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COMMUNIST PARTY, U.S.A.-SOVIET PAWN
INTRODUCTION Since its inception in September 1919, the Communist Party, U.S.A., has been a pawn of Soviet subversion operating within the United States, and an essential cog in the cold war which the Soviet Communist Party is conducting against the United States. This has been demonstrated repeatedly and beyond controversion. But after each previous demonstration of this fact, new proof bas continued to pile up.
The purpose of this staff study is to bring up to date the studies previously conducted in this field.
It seems fantastic that prominent figures in American life have found it possible to ignore the facts about the CPUSA. But it is done, and in certain circles it might be the fashionable thing to do. There seem to be many, still, who are willing to go along with such views as the published statement of a leading American writer that:
We have no need to be thrown off balance by such things as Khrushchev's statement that he would bury us. * * * This, as I see it, was simply a predic. tion: that his political system would live to assist at the funeral of ours, not vice
This is a prediction basic to the Marxist outlook. * * * ? Now, what are the facts? The Communist Party, U.S.A. was founded in September 1919. The late Benjamin Gitlow, one of its original founders, in his autobiographical work described conditions within the CPUSA as follows:
Russians now rule from Moscow. Their decisions and orders must be obeyed. The American Communist Party is only a tool in their hands, its leaders their puppets, who must dance to every tune they play.3
Testifying before the House Committee on Un-American Activities on October 11, 1939, the late Walter G. Krivitsky, former chief of Soviet military intelligence, held that “The Communist parties are nothing more than branch offices of the Russian Communist Party." 4
William Z. Foster, long-time chairman of the CPUSA, now dead, corroborated the above, declaring:
The Communist Party of the United States *** is the American section of the Communist International. * * * The Communist International is a disciplined world party. *** Its leading party, by virtue of its revolutionary experience, is the Russian Communist Party.5
For the guidance of its followers the Daily Worker, official organ of the CPUSĂ, quoted in its March 5, 1939 issue, the following cable from the Moscow Pravda, official organ of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union:
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union always was and always will be a model, an example for the Communist parties of all countries.
1 Notably, "The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent of a Foreign Power," published by the House Committee on Un-American Activities in 1947. ? George F. Kennan's pamphlet “On Dealing with the Communist World," p. 16. (Harper Colophon Books, 1964.) : "I Confess" by Benjamin Gitlow (Dutton, New York, 1940), pp. 57 and 58. 4 Special Committee on Un-American Activities, H.R., vol. 9, p. 5722. 5 "Toward Soviet America" by William Z. Foster (Coward-McCann, 1932), pp. 258, 259.
Members of the CPUSA were directed to study and distribute the History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.". This directive from the National Committee of the CPUSA, ordered:
It will be the task and duty of the membership and organizations of the Communist Party in the coming months to organize and carry through the distribution of the minimum of 100,000 copies of this book.6
Rigid control of the CPUSA by Moscow has been insured in the past by the virtually constant clandestine presence in the United States of a representative (rep), whose functions Benjamin Gitlow described as follows:
A representative of the Communist International to the United States during his stay in the United States was the boss of the party. * * * He automatically became a member of all the leading committees of the party in the United States and participated in its deliberations and enjoyed a vote on matters that were
*** All he had to do was to impose his power and mandate as a C.I. representative, and then his view would prevail.?
Although the Communist International has been dissolved", there is ample reason to believe that the international Communist apparatus in Moscow, and its practice of sending representatives to control Communist parties in non-Soviet countries have been retained in a modified form.
Previous hearings have established that Moscow has in the past distributed vast sums, along with its directives, through various secret channels to support subversive activities in countries outside Russia, including the United States, and there is every reason to believe that the practice continues. 6 Communist (magazine), January 1939, p. 3. 7 Special Committee on Un-American Activities, H.R vol. 7, p. 4590,
ELIZABETH GURLEY FLYNN
With these practices as background, let us examine more recent relations of the CPUSA with Moscow, by following the activities of its leaders.
We shall lean heavily for corroboration upon the Worker, the official organ of the CPUŠA. We shall also quote from the publication Political Affairs, which calls itself the “Theoretical Journal of the Communist Party, U.S.A."
James E. Jackson, Jr., as editor of the Worker, has outlined its relationship with the Party as follows:
The relationship between the Worker and the Communist Party is no deep, dark mystery or secret affair. It is a proud relationship, and openly entered into. The Worker reflects in its editorial policy the view point of the Communist Party on the urgent and fundamental issues of the day and on fundamental Socialist aims. * * *
On its part, the Communist Party of the United States urges its members to read, subscribe to, and distribute the Worker; to participate actively in all of the Worker subscription drives and fundraising campaigns; and to make financial contributions for its sustenance.
And there is no question that these activities on the part of the members of the Communist Party provide the Worker with substantial support.8
Let us examine first certain incidents in the career of Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (recently deceased), former chairman of the CPUSA.
