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of the missal cut. Ribadeneira says of chanted a service with prayers and reSt. Nicholas, that “ being present at the sponses, and the boy bishop taking his council of Nice, among three hundred and seat, repeated salutations, prayers, and eighteen bishops, who were there assem versicles, and in conclusion gave his bebled together to condemn the heresy of nediction to the people, the chorus anArius, he shone among them all with so swering, Deo gratias. Having received great clarity, and opinion of sanctity, that his crosier from the cross-bearer other he appeared like a sun amongst so many ceremonies were performed; he chanted stars.” It will be remembered that he is the complyn; turning towards the quire affirmed to have given Arius a clarifying delivered an exhortation; and last of all « box on the ear.'
said, “ Benedicat Vos omnipotens Deus,
Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus."
By the statutes of the church of Sarum, If there were no other, the miracle of for the regulation of this extraordinary the pickled children would be sufficient scene, no one was to interruptor press to establish Nicholas's fame as the patron upon the boy bishop and the other chilof youth, and we find his festival day was dren, during their procession or service in selected by scholars, and the children of the cathedral, upon pain of anathema. the church, for a remarkable exhibition It farther appears that at this cathedral about to be described.
the boy bishop held a kind of visitation, Anciently on the 6th of December, it and maintained a corresponding state and being St. Nicholas's day, the choir boys in prerogative; and he is supposed to have cathedral churches, chose one of their had power to dispose of prebends that number to maintain the state and authority fell vacant during his episcopacy. If he of a bishop, for which purpose the boy was died within the month he was buried like habited in rich episcopal robes, wore a other bishops in his episcopal ornaments, mitre on his head, and bore a crosier in his obsequies were solemnized with great his hand; and his fellows, for the time pomp, and a monument was erected to being, assumed the character and dress his memory, with his episcopal effigy. of priests, yielded him canonical obe About a hundred and fifty years ago a dience, took possession of the church, and stone monument to one of these boy except mass, performed all the ecclesias- bishops was discovered in Salisbury catical" ceremonies and offices. Though the thedral, under the seats near the pulpit, boy bishop's election was on the 6th of from whence it was removed to the north December, yet his office and authority part of the nave between the pillars, and lasted till the 28th, being Innocents' day. covered over with a box of wood, to the
It appears from a printed church book great admiration of those, who, unaccontaining the service of the boy bishop. quainted with the anomalous character it set to music, that at Sarum,* on the eve of designed to commemorate, thought it Innocents' day, the boy bishop and his “almost impossible that a bishop should youthful clergy, in their copes, and with be so small in person, or a child so great burning tapers in their hands, went in in clothes." solemn procession, chanting and singing Mr. Gregorie found the processional versicles as they walked into the choir by of the boy bishop. He notices the same the west door, in such order that the custom at York, and cites Molanus as dean and canons went foremost, the saying that this bishop in some places did chaplains next, and the boy bishop with reditat census, ct capones annuo accipere, his priests in the last and highest place. receive rents, capons, &c. during his He then took his seat, and the rest of the year,” &c. He relates that a boy bishop children disposed themselves on each side in the church of Cambray disposed of a of the choir upon the uppermost ascent, prebend, which fell void during his episthe canons resident bore the incense and copal assumption to his master; and he the book, and the petit-canons the tapers refers to the denunciation of the boy according to the Romish rubric. Af- bishop by the council of Basil which, at terwards the boy bishop proceeded to the time of the holding of that council, the altar of the Holy Trinity, and All was a well-known custom. Mr. Gregorie, Saints, which he first censed, and next who was a prebendary of Salisbury, dethe image of the Holy Trinity, while his scribes the finding of the boy bishop's priests were singing. Then they all monument at that place, and inserts a re* Processionale ad usum insignit et preclare which the annexed engraving is taken.
presentation of it in his treatise, from Ecclesie Sarum, Rothomagi, 1556, 4to.
