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military cargo moved in Department of Defense vessels is omitted from these statistics.

(regulated, exempt, and private). This information together with other information, such as characteristics of vehicles and of weights of carried load, provides a basis for measuring the economic service provided by highways and for comparing commodity flow over highways vis a vis nonhighway modes. Such information is urgently needed for national planning and decisionmaking as to the relative needs of the various transportation modes to make possible an economical expenditure of the Nation's resources. The Truck Commodity Flow Study is based upon a sample of truck registration numbers for nonpublicly owned trucks in each of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia.

The Census of Nonregulated Bus Carriers and Motor Carriers of Property and Public Warehousing.--This census was formerly part of the selected services economic censuses. It collects information on those establishments belonging to carriers or companies that are not regulated by the ICC.

Rail Carload Waybill Sample.—The input to this system is compiled from a 1% sample of audited revenue waybills submitted to the Federal Railroad Administration under the terms of the ICC Order 49 C.F.R., Section 1244. Data are used in traffic flow studies, commodity movement studies, ICC rate cases, revenue studies, safety analyses, and for input to the FRA Railroad Network Model. Principal data elements are: serial and waybill numbers, number of carloads, origin and destination railroad and stations, rate types, revenue, short line miles, AAR car type, and tons. This sample is the principal source of rail traffic flow data.

Foreign trade data are furnished to the Corps of Engineers by the Bureau of the Census. The data are confined to movements by water, and are reconcilable with published reports of the Bureau of the Census. Shipments of domestic merchandise and reexports of foreign merchandise are termed exports. The imports include inbound merchandise for direct consumption and entries into custom bonded storage and manufacturing warehouses. Intransit merchandise, defined by the Bureau of the Census as merchandise coming into the United States from a foreign country and shipped to a foreign country without having been entered as an import, is treated as an import when unloaded from a vessel and as an export when loaded on a vessel. Export shipments for use of the United States Armed Forces abroad are excluded from the statistics as are import shipments on Department of Defense owned and operated vessels. Foreign trade data of territories and possessions other than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, which are under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior, were not furnished to the Corps of Engineers by the Bureau of the Census, and are excluded from the statistics of both agencies.

Domestic and International Transportation of U.S. Foreign Trade.-The survey traces the movement of vessel and air imports and exports throughout the U.S. domestic transportation system. The information includes the types of commodities shipped, destinations within the U.S. of imports and the origin of exports, mode of transport, international and domestic shipping costs, volume, weight, value, and the use of containerization. Information on commodities transshipped to and from other countries by truck and rail via Canada and Mexico is also collected. Agricultural commodities (notably grains) are not included.

The importance of collection and publishing of this information has increased in recent years because of more intensive use of containerization and shipper demands for information on door-to-door movements with through-bills of lading. The survey is expected to provide valuable information to shippers, port officials, carriers, and government agencies on the impact of our export-import trade on the domestic transportation system. It will also enable data users to improve their measurement, analysis and forecasting of trade patterns, impacts on port tributary areas, modal distribution, and general market characteristics. The survey includes general cargo and also commodities shipped primarily as bulk, with the exception of crude oil and grains which may be the subject of future studies.

Waterborne Freight.-Waterborne traffic movements are reported to the Corps of Engineers by all vessel operators of record for those movements of their vessels which were classified as domestic traffic; that is, between United States ports, continental noncontiguous ports, and on the inland rivers, canals, and connecting channels of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands (excluding the Panama Canal). The reports are generally submitted on the basis of a vessel movement completed in one direction and, for movements with cargo, the origin and destination of the water transportation of each individual commodity.

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The domestic traffic includes all commercial movements between points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Traffic in the Panama Canal Zone is treated as foreign commerce. Cargo moved for the military agencies in commercial vessels is reported as ordinary commercial cargo;

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contains all pertinent information for each gradecrossing.

St. Lawrence Seaway Statistics.-The St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation reports statistics on shipping in the St. Lawrence Seaway. Annual traffic statistics cover the movement of vessels and cargo through the International (Montreal to Lake Ontario) and Welland Canal sections of the system. Data reported include commodity detail in net tons, vessel transists, size of vessel, type and registry, cargo and vessel registered tonnage and origin/destination detail of commodities on the basis of U.S., Canada and Overseas divisions. In addition, the Corporation publishes U.S. Great Lakes ports statistics for overseas and Canadian waterborne commerce derived from Bureau of Census data.

Air Carrier Traffic and Capacity Statistics.-Form ER.586, reported to the Civil Aeronautics Board by domestic and international carriers, provides for detailed traffic and capacity statistics collected by the route carriers and reflects the movements of traffic and aircraft by individual flight stages.