Speaking in Moscow in October 1961, at the 22d Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Miss Flynn expressed "shock” at the attacks on the "international solidarity of the Communist movement” by the Albanian Party of Labor, which was then, as it is now, supporting the Chinese Communist leaders. She deplored the Albanian attacks on the Soviet Union and its Communist Party."
Together with James E. Jackson, Jr., former editor of the Worker, and Henry Winston, vice chairman of the national committee of the CPUSA, Miss Flynn was permitted to use the facilities of the Soviet TV.10 Since the Communist Party of the Soviet Union regards television as a particularly important propaganda weapon, we may assume the Soviet Communist authorities had no fear that Miss Flynn and the other CPUSA leaders with her would voice publicly any opinions unacceptable to the CPSU.
Miss Flynn always was quick to toe the line of CPSU discipline, even when the current CPSU line involved attacks on veteran Communists of long standing. Her newspaper column reveals this clearly. There is no doubt that the attack on Stalinism of the 20th Congress of the CPSC had a profound effect on the Communist Party of the United States, as the following passage from the Worker shows:
The security archives were opened up since the arrest of Beria and a terrible story unfolded of the evil consequences of the cult of the individual. The report of the central committee further revealed that a group of leaders whom they & The Worker, Feb. 11, 1962, p. 3.
The Worker, Oct. 29, 1961, p. 10. 10 The Worker, Nov. 12, 1961, p. 7.
named as "antiparty” resisted these exposures after the 20th congress because they had been involved in many of the acts perpetrated and feared the wrath of the party and the people. They resisted change and fought to keep the status quo, as it had existed under Stalin.
Two actions of great indignation were adopted unanimously—the recommendation for the expulsion of Molotoff, Kaganovitch, and Malenkov from the party, and the removal of Stalin's body from the mausoleum to be buried elsewhere. This was done quickly and decently.11
Commemorating the 45th anniversary of the CPUSA, Miss Flynn contributed an article in the Moscow Pravda condemning the Chinese Communists. She said that the CPUSA supported the Kremlin's "peaceful foreign policy." 12
Miss Flynn celebrated her 74th birthday during her visit in the Soviet Union. Greetings came to her from the central committee of the CPSU, then headed by Nikita S. Khrushchev. A speech in her honor was made by the veteran Communist guerrilla leader, Enrique Lister. In her reply she defended the Communist Party of the Soviet Union against the attacks of the Communist Party of China. 13
A revealing article written by Miss Flynn which appeared in Political Affairs for November 1963, lifted the Iron Curtain to some extent with respect to the dominant role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union toward its affiliated parties, including the CPUSA. Having attended the Congress of the Rumanian Workers' Party in Bucharest in June 1960, as a delegate of the CPUSA, along with the representatives of 50 Communist and workers' parties, Miss Flynn told her readers:
During the sessions of the Rumanian Congress I had had read to me by Russian translator a memorandum of the Soviet delegation, setting forth a serien of complaints against recent actions of Chinese delegations at various internationas gatherings. * * *
1 A preliminary secretariat was set up in Moscow in October in preparation for the 81-party gathering consisting of available representatives of 25 parties. * * * I was there to represent the CPUSA. * * *
A draft statement to be presented to the 81 parties for their consideration and adoption was prepared in advance by the central committee of the CPSU. * Everything necessary was provided by the Russian hosts. * * * The sessions were presided over by the host party-jointly by M. A. Suslov and B. Pono
When Comrade James E. Jackson and I prepared written speeches (I for the secretariat meeting and he for the full meeting), the Russians came to consult us in advance on the exact meaning of particular "American" words. ***
Among other parties, Comrade Khrushchev singled out the American Commu. nist Party again for a special toast, as a party bravely fighting for its rights to function in the heartland of imperialism.14
Miss Flynn was particularly frank in expressing the CPUSA attitude toward the Soviet Union. Writing in Political Affairs, the authoritative theoretical organ of the CPUSA, Miss Flynn who was at the time chairman of the CPUSA, declared:
We who are friends of the Soviet Union should not permit ourselves to be maneuvered into an anti-Soviet attitude, but should try, at all times, to under. stand its position, as a Socialist country. All our pressure should be on our own country to negotiate, and help establish peace in the world.15 (Italics supplied.] Elizabeth Gurley Flynn died in a Moscow hospital at the age of
The cause of death was announced as a blood clot on the lung.
* * *
11 The Worker, Dec. 3, 1961, p. 7. 12 New York Times, Sept. 1, 1964, p. 23. 13 The Worker, Aug. 23, 1964, pp. 6 and 7. 14 Political Affairs, November 1963, “Recollections of the 1960 Conferences,” pp. 22 to 38. 15 Political Affairs, December 1961, p. 26, in an article titled "Impressions of the XXII Congress."