Monument to a Boy Bishop
IN SALISBURY CATHEDRAL. The ceremony of the boy bishop is Bishop's sermon: and after be at the supposed to have existed not only in hygh masse, and each of them offer a collegiate churches, but in almost every penny to the Chylde-Bishop : and with parish in England. He and his com- them the maisters and surveyors of the panions walked the streets in public pro- scole." cession. A statute of the collegiate church By a proclamation of Henry VIII. of St. Mary Overy, in 1337, restrained dated July 22, 1542, the show of the one of them to the limits of his own boy bishop was abrogated, but in the parish. On December 7, 1229, the day reign of Mary it was revived with other after St. Nicholas's day, a boy bishop in Romish ceremonials. A flattering song the chapel at Heton, near Newcastle-upun- was sung before that queen by a boy Tyne, said vespers before Edward I. on bishop, and printed. It was a panegyric his way to Scotland, who made a con on her devotion, and compared her to siderable present to him and the other Judith, Esther, the queen of Sheba, and boys who sang with him. In the reign the Virgin Mary. of king Edward III., a boy bishop re The accounts of St. Mary at Hill, ceived a present of nineteen shillings and London, in the 10th Henry VI., and for sixpence for singing before the king in 1549, and 1550, contain charges for the his private chamber on Innocents' day. boy bishops of those years. At that Dean Colet in the statutes of St. Paul's period his estimation in the church seems school which he founded in 1512, ex- to have been undiminished; for on Nopressly ordains that his scholars should vember 13, 1554, the bishop of London, every Childermas (Innocents) day, “come issued an order to all the clergy of his to Paulis Churche and hear the Chylde- diocese to have boy bishops and their
processions ; and in the same year these into their houses, anu wad much good young sons of the old church paraded cheer. * St. Andrew's, Holborn, and St. Nicholas Olaves, in Bread-street, and other parishes. In 1556, Strype says that the Nestflowered Heath. Erica nidiflora. boy bishops again went abroad singing Dedicated to St. Nicholas. in the old fashion, and were received by many ignorant but well-disposed persons • Hone on Ancient Mysteries
ard's “ Tables," is on the 7th of December
This quarter of the year comprehend. 3t. Ambrose, A. D. 397. St. Fara, Ab- eighty-nine days, except in leap-yea, bess, A. D. 655.
when it has ninety days. Winter exhu
bits as large a proportion of the cold, as The natural commencement of the summer did of the heat. In spring the winter season, according to Mr. How- cula gradually goes off, to be replaced in
the middle of the season by warmth ; the the proportion indicated by the mean respective proportions being like those temperature; showing the dampness of which obtain in autumn, while their posi- the air at this season. tions are reversed.
“ De Luc's hygrometer averages about “ The mean temperature of the season 78 degrees. in the country is 37.76 degrees. The “ The average rain is 5.868 inches. medium temperature of the twenty-four The rain is greatest at the commencement, hours, descends from about 40 to 34} and it diminishes in rapid proportion to degrees, and returns again to the former the end. In this there appears a salutary point.
provision of divine intelligence : for had “ The mean height of the barometer it increased, or even continued as heavy is 29.802 inches, being .021 inches above as in the autumnal months, the water inthat of autumn. The range of the co- stead of answering the purpose of irrigalumn is greatest in this season; and in tion, for which it is evidently designed, the course of twenty winters it visits would have descended from the saturated nearly the two extremities of the scale of surface of the higher ground in perpetual three inches. The mean winter range is floods, and wasted for the season the however 2.25 inches.
plains and valleys. “ The predominating winds at the be “ Notwithstanding the sensible indicaginning of winter are the south-west: in tions of moisture, which in the intervals the middle these give place to northerly of our short frosts attend this season, the winds, after which the southerly winds actual quantity of vapour in the atmosprevail again to the close: they are at phere is now, probably, at its lowest prothis season often boisterous at night. portion, or rather it is so at the com
“ The mean evaporation, taken in situ- mencement of the season ; after which it ations which give more than the natural gradually increases with the temperature quantity from the surface of the earth, and evaporation.' (being 30.467 inches on the year,) is 3.587 inches. This is a third less than
• Howard's Climate of London.
This is the eldest of the seasons : he
Moves not like spring with gradual step, nor grows
From bud to beauty, but with all his snows
Before him, nor unto his time belong
The suns of summer, nor the charms of song,
Starts into sudden life with scarce a sound,
As tho' to cheat man's ear: yet while he stays
He seems as 'twere to prompt our merriest days,
Literary P. Book.
