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and it cost an arduous and dubious struggle, to direct the popular spirit against a sister republic, established

among a people to whose aid the Americans ascribed the establishment of their independence. It is probable, indeed, that no policy could have produced this effect, unless it had been powerfully aided by the crimes of the French government, wbich have proved the strongest allies of all established governments; which have produced such a general disposition to subinit to any known tyranny, rather than rush into all the unknown and undefinable evils of civil confusion, with the horrible train of new and monstrous tyrannies of which it is usually the forerunner. Of these circumstances Washington availed himself with uncommon address. He employed the horror excited by the atrocities of the French revolution for the most honest and praiseworthy purposes; to preserve the internal quiet of his country; to assert the dignity, and to maintain the rights, of the commonwealth which he governed, against foreign enemies. He avoided war without incurring the imputation of pusillanimity. He cherished the detestation of Americans for anarchy, without weakening the spirit of civil liberty, and he maintained, and even consolidated, the authority of government, without abridging the privileges of the people.

The resignation of Washington in 1796 was certainly a measure of prudence, but it may be doubted whether it was beneficial for his country, in the then unsettled state of public affairs. When he retired, he published a valedictory address to bis countrymen, as he had before done when he quitted the command of the army in 1783. In these compositions the whole heart and soul of Washington are laid open. Other state papers have, perhaps, shewn more spirit and dignity, more eloquence, greater force of genius, and a more enlarged comprehension of mind. But none ever displayed more simplicity and ingenuousness, more moderation and sobriety, more good sense, more prudence, more honesty, more earnest affection for his country and for mankind, more profound reverence for virtue and religion ; more ardent wishes for the happiness of his fellow-creatures, and more just and rational views of the means which alone can effectually promote that bappiness.

From his resignation till the month of July 1798, he lived in retirement at Mount Vernon. At this latter period it became necessary for the United States to arm. VOL. XXXI.


They had endured with a patience of which there is no example in the history of states, all the contumely and wrong which successive administrations in France had heaped upon them. Their ships were every where captured, their ministers were detained in a sort of imprisonment at Paris; while incendiaries, cloathed in the sacred character of ambassadors, scattered over their peaceful provinces the firebrands of sedition and civil war. An offer was made to terminate this long course of injustice, by a bribe to the French ministers. This offer was made by persons who appeared to be in the confidence of M. Talleyrand, who professed to act by his authority, but who have been since disavowed by him. In the mean time the United States resolved to arm by land and sea. The command of the army was bestowed on general Washington, which he accepted because he was convinced that “every thing we hold dear and sacred was seriously threatened ;" though he had flattered himself “ that he had quitted for ever the boundless field of public action, incessant trouble and high responsibility, in which he had long acted so conspicuous a part.” In this office he continued during the short period of his life which still remained. On Thursday the 12th December 1799, he was seized with an inflammation in his throat, which became considerably worse the next day ; and of which, notwithstanding the efforts of his physicians, he died on Saturday the 14th of December 1799, in the sixty-eighth year of his age, and in the twenty-third year of the independence of the United States, of which he may be considered as the founder. The same calmness, simplicity, and regularity, which had uniformly marked his demeanour, did not forsake him in his dying moments. Even the perfectly well-ordered state of the most minute particulars of his private business, bore the stamp of that constant authority of prudence and practical reason over his actions, which was a distinguishing feature of his character. He died with those sentiments of piety, which had given vigour and consistency to his virtue, and adorned every part of his blameless and illustrious life.

WASSE (JOSEPH), a very learned scholar, was born in Yorkshire in 1672, and educated at Queen's college, Cambridge, where he took his bachelor's degree in 1694, that of master in 1698, and that of bachelor of divinity in 1707. Before this 1 Encycl. Brit. Supplement, by Dr. Gleig.-Life of Washington, by Marshall,


be had assisted Kuster in his edition of Suidas, as appears by a letter of his, giving an account of that eminent critic. (See Kuster.) I 1710 Wasse became more generally known to the literary world by his edition of “Sallust," 4to, the merits of which have been long acknowledged. He amended the text by a careful examination of nearly eighty manuscripts, as well as some very ancient editions. In Dec. 1711 he was presented to the rectory of Aynhoe in Northamptonsbire, by Thomas Cartwright, esq. where John Whiston (the bookseller) says “ be lived a very agreeable and Christian life, much esteemed by that worthy family and bis parishioners.” He had an equal regard for them, and never sougbt any other preferment. He had a very learned and choice library, in which he passed most of his time, and assisted many of the learned in their publications. He became at length a proselyte to Dr. Clarke's Arianism, and corresponded much with him and with Will. Whiston, as appears by Whiston's Life of Dr. Clarke, and his own life. According to Whiston he was the cause of Mr. Wasse's embracing the Ariau sentiments, which he did with such zeal, as to omit the Athanasian creed in the service of the church, and other passages which militated against his opinions. Whiston calls him “more learned than any bishop in England since bishop Lloyd,” and informs us of the singular compliment Bentley paid to him, “When I am dead, Wasse will be the most learned man in England.”