It was ordered, with the approval of the CPSU, that her body lie in state in the Hall of Columns of Moscow's Trade Union House. The central committee of the Soviet Party formed a commission for the funeral, headed by Mikhail Suslov, leading theoretician of the CPSU. 16
Miss Flynn, who was so signally honored by her Moscow mentors, will be remembered as having been convicted in 1953, under the Smith Act, of conspiring to teach and advocate the forcible overthrow of the United States Government.
Miss Flynn was cremated in Moscow. An account of her funeral demonstrates again the close relations between the Communist Party, U.S.A., and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union:
The pallbearers included Herbert Aptheker, 17 representative of the U.S. Com. munist Party, and L. F. Ilichev, a secretary of the central committee of the Soviet Communist Party. * * * A number of Americans stood near by. Among them were John Abt, is Elizabeth's attorney and friend, and Jessica Smith,19 the editor of the New World Review. * * * We also noticed such veterans from former American struggles as Jacob Dvorkin and Cyril Lambkin.20 * * - 21
16 Washington Star, Sept. 6, 1964, p. C-7. 17 Herbert Aptheker is a former editor of Political Affairs, monthly theoretical organ of the Communist Party, U.S.A. In proceedings before the Subversive Activities Control Board in 1956, Aptheker served the Communist Party, U.S.A. as an expert witness. In the past, Aptheker had been an editor of Masses and Mainstream, later known as Mainstream, another Communist magazine. He is the author of a number of books published by International Publishers and New Century Publishers, Communist publishing houses. He has been a teacher at such Communist schools as the Jefferson School of Social Science and the New York School of Marxist Studies.
The House Committee on Un-American Activities, in a report during the 86th Cong., 1st sess., on "Communist Legal Subversion-The Role of the Communist Lawyer," included the following in a section entitled “Case Histories of Some Identified Communist Lawyers":
JOHN J. ABT, NEW YORK 18 “Whittaker Chambers testified before this committee on Aug. 3, 1948, that in the early 1930's John J.Abt was a member of the so called Ware-Abt-Witt group which was composed of Communist Party members employed by various agencies of the U.S. Government. Abt held legal posts with various U.S. Government agencies from 1933 until the summer of 1938; he was in the Legal Division of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration of the Agriculture Department when Chambers knew him. Chambers stated that this underground Communist group to which Abt belonged was organized to carry out the Communist Party's plan to work its members into high, policymaking positions in our Government, with espionage as one of its eventual objectives.
“Elizabeth Bentley, who served as courier between Soviet agents and Communist employees of the Fed. eral Government in the early 1940's, described another so-called “Perlo group' of Communists in the Govern. ment in sworn testimony before this committee on July 31, 1948. The Perlo group, according to Miss Bent. ley, was an underground group of Communists which had been operating since the early 1930's in the Federal Government and which had been collecting information for the benefit of the Soviet Union for some years. Miss Bentley testified that John Abt was the leader of the Perlo group before she herself took it over in March 1944, and that she met Mr. Abt twice for the purpose of being introduced to the members of the group.
“At a hearing by this committee on Aug. 20, 1948, Abt was given an opportunity to refute these charges, but declined to answer questions regarding them on the grounds of possible self-incrimination. As a witness before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee on May 26, 1953, he again invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to answer questions regarding Communist activities.
“In 1949 Abt issued a statement denouncing the conviction of the 11 Communist leaders under the Smith Act as an imposition of thought control. He was one of the lawyers who signed a brief petitioning the United States circuit court of appeals to void the contempt convictions of the lawyers who defended the Communist leaders.”
JESSICA SMITH 11 RED INQUIRY PANEL BALKED BY WOMAN-Washington, April 24-Mrs. Jessica Smith Abt, editor of the New World Review, today claimed her constitutional privilege against self-incrimination in refusing to tell the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee whether she was a Communist.
She also attacked the “witch-hunting nature" of the subcommittee hearing. This brought a prompt invitation from Senator Herman Welker, Republican, of Idaho, that "if you want to be so high and mighty you can help us out by answering the question as to whether you are a Communist. Will you do that?”
She testified that she and John Abt were married in 1937. But she invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to say whether she was married prior to that time to Harold Ware, or whether she had attended meetings of the “Ware cell” of Communists in Washington in the early thirties.
H answer was an indignant ertainly not" when she was asked if there had ev been a meeting of Soviet Union military intelligence agents in her apartment at 444 Central Park West, New York.
Mrs. Abt said the New World Review known until 1950 as Soviet Russia Today, was devoted principally to reporting matters in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and Communist China. (Source: New York Times, Apr. 25, 1956, p. 18.)
CYRIL LAMBKIN 25 Cyril Lambkin was identified as a charter member of the Communist Party, U.S.A., by Liston Oak on Mar. 21, 1947, before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. ("Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the U.S. Regarding Leon Josephson and Samuel Liptzen," p. 71.) The Worker, Sept. 13, 1964, pp. 1 and 10.