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Two points are remarkable in this account of the mission:

First. The Apostle's worldly prudence, in securing his own character from any unworthy attacks by the presence of constant companions. It is remarkable in itself, as exemplifying a combination rarely seen, of common sense and sagacity with great enthusiasm, and as thus fulfilling our Lord's precept, “Be ye wise as serpents and harmless as doves.” 1 It is remarkable also, as agreeing exactly with similar traits recorded in the Acts; his conduct in the Sanhedrin?, in effecting his escape from the conspiracy), in his appeal to the Emperor4, and on board the ship.5

Secondly. The insight which is afforded into the outward administration of the early Church.

(1.) We find, in the expressions, “ through all the Churches,” “messengers of Churches,” a certain intercommunication between the different congregations. They are not independent of each other, on the one hand; and, on the other hand, they are not united to each other by any external polity.

(2.) The officers of the Church are elected by these congregations. This agrees with the form of election of the chief officers, “the Bishops,” which continued down to the fifth century.

(3.) They are elected for specific purposes ; in this case for the administration of the alms of the Churches for the Christian poor in Jerusalem, and to travel with the Apostle. With this agree the frequent indications

. in the Acts, that (to use the words of Jeremy Taylor) “ There was scarce any public design or grand employment, but the Apostolic men had a new ordination to it, a new imposition of hands."1

1 Matt. x. 16.
3 Acts, xxiii. 17.
5 Acts, xxvii. 10. 22. 34.

Acts, xxii. 6. 4 Acts, xxv. 11.

Works, vii. p. 43.

(4.) This is the earliest detailed instance of the especial missions on which the Apostle sent out his favourite and confidential companions at the head of other disciples, to arrange the affairs of a particular Church. What Titus does here at Corinth, is the same in kind as what he is afterwards charged to do at Crete?, returning when his work is ended. 3 And the same may be said of the charge to Timotheus at Ephesus.

2 Tit. i. 15–4, 15,

1 Compare Acts, xiii. 1., xiv. 26., xv. 46.
3 Tit. iii. 12.
4 1 Tim. iii. 1-v. 21. ; 2 Tim. iv. 21.

(3.) The Spirit in which the Collection is to be made.

IX. 1-15.

1X. 1 περί μεν γαρ της διακονίας της εις τους αγίους

The Apostle now once more

thren beforehand." Accordturns back to the collection ingly, the proper construction itself, but reluctantly, as if would be that treuya Sè in he was afraid that he should verse 3., should have followed annoy them by importunity; immediately on the mention of and he therefore hangs what his “ boast,” in viii. 24. But he has to say on the mission he wishes, after his manner, to of the brethren, which he has state his approval of what they just mentioned; and presses had done before he states his upon them (1.) speed, ix. 1- fear of what they were going to 5.; (2.) readiness, ix. 6-7.; neglect; and therefore first (3.) bounty, lx. 8—16. It

expresses the confidence which is difficult in this Section to had caused his boast, and determine how much of his yap then becomes the reason eagerness is caused by anxiety for Kauxhoews, in viii. 24. for the actual contribution, and I speak of my boast and of how much by fear lest the Co- my anxiety concerning it, for to rinthians should play him false urge upon you the contribution by not fulfilling their promises. is needless.” For similar conHence it is safer to leave the structions see viii. 12. 1 Cor. x. l. inference to be gathered from The parenthesis thus introeach particular passage.

duced continues to verse 2., IX. 1. Trepiuèvrydp tîs diako- and the original sentence is νίας, κ.τ.λ. This complication of resumed in επεμψα δέ, in verse thoughts just noticed, is appa- 3. pều may either have a rent in the complicated con- relation to this dé, as though struction of this first sentence. the sentence were περί δε των The sense required is, “ I have dendôvou teplo obv, or may made a boast concerning you stand by itself to limit his to the Macedonian Churches, words to the contribution, as in which I trust will not be nul- 1 Cor. v. 3. ypápeuv is the lified by your lukewarmness. subject and trepiooòv the preFor this reason, though know- dicate. My writing to you ing your zeal, I sent the bre- is superfluous.”

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2. οίδα γαρ την προθυμίαν plaint to the Macedonians, , υμών ήν υπέρ υμών καυχώμαι partly with the view of deliΜακεδόσιν. This is the reason cately giving another motive for Teplodov, “I say superπερισσόνΙ

to the Corinthians to complete fluous, for I know your readi- their work. That he should ness,” &c. Makedóol, without have made an over-statement the article, would in classical is not to be wondered at, if Greek mean, " to such a people we consider his eagerness and as the Macedonians. Here, his love for the Church of however, it probably is used Corinth, and is paralleled by simply as a proper name, like the hasty exclamation about 'Axata in the next clause. őti the High Priest in Acts xxiii. 'Αχαία παρεσκεύασται από 3.-5. πέρυσι. For the meaning of και το υμών ζήλος ήρέθισεν 'Agata, see i. 1. For the fact τους πλείονας.

