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"Nancy Meyere stayed with my family
On her arrival my first questions were, What are you studying over here? What branch of farming? What do you particularly want to see? Cathedrals, churches, our customs, or our arts and culture. To my surprise, Nancy simply answered, 'Neither one of them in particular. All we have come over here for is to work with you and therefore promote a better understanding between our communities and our nations.'
* she gave me quite a large amount of reading matter * * *. The more I read, the more I realized the amount of work and thought that is put into these IFYE projects. I wanted Nancy to meet as many people as possible * * She wanted to share our burdens of work, our hopes, and fears. And while doing so she exposed her own peoples' hopes and fears, and those of her family and herself.
"* * * There will be a greater understanding of IFYE in this country and in America and therefore between the two countries. In fact, between countries throughout the world."- Noel J. Baker, Host Family, Gamage Court Minsterworth, Gloucester, England.
"* * * We were highly impressed by her enthusiasm, her intelligence, her great intuition, and her competence in farm and domestic activities, particularly because if you will excuse my frankness—we Italians judged very differently the ability and domestic education of the American woman. Lila was a true revelation for us and because of her we feel a deep love for our American friends * * *."—Nunzia Locatelli, Host Family, Widow Bianca, Bergamo, Italy.
*** * * I wish to express to the Embassy how happy we have been to make the acquaintance of these four grand young Americans. They represent a youth which can be compared to the best of Danish youth-both with regard to view of life, attitude, and way of thinking. We have been pleased to open our home to them and make it their home during the short time which was at our disposal.
"* * * These young people have contributed to improving international understanding better than anybody else by getting in contact with the ordinary' population in a strange country and later through publications, lectures, etc., in their own country."--Svend Peterson, Host Family, Denmark.
** * * News soon got around that he was here * * *. He took his pictures to the Van Etten Central School (the principal had never seen Finnish pictures in all the years he had been there). He showed the pictures of 4-1 work, also the colored slides in the Van Etten cafeteria for the Finnish people one night. I didn't expect many people, but when we arrived the place was packed * * *.
"* * * We learned so much from him-a wonderful guest and a real diplomat * * *.”—Mrs. Edwin Kesselring, Host Family, Van Etten, N.Y.
"I am firmly convinced that bridges of understanding are built up all over the world by IFYE and that IFYE's are always ready to defend and fortify these bridges.”—Gudrum Berns, Germany.
"The 6 months as an IFYE in the United States have been filled out with so many beautiful and unforgotten experiences, that this time has become something real great in my life * ** I have made many friends and do only hope that I am in the position to extend some of my experiences in order to humbly contribute to a better understanding among the nations.”—Marlene Rix, Germany.
** * * I felt the warmth and understanding of these people thousands and thousands of miles away from my home country, I have learned to understand their way of thinking and their problems and moreover I have learned to estimate and to love them. This, I think, is the basic ideal of IFYE and hope that in future still more young people will have the opportunity of observing that men everywhere feel the same way and existing differences are only created by mankind itself.”—Heinz Dieckhoff, Germany.
"That the spirit and wish of understanding, the consciousness that all nations have one common goal-world peace, loyalty toward others, and respect toward fellow man-is especially alive among IFYE's.”—Karl Schaberle, Germany. Sweden
"* * the first full day in my Gotland host family will illustrate their kind, sympathetic understanding *** the daughter and I had spent the day in the haymow arranging the hay as it was blown up by a blower. It was hard work, for the hay has been unusually heavy this year. When I climbed down, the father,
a big, husky 6-footer, took one look at me, picked me up on his shoulder, and carried me into the house, saying, “Du or trut.” (You are tired.) And I was."Jo Ann Smith, Virginia. England
"My family here is completely thrilled with IFYE * * *. It was very funny because one day at tea they were telling me how worried they were before I came and what they thought I'd look like with this result, 'very tall, much makeup, wearing jeans and earrings and of course chewing gum.' I think I was a bit of a disappointment * **.”—Nancy Meyer, Minnesota. Spain
“After Morocco I spent 3 days in Heulus with an uncle of one of the families in Morocco. It was a wonderful experience for this was a poor family and there were six of us and a 12-day-old baby in two small rooms. Even though they had nothing, they shared what they had with me and kinder people were not to be found.”—Ed Johnson, Georgia. Germany
"The other day Gisella and I were talking about our program. I was explaining it to her. She had this to say about its value: 'You know, before you came, we hated the American soldiers and their wives, now everything is different and it's wonderful to know that you are like us after all. What more could an IFYE ask for?”—Barbara Smith, New Hampshire.
