of the Government and determine what changes are necessary to accomplish any one or more of five definite purposes:
(1) To reduce expenditures;
(2) To increase efficiency;
(3) To consolidate agencies according to major purposes;
(4) To reduce the number of agencies by consolidating those having similar functions and by abolishing such as may not be necessary;
(5) To eliminate overlapping and duplication of effort.
It being obviously impracticable to complete this task at one time, but having due regard to the declaration of Congress that it should be accomplished immediately and speedily, I have decided to undertake it promptly in several steps.
The first step is to improve over-all management, that is to do those things which will accomplish the purposes set out in the law, and which, at the same time, will reduce the difficulties of the President in dealing with the multifarious agencies of the executive branch and assist him in distributing his responsibilities as the chief administrator of the Government by providing him with the necessary organization and machinery for better administrative management. The second step is to improve the allocation of departmental activities, that is, to do those things which will accomplish the purposes set out in the law and at the same time help that part of the work of the executive branch which is carried on through executive departments and agencies. In all this the responsibility to the people is through the President.
The third step is to improve intradepartmental management, that is, to do those things which will enable the heads of departments and agencies the better to carry out their own duties and distribute their own work among their several assistants and subordinates.
Each of these three steps may require from time to time the submission of one or more plans involving one or more reorganizations, but it is my purpose to fulfill the duty imposed upon me by the Congress as expeditiously as practicable
and to the fullest extent possible in view of the exceptions and exemptions set out in the act.
The plan I now transmit is divided into four parts or sections which I shall describe briefly as follows:
PART 1. EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
In my message to the Congress of January 12, 1937, in discussing the problem of how to improve the administrative management of the executive branch, I transmitted with my approval certain recommendations for strengthening and developing the management arms of the President. Those three management arms deal with (1) budget, and efficiency research, (2) planning, and (3) personnel. My accumulated experience during the 2 years since that time has deepened my conviction that it is necessary for the President to have direct access to these managerial agencies in order that he may have the machinery to enable him to carry out his constitutional responsibility, and in order that he may be able to control expenditures, to increase efficiency, to eliminate overlapping and duplication of effort, and to be able to get the information which will permit him the better to advise the Congress concerning the state of the Union and the program of the Government.
Therefore, I find it necessary and desirable in carrying out the purposes of the act to transfer the Bureau of the Budget to the Executive Office of the President from the Treasury Department. It is apparent from the legislative history of the Budget and Accounting Act that it was the purpose in 1921 to set up an Executive Budget for which the President would be primarily responsible to the Congress and to the people, and that the Director of the Budget was to act under the immediate direction and supervision of the President. While no serious difficulties have been encountered because of the fact that the Bureau of the Budget was placed in the Treasury Department so far as making budgetary estimates has been concerned, it is apparent that its coordinating activities and its research and investigational activities recently provided for by the Congress, will be facilitated if the Bureau is not a part of 1 of the 10 executive departments. Also, in order that the Bureau of the Budget may the better carry out its work of coordination and investigation, I find it desirable and necessary in order to accomplish the purposes of the act to transfer to the Bureau of the Budget the functions of the Central Statistical Board.
By these transfers to the Executive Office, the President will be given immediate access to that managerial agency which is concerned with the preparation and administration of the Budget, with the coordination of the work of the governmental agencies, and with research and investigation necessary to accomplish the five definite purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1939.
I also find it necessary and desirable to transfer to the Executive Office of the President the National Resources Committee, now an independent establishment, and to consolidate with it by transfer from the Department of Commerce the functions of the Federal Employment Stabilization Office, the consolidated unit to be known as the National Resources Planning Board. This Board would be made up as is the present Advisory Board of the National Resources Committee of citizens giving part-time services to the Government, who aided by their technical staff would be able to advise the President, the Congress, and the people with respect to plans and programs for the conservation of the national resources, physical and human. By these transfers to the Executive Office, the President will be given more direct access to and immediate direction over that agency which is concerned with planning for the utilization and conservation of the national resources, an indispensable part of the equipment of the Chief Executive. On previous occasions I have recommended and I hereby renew and emphasize my recommendation that the work of this Board be placed upon a permanent statutory basis.
Because of an exemption in the act, it is impossible to transfer to the Executive Office the administration of the third managerial function of the Government, that of personnel. However, I desire to inform the Congress that it is my purpose to name one of the administrative assistants to the President, authorized in the Reorganization Act of 1939, to serve as a liaison agent of the White House on personnel management.
In this manner, the President will be given for the first time direct access to the three principal necessary management agencies of the Government. None of the three belongs in any existing department. With their assistance, and with this
reorganization, it will be possible for the President to continue the task of making investigations of the organization of the Government in order to control expenditures, increase efficiency, and eliminate overlapping.
PART 2. FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY
Studies heretofore made by me and researches made at my direction, as well as recommendations submitted by me to the Congress, and especially those contained in my message of January 12, 1937, indicate clearly that to carry out the purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1939 to group, coordinate, and consolidate agencies of the Government according to major purposes and to reduce the number of agencies by consolidating those having similar functions under a single head, would require the provision of 3 general agencies in addition to the 10 executive departments.
It is my objective, then, by transfer, consolidation, and abolition to set up a Federal Security Agency, a Federal Works Agency, and a Federal Loan Agency, and then to distribute among the 10 executive departments and these 3 new agencies, the major indepdendent establishments in the Government (excepting those exempt from the operations of the act) in order to minimize overlapping and duplication, to increase efficiency and to reduce expenditures to the fullest extent consistent with the efficient operation of the Government.
I find it necessary and desirable to group in a Federal Security Agency those agencies of the Government, the major purposes of which are to promote social and economic security, educational opportunity, and the health of the citizens of the Nation.
The agencies to be grouped are the Social Security Board, now an independent establishment, the United States Employment Service, now in the Department of Labor, the Office of Education now in the Department of the Interior, the Public Health Service now in the Treasury Department, the National Youth Administration, now in the Works Progress Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps, now an independent agency.
The Social Security Board is placed under the Federal Security Agency, and at the same time the United States Employment Service is transferred from the Department of Labor and consolidated with the unemployment compensation functions of the Social Security Board in order that their similar and related functions of social and economic security may be placed under a single head and their internal operations simplified and integrated.
The unemployment compensation functions of the Social Security Board and the employment service of the Department of Labor are concerned with the same problem, that of the employment, or the unemployment, of the individual worker.
Therefore, they deal necessarily with the same individual. These particular services to the particular individual also are bound up with the public-assistance activities of the Social Security Board. Not only will these similar functions be more efficiently and economically administered at the Federal level by such grouping and consolidation, but this transfer and merger also will be to the advantage of the administration of State social security programs and result in considerable saving of money in the administrative costs of the governments of the 48 States as well as those of the United States. In addition to this saving of money there will be a considerable saving of time and energy not only on the part of administrative officials concerned with this program in both Federal and State Governments, but also on the part of employers and workers, permitting through the simplification of procedures a reduction in the number of reports required and the elimination of unnecessary duplication in contacts with workers and with employers.
Because of the relationship of the educational opportunities of the country to the security of its individual citizens, the Office of Education with all of its functions, including, of course, its administration of Federal-State programs of Vocational education, is transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Federal Security Agency. This transfer does not increase or extend the activities of the Federal Government in respect to education, but does move the existing activities into a grouping where the work may be carried on more efficiently and expeditiously, and where coordination and the elimination of overlapping may be better accomplished. The Office of Education has no relationship to the other functions of the Department of the Interior.
The Public Health Service is transferred from the Treasury Department to the Federal Security Agency. It is obvious that the health activities of the