Financial Aspects

Aviation Facilities Information.—Information contained in this category covers data such as identification, performance, and physical status of facility installation projects. All data are derived from internal elements of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), either regional offices or FAA headquarters. FAA management reviews this information in planning and evaluating facilities owned and/or maintained by the FAA to support the National Airspace System. The data are available to government agencies on computer tape as Line Performance Reports, Facility and Service Outage Reports, and Frequency and Facility Master Files.

Census of Government Statistics.-The quinquennial census of State and local governments obtains financial and employment statistics on various government activities. These activities include highway construction, public transit, airport, water transportation and terminal facilities. Financial statistics include: revenues by source (operating revenues, taxes, intergovernmental transfers), expenditures, capital outlays, indebtedness and investment assets. The information is particularly useful in analyzing the level of commitment of State and local governments to transportation functions and in tracing the financial transfers between Federal, State and local governments.

Air Carrier Operating and Financial StatisticsU.S. air carriers report monthly and quarterly data to the Civil Aeronautics Board on Form 41. This form includes operating statistics, revenue, expense and balance sheet data.

Aircraft Information. This information category includes data on aircraft ownership; aircraft and operators inspection and surveillance; type and airworthiness certifications; mechanical reliability, malfunction, and defect reports; and types and categories of aircraft operations. The data are derived, externally, from aircraft owners, manufacturers, operators, and so on, and internally, from FAA Flight Standards Inspectors. The FAA uses the data in its planning, forecasting, and safety analysis programs. The data also support the management and operation of the U.S. Civil Aircraft Fleet.

Physical and Operating Characteristics

Truck Inventory and Use Survey.—This survey accumulates data concerning the Nation's trucking resources, such as the number of trucks (total and classified by physical characteristics), occupational use of trucks, measures of intensity of vehicle utilization, and geographic distribution of vehicles. The survey is based on a stratified probability sample of about 120,000 trucks selected from about 15 million registrations.

Grade-Crossing Inventory System.- This nationwide project for numbering and inventorying highway railway grade-crossings was completed in late fiscal year 1976. The data will be used to isolate apparent accident-contributing characteristics and to determine cost/benefit ratios for alternative upgrades. The data base exceeds 430,000 records and

Aviation Activity Information.-Aviation activity information is grouped into three major areas: air traffic activity, aircraft, and enplaned passengers. Air traffic activity includes airport and tower operations, activity at FAA air route traffic centers, and flight services provided by FAA flight service stations. Aircraft data include statistics on aircraft registration, usage, distribution, manufacture, and type. Enplaned passenger data reflect passengers who are boarded at U.S. airports by various categories of air carriers and operators. Air traffic activity data are collected internally from the various FAA air traffic facilities. Aircraft data and enplaned passenger data are both derived from external sources, the former from aircraft owners, the latter from air carrier operators, the Civil Aeronautics Board, the aviation community, and special studies. Aviation activity information is used for forecasting, planning, budgeting, and staffing; support for agency programs; and for statistical publications.

FAA Aircraft Management Information.—This information concerns all FAA-owned, loaned, leasepurchase, and exclusive use lease aircraft in the FAA fleet, and includes inventory data, management cost accounting information, information on airspace and procedures, and information on aircraft inspection, maintenance, fuel consumption, utilization, and availability. This information is provided by users of FAA fleet aircraft. The data furnish comparative statistics in key areas of the Flight Standards Aircraft Program to assist in attaining the most effective utilization of resources. Analysis of performance data assists in developing policy that assures the continued availability of manpower and resources necessary for the accomplishment of programs in the field.

Aviation Forecast Information.—The FAA publishes, annually, the following documents containing forecast data:

-Aviation Forecasts includes forecasts over a 12year period for air carrier enplaned passengers, revenue passenger miles, cargo ton miles and tons enplaned, number of aircraft, hours and miles flown; and total air carrier, general aviation and military activity at FAA-operated air traffic control facilities. -IFR Aircraft Handled covers forecasts of aircraft handled (departures and overs) under Instrument Flight Rules over a 12-year period for each of the 25 air route traffic control centers. -Terminal Area Forecast contains forecasts over a 12-year period for air carrier and air taxi enplanements; air carrier, air taxi, and general aviation aircraft operations; itinerant, local, total, and instrument aircraft operations, and instrument approaches at 872 airports throughout the United States.

- Military Air Traffic Forecast includes forecasts of military aviation activity over a 12-year period at FAA towers, air route traffic control centers and flight service stations.

duction, airport development, and so forth, but also to advise the public of current and expected trends. A related program is the Alternative Aviation Futures Program. The Futures program, as an aid to intermediate and long-term policy development within the FAA, develops forecasts to the year 2000 using five scenarios which cover 26 indicators of aviation activity. In developing these forecasts, the FAA draws upon a wide range of sources, including other Federal and nongovernment experts in aviation and related fields, special studies, periodicals, research reports, and technology forecasts.

