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Bodels for use in production forecasting; develop methods to inventory and

-assess conservation practices and pollution effects; and develop methods to detect and monitor insect populations and movements.

Nonpoint Pollution

Ongoing research has led to the development of a mathematical model for

predicting the runoff, erosion, and chemical transport from agricultural lands

under various climatic and management practices. This research has been

necessary for the successful development and implementation of the Resources

Conservation Act and the Rural Clean Water Program to develop the ability to

identify key sources of nonpoint sources of pollution and to apply economical

management practices. This increase will be used to expand existing field scale

models to watershed and basin scales. Increased basic research on the fate and transport of agricultural chemicals will provide data for developing a more

reliable predictive capability for the movement of these materials on

agricultural watersheds. Increased emphasis will also be placed on evaluating changes in water quality that occur during both overland and channel flow.

Soil Erosion/Productivity.

A prime objective of the Resource Conservation Act program is to reduce eros ion

to the tolerance level, or less, in cropland, range, and non-Federal forest land and pasture land. Establishing the tolerance level is difficult because of the

limited research that has been devoted to the effect of erosion on soil


The limited data available demonstrate that eros ion can

drastically reduce crop yields. This proposal would provide for increased

research effort to conduct nation wide field experiments to determine the effect of erosion on soil productivity; quantify the relation between erosion and crop yields; develop conservation tillage systems applicable to a wide range of crop residue and potential soil erodibility conditions; assess the economic benefits of conservation tillage systems and associated erosion control practices; and improve the accuracy and range of application of models for predicting water and wind erosion through the development of a sound theoretical understanding of the

basic mechanics of erosion.

Support of Action Agencies:

This research targets critical needs identified by action agencies--APHIS, FSQS and FDA. Plant protection and quarantine programs of APHIS are the first line of defense against entry and spread of foreign plant and animal diseases and pests. Currently used fumigants for quarantine treatment are of limited value and the safety of their use is being questioned. New treatment methods are needed. Proposed funds will accelerate research on new methods for quarantine treatment and for modern-day scientific techniques to detect contraband. The research needs of FDA and FSQS will focus on protecting the nations food supply against fungal, microbial, and toxic constituents. Proposed funds would be used to intensify the efforts to develop rapid detection and assessment techniques to address the highest priority needs of FSQS and FDA.

àcid Precipitation. The increase in acidity of precipitation during the past 10 years has been documented. As the Nation moves to a greater dependence on coal as an energy

source, the acidity of precipitation is expected to increase still more. Sound

decisions on regulatory controls for emissions, and on agricultural approaches

to ameliorate effects of acid precipitation will require a better understanding

of the extent and nature of acid precipitation and its effect on biological

systems. The proposed increase would be used to initiate a research effort to

assess potential economic losses from the effects of acid precipitation on soils

and plants and to achieve a better understanding of the basic processes


Soil Management Research in Alaska.

Alaska's ability to meet the challenges of expanded agricultural product ion in an environmentally and economically sound nanner will depend, to a large extent, on how well the soil and water resources of the State are managed. This increased funding will be used to develop conservation tillage or other residue management; develop soil and water conservation practices to protect soils being brought into production; develop fertilizer and plant nutrient management

systems that result in optimum fertilizer use efficiency; and develop soil and

vater management practices for the cold soil conditions in Alaska, that allow

· optimal production of crops and maintenance of soil fertility and tilth without

increasing potential soil erosion problems.

Energy Retrofit of Facilities.

The 1982 budget would provide funds to energy retrofit our laboratories with

long term, cost-effective, energy conservation measures. The program would

consist of modification of assigned space that is not energy efficient.

Increased Operating costs so that we can sustain an effective research program, we have included a funding

proposal to finance increased operating costs. Additional funding is essential

to maintain our current effort and to provide our managers with the flexibility

necessary to meet new high priority needs.

National Arboretum
The increase will be used to provide additional security at the National

Arboretum to protect the property and visitors.

Program Reductions

The budget recommends reduction or elimination of some research projects that

have been determined to be of lesser priority relative to the Agricultural

Research missions. These proposed reductions are predicated on the ability of other organizat ions outside the Federal Government to conduct this research, as well as the need to reduce less essential work and government spending. Reductions are recommended in specific areas as described in the Explanatory Notes. These include: tobacco production-related research in keeping with the Department's policy to concentrate its efforts in health and safety aspects of tobacco research; research on the impacts of the Mt. St. Helens eruptions; reduction in wool and wohair research and industrial uses of farm products research; contagious equine metritis and research on stored tobacco insects. There is also a reduction of $12.1 million for nonrecurring construction


This concludes wy statement, Mr. Chairman.

I and my colleagues will be pleased

to respond to your quest ions.


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