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of the sinner, as that it cannot be a part of his substance, but prepared by God for an extraordinary generation, is not under condemnation solely because the redeemer and redeemed partake of flesh in common. And therefore it is rightly said to be sanctified, that is, preserved from the common condemnation of the sons of Adam. For the word sanctified cannot, in that case, signify purified, or delivered from impurity; as it signifies when applied to the other sons of Adam.” Which of these two opinions is the more simple and more solid, we leave to the judgment of the prudent reader to determine. The words of both seemed however to us worthy of being inserted here.
XII. Thirdly, It is further required in our surety, that he be true and eternal God. “ I will help thee, saith the Lord, and thy Redeemer, the holy one of Israel,” Isa. xli. 14. “I, even I am Lord, and there is no saviour besides me,” Isa. xliü. II. Salvation is not such work, that it cannot be said, “ and the Lord hath not done all this,” Deut. xxxii. 27. It is peculiar to the true Saviour to say of himself, what Isaiah prophesied, chap. xlv. 24. surely in the Lord (be said to me, or concerning me, namely, the Father, who beareth witness of Christ, John viii. 18.) are righteousness avd strength; even to him shall men come : and the reasons are evident.
XIII. None but God can restore us to true liberty. If any creature could redeem and deliver us, we should become the peculiar property of that creature. For he who sets us free, makes a purchase of us for his property and possession. 1 Cor. vi. 19, 20. But it is a manifest contradiction to be freed and to be free, and yet at the same time to be the property and servant of any creature. True liberty consists in subjection to God alone ; so that all things are ours, and we belong to God, and Christ himself, 1 Cor. iii. 22. 23. Adam before the fall was subject to none but God. If, by our deliverance from the fall, we were put under the dominion of any creature, that would rather be a change of servitude than a deliverance. Therefore our Lord says, “ if the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed,” John viji. 36.
XIV. Nonę but God can give us eternal life; which consists in the most intimate union with God; nay in having God for our inheritance, possession and treasure, and even our portion for ever, Psal. lxxiii. 26. But what creature can possibly bestow God upon any ? None but God can give God. He gives himself. Hence, these two are joined, “the true God and eternal life," 1 John v. 20. (XV. None but God can give us išrcíar power or right to be
indas eterna nay in haeven door
come the Sons of God; and even this belongs to the office of surety, John i. 12. For, who but God can bestow the Spirit, ! by whom we become the sons of God by regeneration ; so that of him the whole respice family in heaven and earth má v be named, Eph. iii. 15. Who but God could “ give us these great and precious promises, by which we might be partakers of the divine nature ?” 2 Pet. i. 4. Who else but God, who alone is Lord of heaven, can bequeath by testament the hea. venly inheritance? And who but God can give us that spirit, who is so the spirit of the Father, as to be also the spirit of the Son: “ by whom we may cry Abba Father,” Gal. iv. 6. and who beareth witness with our spirit concerning the future inheritance ? Rom. viii. 16, 17.
XVI. In fine, for man to glory in any one, as his Saviour, and give him the honour of the new creation, to resign himself to his pleasure, and become his property, and say to him, thou art lord of my soul ; is an honour to which no mere creature can have the least claim. “ In Jehovah shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory,” Isa, xlv. 25. “ My spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour,” Luke i. 47. Whom we acknowledge to be our Saviour, we must likewise acknowledge to be our judge, our lawgiver and our king, Isa. xxxiii. 22. A holy soul can only thus rejoice in God; “the Lord reigneth, let the earth rejoice, let the multitude of isles be glad,” Psal. xcvii. I.
XVII. It appears then, that none but he who is true God, could possibly be surety; but the question is, was it absolutely necessary, that he should be Son of God, and the second person in the Trinity ? And here we cannot commend the rashness of the schoolmen, who too boldly measure the things of God by the standard of their own understanding. No bet. ter reason can be assigned for the Son's undertaking the suretiship, than the holy good pleasure of the adorable Trinity. But when it is revealed to us, it is our duty to observe, and proclaim, the wisdom and goodness of God in this constitution.
XVIII. Did not God most wisely order, that he who created man should restore, and as it were, create him a-new ? That he who is the personal Word of God, who commanded light to shine out of darkness, and by whom all things were made, John i. 3. should be that great publisher of the word of the Gospel, whereby God shines in the hearts of the elect, and new creatures, not yet existing, are effectually called, and by that call brought, as it were, into being : Further, as the second person alone is the Son, and our salvation consists in
adoption, was it not proper, that the Son of God should be. come the son of man, that having obtained a right of adoption by him, we might be made his brethren and co-heirs ? More. over, let it be observed, that the Son alone is called “ the image of the Father,” Col. i. 15. Heb. i. 3. and by way of emia nence, “ the beloved of the Father,” Mat. iii. 17. Col. i. 13. Seeing man therefore had, by sin, shamefully defaced the image of God, which he received in the first creation, and thereby most justly exposed himself to the hatred of God : was it not worthy of God to restore that image by his own essential i: mage, in the human nature he had assumed ; in order by that means, to open a way for our return to the favour and love of the Father? In fine, could the philanthropy and love of the Father, be more illustriously displayed to us, than in giving his only begotten Son to us and for us, that in him we might behold the Father's glory? Christ himself lays this before us, John iii. 16.