"* * * In this letter, I wish to express my admiration for all the 4-H Clubs of United States * * *
** * * You know more than me the present moment when the communism is trying to fill the world. Lowell made here for the liberty more than a preacher only with his behavior and politeness.
“I think that one of the best means for you to help Latin-America to wrestle Russians is to send boys like Lowell to live with our families. During the time that Lowell lived with us he was like a brother and a son~I would like if you will to thank Lowell by all of good he made by you and by is in his visit to Brazil * * *.”—Gerson Camata, C. Postal, 178, Radio Difusora-Colatina, Esp. Santo Brasil.
“I must congratulate you on the choice made by you and your selection when you chose Don Wiseman (Michigan) as a representative of IFYE in Australia
“* * * Some of the senior members of the Junior Farmers' Club gave him a farewell party at our home last night, and it was most obvious what the youngsters thought of him.
“He made an excellent and a lasting impression at our local Lions Club and at Rotary, and I am sure that his visit has done more to cement AmericanAustralian friendship than a visit by your late John Foster Dulles would have done.”
* * You people have sufficient intelligence to choose lads who are young in years, but also men of the world. You brief them with true American efficiency and you send out young men who are undoubtedly junior ambassadors.”—Joe Strong, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia.
"* * * We are writing to tell you how much we were impressed with the fine attitude of these two girls. They were quite different from the regular tourists, and we are positively sure that such representatives are creating great good will for your country—not only in Switzerland, but also throughout the world.
“We have read the book "The Ugly American.' We feel sure that it never would have been written if the United States would have been represented always by people of this kind. We would like to congratulate the organization IFYE, thank you for its efforts, and wish that the exchange will be continued successfully.”—J. Streiff, U.S. Consulate General, Switzerland.
Senator HUMPHREY. Mr. James M. Lambie, Jr., assistant executive director of CARE.
STATEMENT OF JAMES M. LAMBIE, JR., ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE
Mr. LAMBIE. Mr. Chairman, my name is James M. Lambie, Jr., assistant executive director of CARE, whose world headquarters are at 660 First Avenue, New York. CARE (Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Inc.) is a private, nonprofit organization incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia for the purpose of providing relief and technical assistance supplies, equipment, materials, and services to needy people overseas.
ENDORSEMENT OF THE PEACE CORPS CONCEPT AND PURPOSE
We do not feel competent to judge the merits of specific provisions of S. 2000 (except that CARE would not be making a presentation before this committee were it not that the provisions of section 5(g) of the bill represent an authority under which we are already working with the Peace Corps).
But we should like to record our wholehearted support of the concept of a Peace Corps and the declaration of purpose in section 2 of the bill. We feel that the Peace Corps idea offers the American men and women who volunteer for it not only the opportunity for a meaningful experience that will enrich their lives, forward their careers, and make them more useful citizens—thus benefiting our society--but also the opportunity during their service abroad to make a contribution to the understanding between the peoples of the host countries and the people of the United States, while they pursue their purposes of enhancing social and economic values in the host countries.
USEFULNESS OF CARE'S EXPERIENCE
To expertise on these opportunities CARE can lay some minor claim. We have been operating programs overseas for 15 years. Some 90 Americans currently direct CARE projects in some 28 countries. There is reason to believe that, representing in the broadest possible sense the people of the United States, from whom comes our support, CARE has in its small way had some success in realizing some of the opportunities I have mentioned as those of the Peace Corps volunteers.
Thus, when the Peace Corps was established, it seemed to CARE's board of directors that our experience could be useful, especially in the necessarily experimental or pilot stages of the Corps' operation. We consequently welcomed the chance to contract with the Peace Corps to undertake a community development project in the Republic of Colombia, using Peace Corps volunteers. This project is, in essence, simply an extension of the kind of self-help program with which CARE has been becoming more and more involved, worldwide, in recent years.
THE COLOMBIAN PROJECT
Senator HUMPHREY. This is the program in which 65 additional personnel will be added; is that correct?
Mr. LAMBIE. Sixty-four is the figure.
Senator HUMPHREY. Sixty-four. And you have about an equal number of Colombians that you were planning to utilize; is that right?
