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Being thus, “ He from whom the universal the being, concerning whom you would in. world proceeds, who is the Lord of the quire : -Learned men having relinquished Universe, and he whose work is the universe, the notion of self-independence and self-conis the Supreme Being !
sideration, from knowing the Supreme un“ The Ved begins and concludes with derstanding to be the sole source of sense, the three peculiar and mysterious epithets enjoy everlasting beatitude, after their deof God viz. Ist ONG, 2d TUT, 3d SUT. parture from this world. The first of these signifies, “ That Being, “ 3d, Hence no vision can approach him; which preserves, destroys, and creates !" no language can describe him; no intellecThe second implies, “ That only being, tual power can compass or determine him. which is neither male nor female !” The We know nothing of how the Supreme Bethird announces,
" The true being !” ing should be explained : He is beyond all These collective terms simply affirm, that, that is within the reach of comprehension, ONE, UNKNOWN, TRUE BEING, and also beyond nature, which is above conIS THE CREATOR, PRESERVER, ception. Our ancient spiritual parents AND DESTROYER OF THE UNI. have thus explained him to us. VERSE.”
“ 4th, He alone, who has never been The same doctrine is stated over and described by language, and who directs over again in a thousand different language to its meaning, is the Supreme shapes—as, for example, in the follow. Being; and not any specified thing which
men worship: Know Thou this, ing Slokams :
5th, He alone, whom understanding “ He is eternal, he is the splendor of
cannot comprehend, and who, as said by splendor.”
learned men, knows the real nature of un“ He : supreme and glorious.”
derstanding, is the Supreme Being; and “ The sun shines not with respect to
not any specified thing which men worship: him, nor the nortynor fire.”
Know Thou this, “ Thou hearest without ears.'
“ 6th, He alone, whom no one can con“ Thou smellest without a nose.'
ceive by vision, and by whose superintend“ Thou walkest without legs." " Thou seest without eyes.
ance every one perceives the objects of vi.
sion, is the Supreme Being, and not any 56 Thou tastest without a tongue."
specified thing which men worship: Know “ Thou hast no gotram, nor birth, nor Thou this, name, nor shape, nor state, nor place."
“ 7th, He alone, whom no one can hear “ Though thou art thus, yet thou art through the sense of hearing, and who the Lord of the Earth and the Heaven.”
knows the real nature of the sense of hear“ In the same manner as the illusive ap- ing, is the Supreme Being, and not any pearance of water, produced by the reflec- specified thing which men worship: Know tion of the rays in the mirage,
Thou this. “ So the universe shines in thee, the real
“ 8th, He alone, whom no one can perand intelligent spirit.”
ceive through the sense of smelling, and “ Thou canst not be known either by who applies the sense of smelling to its obthe Organs or by the mind, as thou art self jects, is the Supreme Being, and not any resplendent and distinct from elemental spscified thing which men worship: Know Being."
Thou this “ If ignorance be annihilated by know
“ 9th, If you, [continues the Spiritual ledge, as darkness by the dawn, thy light Parent] from what I have stated, suppose will shine like the sun.”
that I know the Supreme Being • The whole had its birth in thee."
thoroughly,' you in truth know very little 65 The whole rests in thee."
of the Omnipresent Being; and any concep« The whole obtains its destruction in
tion of that Being which you limit your thee like bubbles in water."
powers of sense, is not only deficient, but The translation of the Upanishad be- also his description, which you extend to gins thus:
the bodies of the celestial Gods, is also im. “ Ist, Who is he [asks a Pupil of his perfect ; you, consequently, should inquire Spiritual Father) under whose sole will the into the true knowledge of the Supreme Intellectual Power makes its approach to Being. To this the pupil replies : '1
perdifferent objects? Who is he, under whose ceive that at this moment I begin to know authority Breath, the primitive power in God.' the body, makes its operation? Who is he, “ 10th, Not that I suppose, continues by whose direction language is regularly he, that I know God thoroughly, nor do I pronounced ? And who is that immaterial suppose that I do not know him at all ; as being, that applies vision and hearing to among us, he who knows the meaning of the their respective objects ?
above-stated assertion, is possessed of the “ 2d, He (answers the spiritual parent] knowledge respecting God;' viz. • that I who is the sense of the sense of hearing; neither know him thoroughly, nor am enthe intellect of the intellect; the essential tirely ignorant of him.' cause of language; the breath of breath ; 11th, [The Spiritual Father again rethe sense of the sense of vision : _This is sumes : He, who believes that he cannot
comprehend God, does know him ; and he gorical representations of the Sastras for rewho believes that he can comprehend God, lations of real facts, believe him to be chief does not know him ; as men of perfect un- over all other Gods, and that he resides derstanding acknowledge him to be beyond with his wife and attendants on the summit comprehension, and men of imperfect un- of heaven. Similar opinions are also held derstanding suppose him to be within the by the worshippers of Cali, in respect to reach of their simplest perception.”