That he was a good scholar and critic, bis essays in the “ Bibliotbeca Literaria" afford sufficient evidence; but he was not the editor of that work, as some have reported. Dr. Jebb was the editor, but Wasse contributed several pieces, as many others did, and at length destroyed the sale of the work by making his essays too long, particularly his life of Justinian, who filled two whole numbers, and was not then finished. This displeased the readers of the work, and after it had reached ten numbers (at is, each) it was discontinued for want of encouragement. What were published make a 4to volume, finished in 1724. Mr. Wasse was the author of three articles in the Philosophical Transactions; 1. “On the difference of the height of a human body between morning and night.” 2. “On the effects of Lightning, July 3, 1725, in Northamptonshire.” 3.“ An account of an earthquake in Oct. 1731, in Northamptonshire.” He was also a considerable contributor to the edition of “ Thucydides,” which goes by the name of “Wassii et Dukeri," Amst. 1721, 2 vols. fol. He died of an apoplexy, November 19, 1738, and was succeeded in his living of Aynhoe by Dr. Yarborough, afterwards principal of Brasenose college, Oxford, who purchased part of his collection of books, many of them replete with MS notes and collections of MSS. by Mr. Wasse. They are now in the library of that college, by the kindness of the heirs of Dr. Yarborough. John Whiston adds that Wasse was a facetious man in conversation, but a heavy preacher ; a very deserving charitable man, and universally esteemed." A considerable part of his library appeared in one of Whiston's sale catalogues.' · WATERHOUSE (EDWARD), a heraldic and miscellaneous writer, was born in 1619. He had a learned education, and resided some time at Oxford, for the sake of the Bodleian Library there; but was not a member of that university. Soon after the passing of the second charter of the Royal Society, he was proposed on the 22d July, 1668, candidate for election into it; and chosen the 29th of the same month; being admitted the 5th August. He afterwards entered into holy orders, by the persuasion of Dr. Sheldon, archbishop of Canterbury, in 1668. twice married : to his first wife he had Mary, daughter and heiress of Robert Smith, alias Carrington, by Magdalen his wife, daughter of Robert Hervey, esq. comptroller of the custom-house to James the First; secondly to Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Richard Bateman of Hartington in Derbyshire, and London, esq. by Christiana, his first wife, daughter of William Stone, of London, esq. who died, leaving him one son, and two daughters; the daughters only survived him. He died 30th May, 1670, aged fifty-one, at his house at Mile-end-green, and was interred June 2d, at Greenford in Middlesex, where he had an estate. He was author of the following works, some of which are much sought after at present: 1.“ An Apology for Learning and Learned Men,” 1653, 8vo. 2. “'Two Contemplations of Magnanimity and Acquaintance with God," 1653, 8vo. 3. "A Discourse of the Piety, Policy, and Charity of Elder Times, and Christians," 1655, 12mo.

He was

Nichols's Bowyer.—MS Account by Whistou the bookseller. --Whiston's Life.-Gent. Mag. vol. LXXVIII.-Dibdio's Classics.

4. “A Defence of Arms and Armory," 1660, Svo; with a frontispiece of his quarterings. 5. “ Fortescutus illustratus; or, a Commentary on sir John Fortescue, lord chancellour to Henry VI. his book, De Laudibus legum Angliæ," 1663, fol. with a fine portrait of Waterhouse, by Loggan, and of sir John Fortescue, by Faithorne. 6. “The Gentleman's Monitor," 1665, 8vo, with a portrait by Horlocks."

WATERLAND (DANIEL), a learned English divine, and able assertor of the doctrine of the Trinity, was born Feb. 14, 1683, at Waseley, or Walesly, in the Lindsey division of Lincolnshire, of which parish his father, the rev. Henry Waterland, was rector. He received his early education partly at Flixborough, of which also his father was rector, under his curate Mr. Sykes, and partly under his father, until he was fit to be sent to the free-school at Lincoln, then in great reputation. His uncommon diligence and talents recommended him to the notice of Mr. Samuel Garmstone and Mr. Antony Read, the two successive masters of that school, at whose request, besides the ordinary exercises, he frequently performed others, which were so excellent as to be handed about for the honour of the school. In 1699, he went to Cambridge, and on March 30, was admitted of Magdalen college, under the tuition of Mr. Samuel Barker. In December 1702 he obtained a scholarship, and proceeding A.B. in Lent term following, was elected fellow in Feb. 1703-4. He then took pupils, and was esteemed a good teacher. In 1706 he commenced A.M. In February 1713, on the death of Dr. Gabriel Quadrin, master of the college, the earl of Suffolk and Binden, in whose family the right is vested, conferred the mastership upon Mr. Waterland, who having taken holy orders, was also presented by that nobleman to the rectory of Ellingham in Norfolk. But this made little or no addition to his finances, as he gave almost the whole revenue of it to his curate, his own residence being necessary at college, where he still continued to take pupils, and for their advantage wrote his “ Advice to a young student, with a method of study for the first four years,” which went through several editions.

In 1714, he took the degree of bachelor of divinity, at the exercise for which he gave a proof of no common abi

1 Ath. Ox. vol. II.-Gent. Mag. vol. LXII. and LXVI.—Communication by a descendant.

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