Merchant Vessel Statistics.—This program provides the Merchant Vessel Documentation Division with the capability to update the Merchant Vessel Register. The principal data elements contained in the system are official register number, vessel name, vessel description data and owner data.

Standardized Aids to Navigation Data System.This system was developed to monitor the status of all Coast Guard aid to navigation. Specific inputs include geographic positioning information, a record of resource hours spent maintaining aids, and a history of equipment performance. Principal data elements of this system include: on-station inventories of specified equipment, and a list of services to be performed for specific aids to navigation. Major benefits include reports generated from the data base for management purposes and the overall standardization of aids to navigation terminology and equipment.

Nationwide Boating Survey.-This is a triennial survey designed to collect statistics on recreational boats, boaters and boating activities for use in expanding and clarifying existing information, enabling trend data to be developed, and thus providing measures of effectiveness for the boating safety program. The first survey was conducted in early 1974 and the second in 1977.

Merchant Seamen Information.This program involves updating of files on Active Seaman, Seaman Reference and Wanted Seaman official vessel number of each merchant seamen on active voyages; vessel data on merchant ships on active voyages; names of merchant seamen wanted by the U.S. Coast Guard or other law enforcement agencies; and supporting personnel data on wanted seamen.

In addition to these regularly published series, the FAA also produces special forecast studies. The data in this category are derived, internally, from FAA Facility Reports of Activity and FAA Airmen and Aircraft Registry and, externally, from CAB airline reports, special surveys, and economic forecasting services. After careful and intensive research and analysis, the data are developed into official FAA forecasts. The forecasts are used within the FAA in planning, policymaking, programming, and budgeting activities. The published forecasts are used not only by the aviation industry and the military for planning aircraft and avionics development and pro

Safety and Security

Fatal Accident Reporting System.—This system (FARS) provides statistical data on all fatal motor vehicle accidents annually in the United States. Data are collected by federally sponsored analysts in every State who assemble information from five existing sources: individual police accident reports, driver license files, motor vehicle registration, highway department files, and the vital records files. FARS, a fully automated data system, provides national data on three levels concerning fatal motor vehicle accidents: (1) factors concerning the occurrence of the accident; (2) factors concerning the vehicles involved in the accident; and (3) factors concerning all persons involved in the accident. FARS has been operational for over a year and is providing improved support to the safety program development and evaluation mission of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Periodic statistical reports are being developed by NHTSA from the FARS which is also serving as a source to answer ad hoc retrievals or support analytic studies in the highway and motor vehicle safety field.

National Accident Reporting System.-The National Accident Reporting System (NARS), currently being developed by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis in NHTSA, complements the Fatal Accident Reporting System by providing national statistical data on nonfatal motor vehicle accidents. With the addition of NARS, NHTSA will be able to determine the magnitude and characteristics of motor vehicle accidents of all severities, that is, fatal, non-fatal injury, and property damage.

The design of NARS, including the sample design, is complete with a pilot test of the system to be conducted in fiscal year 1978. The data collection mechanism for NARS is expected to be similar to the one used in the FARS, namely, federally sponsored analysts located in the various States who assemble data from existing sources within the States. NARS will differ from FARS in that it will be based on a probability sample of accidents as opposed to the census approach used in FARS.

National Accident Sampling System.- The National Accident Sampling System (NASS), currently under development by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis in NHTSA, will provide data on motor vehicle accidents at a greater level of detail than either the Fatal Accident or National Accident Reporting Systems. The NASS will be based on a probability sample design of the Nation's motor vehicle accidents and will obtain data via a network of full-time, federally sponsored accident investigation field teams. Two data subsystems will be embodied in the NASS: (1) a Continuous Sampling Subsystem (CSS) will provide a baseline of accident statistics with emphasis on quantitative estimates of injury severity, crash severity, accident cost, and accident pre-crash or causal factors; (2) a

Special Studies Subsystem (SSS) will provide the capability to collect additional data in support of one-time studies of special highway safety and motor vehicle topics.

The design of NASS is scheduled to be completed in fiscal year 1978 with implementation of the system to follow thereafter.

National Exposure Data System.-The National Center for Statistics and Analysis of the NHTSA has design efforts underway to provide a system for collecting national exposure data on motor vehicle accidents. Exposure data are defined as data which characterize the accident risk factor for all motor vehicles and highway users. The specific data element to be collected is vehicle miles of travel classified by various characteristics of the road users, vehicles, and the environment.

Exposure data are needed to complement the accident data on motor vehicles. Taken together, these data can be used to derive and analyze accident rates in support of the development and evaluation of safety standards and regulations. Full consideration is being given to the potential for other existing surveys, such as the transportation surveys conducted by the Bureau of the Census, to supply the exposure needs of the NHTSA.