“ And it was of the preparation of the Corin- by your zeal that the majority thian Church in the past year,

of the Macedonian Christians see viii. 10. παρεσκεύασται were stimulated to their geneneed not perhaps necessarily rosity,” τους πλείονας being mean more than το ποιήσαι and the principal word in the senJéral in that passage. But it tence.

tence. εξ in ο εξ υμών ξηλος, is a strong expression, especially which occurs in D. G., and from the tense, if it only was is omitted in B. C., probably intended to mean that they was inserted, by a later hand, had begun the contribution; in order to imply, without diand the entreaty in the next rectly expressing, that he alverse that they would“ be luded, not so much to the real prepared(iva Tapaokevao ué- zeal of the Corinthians, as the vou řte), as though they were report of the zeal which emananot now prepared, seems to ted from them. Shos" zealous intimate that the Apostle in affection,” see xi. 1. For the his over confidence had over- neuter το ζήλος compare το stated to the Macedonians the Toûtos, viii. 2.

πλούτος. 2 ήρέθισεν, actual fact, and that he now “provoked,” so in a bad sense, presses the fact of his having Col. iii. 21. done so upon the Corinthians, He now proceeds to state partly with the natural view that the “ brethren” (viii. 16 of not giving a cause of com- -24.), were sent beforehand,


ημών το υπέρ υμών κενωθή εν τω μέρει τούτω, ίνα καθώς έλεγον παρεσκευασμένοι ήτε, 4 μή πως, έαν έλθωσιν συν έμοι Μακεδόνες και εύρωσιν υμάς απαρασκευάστους, καταισχυνθώμεν ημείς (ίνα μη λέγωμεν υμείς) εν τη υποστάσει ταύτη." 5 αναγκαίον ούν ήγησάμην παρακαλέσαι τους αδελφούς, ίνα προέλθωσιν προς υμάς και προκαταρτίσωσιν την προεπηγ

• Add της καυχήσεως.

b είs.

See on

to prevent the appearance of and the Versions, were probahis having exaggerated the ge- bly copied from xi. 17., and nerosity of Corinth.

this omission (as well as the κενωθή, « nullified.”

“ ." The analogy of that passage) rensame word is with καύχημα, ders it necessary that υπόσταin 1 Cor. ix. 15. εν τω μερεί σις here should 1 . . .


not τούτω « in this matter,” as dis- " substance," or “solidity," as tinguished from those other in Ps. lxviii. 3. (LXX.); but

. (; matters, in viii. 11-16., in as in Heb. iii. 14., xi. 1.; Ps. which he knew that his boast xxxviii. 8. ; Ezek. xix. 5., and

; . . , would not be nullified.

the numerous passages quoted ίνα καθώς έλεγον παρεσκευ- by Wetstein ad h. 1. from ασμένοι ήτε, « that you might Polybius and Josephus, « con

, be prepared, as I said that you fidence,” the fundamental meanwere prepared.”

ing of the word being “ firm4. Μακεδόνες, « any Mace- ness,” something on which to donians." This shows that the take one's stand." brothers in viii. 17--24., were 5. παρακαλέσαι. not Macedonians. . It also viii. 6.

. . agrees with the fact that

προέλθωσιν... προκαταρτίσωMacedonians did accompany ow, i. e. “ before the arrival of

σιν, ι. . him to Corinth, viz., Sopater, myself and the Macedonians.”

, ., Aristarchus, and Secundus, προκατηγγελμένην (Ι. Κ.), or Acts, xx. 4.

as in Β. C. D. E. G.) προεπηγκαταισχυνθώμεν, ί. ε. a- γελμένην, « announced by me shamed of having exaggera- before my and their arrival to ted.” ίνα μή λέγωμεν υμείς. This, the Macedonians, as in ix. 1. 2. though put in parenthetically, 3. The

The word mpò is thus is probably the real cause of thrice repeated emphatically, as this appeal, as if throwing upon though he had said, “My them the responsibility of de- watchword is, Beforehand fending him.

Beforehand Beforehand." εν τη υποστάσει ταύτη. The Compare the same sense of it words της καυχήσεως, which in xiii. 2. occur only in D3. E'.J. K., and Ευλογία is used in this Secare omitted in Β. C. D. F. G., tion (as nowhere else in the

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