XIX. The last condition requisite in the surety is, that he should be God-man ; “ God and man, at the same time, in unity of person : one mediator between God and man," 1 Tim. ii. s. For as it was necessary he should be man, and also God, and one surety; it was necessary he should be both these in unity of person,“ God manifested in the flesh," 1 Tim. üi. 16. “ The word made flesh,” John i. 14. “ Of the seed of David according to the flesh, in such a manner, as at the same time to be “the Son of God with power," Rom. i. 3, 4. Which may be further made appear.
XX. Had he been God only he could neither have been subject, nor have obeyed, nor suffered : if mere man, his obedi. ence, subjection, and suffering, would not have been of sufficient value for the redemption of the elect. Nay, a mere creature is so bound to fulfil all righteousness for itself, that its righteousness cannot be imputed and imparted to others : and should we suppose a man, truly and perfectly holy, but yet a mere man, who, according to the law of love, offered himself even to die for his brother, he himself would doubt. less obtain a reward by his righteousness; but could merit nothing for a guilty person, unless perhaps exemption from punishment at most. And therefore it behoved our surety to be man, that he might be capable to submit, obey and suf. fer; and at the same time God, that the subjection, obedience and suffering, of this person God-man, might on account of his infinite dignity, be imputed to others, and be sufficient for saving all, to whom it is imputed. XXI. Moreover, a mere creature could not support under
the load of divine wrath, so as to remove it, and rise again, when he had done ; “ who knoweth the power of thine anger ; even according to thy fear, so is thy wrath,” Psal. xc. II. see Nah. i. 6. It was therefore necessary for our surety to be more than man, that by the infinite power of his Godhead, he might support the assumed human nature, and so be able to bear the fierceness of divine wrath, and conquer every kind of death.
XXII. I shall not conceal what is objected to this argument ; namely, that God could have so supported the human nature, though not personally united to himself, by his divine power, as to have rendered it capable to endure and conquer all manner of sorrows. I dare not refuse this. But yet that would not be sufficient in the present case. Because, by that hypothesis, it would be God himself, by the surety, who would have vanquished his enemies. But it is necessary, that our surety should do this by his own power, that “ his own arm should bring salvation unto him,” Isa. lxiii. 5. and therefore be “ the mighty one of Jacob,” Isa. lx. 16. “ the mighty God, Isa. ix. himself“ stronger than the strong man,” Luke xi. 21, 22. “having life in himself,” John v. 26. and “ having power to take his life again,” John X. 18. To which is required “ the exceeding greatness of his power,” Eph. i. 19. and so should " be declared to be the Son of God with power,” Rom. i. 4.
XXIII. These are the tremendous mysteries of our religion, “ which were kept secret since the world began, but are now, made manifest, and by the scriptures of the Prophets according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith,” Rom. xvi. 25. 26. From hence, the divinity of the Christian religion appears with evidence. What penetration of men or angels was capable of devising things so mysterious, so sublime, and so far surpassing the capacity of all created beings? How adorable do the wisdom and justice, the holiness, the truth, the goodness, and the philanthropy of God, display themselves in contriving, giving, and perfecting this means of our salvation? How calmly does conscience, overwhelmed with the burden of its sins acquiesce in such a surety, and in such a suretiship; when here at length, apprised of a method of reconciliation, both worthy of God, and safe for man? Who; on contemplating these things in the light of the Spirit, would not break out into the praises of the most holy, the inost righteous, the most true, the most gracious, and the most high God? O! the depth of the wisdom and knowledge of Vol. I.
God! O the height of mysteries, which angels desire to look into! Glory to the Father, who raised up, accepted, and gave us such a sure:y! Glory to the Son, who cloathing himself in human flesh, so willingly, so patiently, and so constantly performed such an engagement for us. Glory to the Holy Ghost, the revealer, the witness, and the earnest of so great happiness for us. All hail! O Christ Jesus, true and eternal God, and true and holy man, all in one, who retains the properties of both natures in the unity of thy person. Thee we acknowledge, thee we worship, to thee we betake ourselves, at thy feet we fall down, from thy hand alone we look for salvation. Thou art the only Saviour; we desire to be thy peculiar property, we are so by thy grace, and shall reinain such for ever. Let the whole word of thine elect, withi lis, know, acknowledge and adore thee, and thus at length be saved by thee. This is the sum of our faith, and hope, and this the top of all our wishes. Amen.
CH A P. V. Of the Suretiship and Satisfaction of Christ. 1. HAVING thus spoken of the person of the surety, sở
far as the nature of our design requires, now is the time and place to treat a little more accurately of the satisfaction itself, which, by his suretiship he undertook to give. For he is called the Surety of the Covenant, or Testament, Heb. vii. 22. Not only, nor principally, because he engaged to us in the name of God, to fulfil the promises contained in that testament, if we obeyed his commands, as Curcellons treading in the footsteps of his master Socinus, artfully pretends : but, because he engaged to God for us, to perform all those conditions in our stead; upon which we were to receive the testamentary inheritance. When Hezekiah desired the saving fruit of this suretiship, he prayed, Isa. xxxviii. 14. “I am oppressed, undertake for me.” And God himself, when lie, gives to his Son all the glory of this suretiship, expresses hiinself thus : Jer. xxx. 21. “ for who is this that engaged his heart to approach unto me? saith the Lord." That is, what mortal, nay, what creature dares engage to perform all those things which are incumbent on the priest, who shall have a right to approach to me for liimself and his people. Our surety therefore, thus engaged to God for us. To what purpose is such a surety, who should only engage to us in