National Electronic Injury Surveillance System.The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) provides the Consumer Product Safety Commission with data on consumer injuries related to or caused by consumer products under its regulatory cognizance. The NEISS is being evaluated by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NHTSA/DOT) as to its potential for providing detailed injury data. (A pilot test is planned for fiscal year 1978.)

National Driver Registration Program. This program provides for a central directory of drivers whose privilege to drive has been denied or withdrawn so that licensing jurisdictions will have a source of information to determine if an applicant for a driving permit has been or is currently prohibited from driving elsewhere. This will decrease the opportunity for ineligible license applicants to obtain a driver's license by switching their State of residency.

Motor Carrier Accident Reports.-All interstate commercial motor carriers subject to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations report highway accidents in which they are involved in accordance with the requirements of 49 C.F.R. 394. The data from the accident reports are used: (1) to create information to refine, update or develop new regulations, and (2) to develop programs that violations, and written and practical examination results, are primarily obtained as a result of the airman certification process from the individual's certificate application. The data support aviation safety analyses.

promise the best results in terms of eliminating the hazards to safe highway transportation.

Highway Traffic and Accident Reporting.-Each State provides a report showing numbers of fatal and injury accidents, the number of fatalities and the number of persons injured summarized by highway system. Travel (VMT) and mileage are also included and computed rates are shown in Table TA-1 submitted to the Federal Highway Administration annually by the States.

Railroad Accident Incident Reporting System.--The Office of the Associate Administrator for Safety of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) has the responsibility for receiving, processing and reporting railroad accident/incident statistics. These include the occupational illness of employees, damage to railroad equipment and structures, and injury to persons (arising from the operation of a railroad). The purpose of the program is to carry out the intent of Congress as expressed in the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 and the Accident Reports Act, as amended. Principal data elements are: casualty information, damage costs, location of accident, and train speed, weather, and grade crossing information.

Railroad FRA Safety Inspections.—These data are collected to compile general statistics on railroad safety inspection.

Track Inspection System.-This system allows the FRA to maintain and retrieve information pertaining to Track Inspection Reports filed by the FRA and State inspectors.

Railroad Locomotive Inspection. These data are collected to maintain records on results of field locomotive inspections. Sources of the data are locomotive inspection records. The reports generated from the data include inspection compliance, locomotive inventory, and FRA inspections.

Aviation Accident, Incident, and Violation Information. The data in this information category describe the circumstances, causes, mechanical failures and/or malfunctions, injuries, and other conditions of accidents, incidents, or violations of Federal Aviation Regulations. The data are collected from various sources including witnesses, passengers, air and ground crew members, and FAA inspectors. The information is used primarily for analysis of violations of Federal Aviation Regulations. It is also used to identify and monitor airmen involved in accidents.

Airmen (Nonmedical) Information. This category provides management and operational data cn the approximately 1.5 million airmen certified by the FAA. The data, which include accident involvement,

Aeromedical Research Information.-This information encompasses major aeromedical research activity data related to personnel, performance and efficiency; aeromedical factors in flight management; and public acceptance of aircraft operations. The data are derived through Civil Aeromedical Institute research and FAA Headquarters studies. The results of these analyses are disseminated for use by interested parties in the aviation and aviation medicine communities.

Search and Rescue Information. This system produces statistics relating to incidents in which a Coast Guard response was involved. The data include: (1) the number of lives saved or lost annually and (2) the value of property assisted or lost annually. The system also generates the total force level of Coast Guard by type of resource (boats, cutters, aircraft, stations, etc.). A complementary system provides search and rescue data developed by the Coast Guard Auxiliary.

Motorboat Accident Statistics.-This system develops annual statistical summaries on recreational and/or numbered boat accidents, as required by the Federal Boat Safety Act of 1971. The principal data elements contained in this system are case number, date, state, county, cause, fatalities, injuries, operator age, type vessels and time.

Hazardous Materials Incident Reporting System.Regulations established in Section 1971 and contained in Section 9171.16, (DOT Form 5800.1) to Office of Hazardous Materials Operations (OHMO), now part of the Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA), upon the occurrence of an unintentional release of hazardous materials in transportation, including loading, unloading, and temporary storage. The system contains information on each reported incident and consists of data elements such as date of incident, location, shipper, carrier, commodity involved, types of containers, estimated dollar damage, amount released, and other detailed information concerning the packaging and the nature of the incident. This information is entered into an automated data processing system. The major uses of the system are to highlight problem areas, to identify container integrity problems, to pinpoint areas requiring corrective action, and to provide a statistical compilation of accidents and incidents involving hazardous materials. The system's outputs are primarily for internal use within OHMO.

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