Dedicated to St. Ambrose.
stocks, African and French marigolds,
the passion flowers, and monthly roses, in The Conception of the Blessed Virgin great perfection, ripe strawberries and
Mary. St. Romaric, Abbot, A. D. 653. raspberries. In the fields and hedges
The winter season of the year 1818, were the sweet-scented violets, heart'swas extraordinarily mild. On the 8th of ease, purple vetch, red robin, wild strawDecember, the gardens in the neighbour- berry blossom, and many others. The hood of Plymouth showed the following oak and the elm retained much of their Sowers in full bloom, viz. :-Jonquils, foliage, and the birds were sometimes Tarcissus, hyacinths, anemonies, pinks, heard as in spring.
obliged to be taken off before the coffin Arbor vitæ. Thuja occidentalis. could be admitted, and it was so heavy. Dedicated to the Conception of the B. V. that the attendants were forced to move it Mary.
along the churchyard upon rollers. *
ST. NICHOLAS IN RUSSIA.
Portugal Cyprus. Cupressus Lusitanica. St. Leocadia, A. D. 304. The Seven Mar
Dedicated to St. Eulalia. tyrs at Samosata, A. D. 297. St. Wulfhilde, A. D. 990.
December 11. A remarkable instance of premature in- St. Damasus, Pope, A. D. 384. Sts. Fusterment, is related in the case of the rev. cian, Victoricus, and Gentian, A. D. 287. Mr. Richards, parson of the Hay, in St. Daniel, the Stylite, A. D. 494. Herefordshire, who, in December, 1751, was supposed to have died suddenly. His friends seeing his body and limbs did not
A gentleman obligingly contributes the stiffen, after twenty-four hours, sent for a subjoined account of a northern usage on
the 5th of December, the vigil of St. surgeon, who, upon bleeding him, and not being able to stop the blood, told them that Nicholas. He communicates his name to he was not dead, but in a sort of trance, the editor, and vouches for the authentiand ordered them not to bury him. They city of his relation, “ having himself been paid no attention to the injunction, but an actor in the scene he describes." committed the body to the grave
the next (For the Every-Day Book.) day. A person walking along the church
In the fine old city of Leewvarden, the yard, hearing a noise in the grave, ran capital of West Friezland, there are some and prevailed with the clerk to have the curious customs preserved, connected grave opened, where they found a great with the celebration or the anniversary of bleeding at the nose, and the body in a this saint. From time immemorial, in profuse sweat; whence it was conjectured this province, St. Nicholas has been that he was buried alive. They were now, hailed as the tutelary patron of children however, obliged to let him remain, as all and confections ; no very inappropriate appearance of further recovery had been association, perhaps. On the eve, or precluded by his interment.*
Avond, as it is there termed, of this fesA writer'in the “ Gentleman's Maga- tival, the good saint condescends, (as zine” some years before, observes, “I have currently asserted, and religiously beundoubted authority for saying, a man was lieved, by the younger fry,) to visit these lately (and I believe is still) living at sublunar spheres, and to irradiate by his Hustley, nearWinchester, December,1747, majestic presence, the winter tireside of who, after lying for dead two days and his infant votaries. two nights, was committed to the grave,
During a residence in the above town, and rescued from it by some boys luckily some twenty years agone, in the brief playing in the churchyard !"
days of happy boyhood, (that green spot in our existence,) it was my fortune to be
present at one of these annual visitations. Corsican Spruce. Pinus Laricio. Imagine a group of happy youngsters Dedicated to St. Leocadia. sporting around the domestic hearth, in
all the buoyancy of riotous health and
spirits, brim-full of joyful expectation, December 10.
but yet in an occasional pause, casting St. Melchiades, Pope, A. D. 314.
St. frequent glances towards the door, with a Eulalia.
comical expression of impatience, mixed up with something like dread of the im
pending event. At last a loud knock is On the 10th of December, 1741, died heard, in an instant the games are susMr. Henry Wanyford, late steward to the pended, and the door slowly unfolding, earl of Essex. He was of so large a
reveals to sight the venerated saint bimsize, that the top of the hearse was self
, arrayed in his pontificals, with pas* Gentleman's Magazine, 1751.
* Gunthi man's Magazine,