1. Mr. LAMBIE. Senator, it is more accurate to say that Colombia has some men in training. I think the number they now have is 52, and they have been in training for about, I think, 3 or 4 months now. They have a 6-month training program of their own.
Senator HUMPHREY. What kind of a training program?
Senator HUMPHREY. What do you mean by community development?
Mr. LAMBIE. Community development can mean any kind of activity that brings community action and improves the social and economic status. Colombia, as you know, about 2 years ago ended a period of 12 years of disruptive internal strife that almost broke down the whole fabric of their society. The present Government has been making some strides in trying to overcome this, and to redevelop the communities which were torn apart by this strife.
The Coffee Growers Association of Colombia, which is one of the largest economic institutions, is cooperating with the Government of Colombia in this effort, and I believe this training program is a joint effort of the Government and the cafeteros, and it is proposed that, as part of our original conversations with the Colombian Government, that if this should eventuate it would be a team operation, the Americans and the Colombians going into the villages in pairs, in teams.
Senator HUMPHREY. Would they do teaching, adult education work?
Mr. LAMBIE. Teaching, not so much in the formal sense; guidance in crafts and what skills the
have. The people that we have selected generally have a farm background because agriculture is the basic place to start, but they may build small farm buildings or, perhaps, schools, building access roads, do sanitation work, drill wells, whatever is needed most and first in the given community. The projects have not been worked out specifically, but these are the kinds of things, animal husbandry, small animals.
RESULTS OF PEACE CORPS-CARE AGREEMENT
The point here, of course, is that the Peace Corps idea makes available for this kind of work a quantity of people that private sources could not provide. That is not to say—and I think the distinction is very important to the issue-- that the Peace Corps provides manpower to forward some private goal of CARE's; we have no goals except to help needy people overseas. It is to say that the Peace Corps brings into the field of economic and social development abroad a new pool of manpower; whenever CARE's knowledge and experience and trained personnel can be approximately called on to make the best use of that manpower, we stand ready to cooperate.
VOLUNTEERS FOR COLOMBIAN PROJECT APPEAR WELL QUALIFIED
How successful the Peace Corps will ultimately be remains for the future to tell. But to the degree that energy and intelligence and industry-qualities that in our observation the staff of the Peace Corps possesses in abundance--may influence the outcome, there is, I should say, great hope for its success.
Of the many unknowns in the Peace Corps equation, among the most crucial was this: What sort of Americans would volunteerwith what qualifications for this arduous service overseas ? For a complete answer we shall probably have to wait until the volunteers have been in their posts for a year or so. But, in large measure because of the careful, if swift, planning, selection techniques, and general groundwork of the Peace Corps staff, the young men who report to Rutgers University on next Monday to begin their training and further selection for the CARE-Peace Corps community development project for Colombia look, on paper—as a result of their test scores, their backgrounds, their general intelligence, and their motivationto be well qualified for the task.
There are, naturally, some perils. But this is a perilous world. If it be true that the gain is to the venturesome, then should we not venture?
NEED TO KNOW BASIC AGRICULTURAL TECHNIQUES
Senator HUMPHREY. Thank you very much for your statement, Mr. Lambie, and thanks very much to CÅRE for the good work that it does.
One of the concerns that I have with regard to this training program relates to your statement that a good deal of the work that needs to be done in many of these countries where the Peace Corps personnel will be involved is agricultural. Even the so-called communities that we in America think of, like Silver Spring, Rockville, Wheaton, or Gaithersburg, are highly developed, but many of these communities to which the volunteers will go are merely villages of farm people. Mr. LAMBIE. Right.
Senator HUMPHREY. They go out to the land, and our agriculture has become so highly industrialized and modernized that we have to almost turn the clock back a bit in terms of preparing people for the kind of training that they must extend to others in a much more primitive, or much less highly developed, agricultural economy.
I hope that Rutgers University is equipped to teach farming.
Senator HUMPHREY. These agricultural short courses that many of our farm people have taken have been very helpful, and I am sure that the Peace Corps itself will want to stress this matter of elementary agriculture.
Mr. LAMBIE. Exactly.
Senator HUMPHREY. That is what you are really dealing with, is it not, in these projects?
Mr. LAMBIE. Yes, sir.
Senaror HUIPHRFY. Your point was very well taken in correcting me in reference to what CARĖ is doing in that CARE is a catalyst, so to speak, in what the country itself will be doing. It provides some of the management; isn't that right?
Mr. LAMBIE. Yes, sir.