that Goddess. And in fact the same obser
vations are equally applicable to every class In another of his publications, after
of Hindoo devotees in regard to their respecquoting several similar passages, our tive Gods and Goddesses. And so tenacious author proceeds as follows:
are those devotees in respect to the hon6. Should it be said it still remains un- our due to their chosen divinities, that accountable, that notwithstanding the Véds when they meet in such holy places, as and Purans repeatedly declare the unity of Haridwar, Pryag, sivu-Canchi or Vishnuthe Supreme Being, and direct mankind to Can'hi in the Dekhin, the adjustment of the adore ħim alone, yet the generality of Hin- point of precedence, not only occasions the doos have a contrary faith, and continue to warmest verbal altercations, but sometimes practise Idolatry,' I would in answer request even blows and violence. Neither do they attention to the foundation, on which the regard the images of those Gods merely in practical part of the Hindoo religion is built. the light of instruments for elevating the - Many learned Brahmins are perfectly a- mind to the conception of those supposed ware of the absurdity of Idolatry, and are beings; they are simply in themselves made well informed of the nature of the purer objects of worship. For whatever Hindoo mode of divine worship. But as in the purchases an Idol in the market, or conrites, ceremonies, and festivals of Idolatry, structs one with his own hands, or has one they find the source of their comforts and made up under his own superintendence, it fortune, they not only never fail to protect is his invariable practice to perform certain Idol worship from all attacks, but even ad- ceremonies, called Pran Pratishtha or the vance and encourage it to the utinost of their endowment of animation ; by which he bepower, by keeping the knowledge of their lieves that its nature is changed from that scriptures concealed from the rest of the of the mere materials of which it is formed, people. Their followers too, confiding in and that it acquires not only life but super. these leaders, feel gratification in the idea of natural powers. Shortly afterwards, if the the divine Nature residing in a being re- Idol be of the masculine gender, he marries sembling themselves, in birth, shape, and it to a feminine one, with no less pomp propensities; and are naturally delighted magnificence than he celebrates the nuptials with a mode of worship agrceable to the of his own children. The mysterious prosenses, though destructive of moral prin- cess is now complete ; and the God and ciples, and the fruitful parent of prejudice Goddess are esteemed the arbiters of his desand superstition.
tiny, and continually receive his most ar“ Hindoos of the present age, with a very dent adoration. few exceptions, have not the least idea that “ At the same time, the worshipper of it is to the attributes of the Supreme Being Images ascribes to them at once the oppoas figuratively represented by shapes, corres- site natures of human and of super-human ponding to the nature of those attributes, beings. In attention to their supposed wants they offer adoration and worship under the as living beings, he is seen feeding, or predenomination of Gods and Goddesses. On tending to feed them, every morning and the contrary, the slightest investigation will evening; and as in the hot season he is clearly satisfy every inquirer, that it makes careful to fan them, so in the cold, he is a material part of their system to hold as equally regardful of their comfort, covering articles of faith all those particular circum- them by day with warm clothing, and placstances, which are essential to a belief in the ing them at night in a snug bed. But suindependent existence of the objects of their perstition does not find a limit here: the Idolatry as deities clothed with Divine acts and speeches of the Idols, and their asPower.
sumption of various shapes and colours, are “ Locality of habitation, and a mode of gravely related by the Brahmins, and with existence analogous to their own views of all the marks of veneration, are firmly beearthly things, are uniformly ascribed to lieved by their deluded followers. Other each particular God. Thus the devotees of practices they have with regard to those Siva, misconceiving the real spirit of the Idols which decency forbids me to explain. Scriptures, not only place an implicit cre- In thus endeavouring to remove a mistake dence in the separate existence of siva, but into which I have reason to believe many even regard him as an omnipotent being, European gentlemen have been led by a bethe greatest of all the divinities, who, as they nevolent wish to find an excuse for the ersay, inhabit the northern mountain of Cai- rors of my countrymen, it is a considerable las; and that he is accompanied by two gratification to me to find that the latter wives and several children, and surrounded have begun to be so far sensible of the abwith numerous attendants. In like manner surdity of their real belief and practices, as the followers of Vishnu, mistaking the alle- to find it convenient to shelter them under
such a cloak, however flimsy and borrowed. the balance against the supposed guilt of its The adoption of such a subterfuge encour. violation. ages me greatly to hope, that they will in
“ Murder, theft, or perjury, though time abandon what they are sensible cannot brought home to the party by a judicial be defended ; and that, forsaking the super- sentence, so far from inducing loss of cast, stition of Idolatry, they will embrace the is visited in their society with no peculiar rational worship of the God of nature.” mark of infamy or disgrace.
In the same work the following elo- “ A trifling present to the Brahmin, quent and feeling passage occurs.
commonly called Prayaschit, with the per. “ The physical powers of man are li- formance of a few idle ceremonies, are held mited ; and when viewed comparatively, crimes ; and the delinquent is at once freed
as a sufficient atonement for all those sink into insignificance ; while in the same ratio, his moral faculties rise in our estima- from all temporal inconvenience, as well as tion, as embracing a wide sphere of action, all dread of future retribution. and possessing a capability of almost bound- My reflections upon these solemn truths less improvement. If the short duration of have been most painful for many years. I human life he contrasted with the great age
have never ceased to contemplate, with the of the universe, and the limited extent of strongest feelings of regret, the obstinate bodily strength with the many objects to
adherence of my countrymen to their fatal which there is a necessity of applying it, we
system of idolatry, inducing, for the sake of must necessarily be disposed to entertain but propitiating their supposed Deities, the vioa very humble opinion of our own nature ;
lation of every humane and social feeling. and nothing, perhaps, is so well calculated
And this in various instances ; but more to restore our self-complacency, as the con- especially in the dreadful acts of self-detemplation of our more extensive moral struction, and the immolation of the nearest powers, together with the highly beneficial relations, under the delusion of conforming objects which the appropriate exercise of to sacred religious rites. I have never ceased, them may produce.
I repeat, to contemplate these practices with « On the other hand, sorrow and remorse
the strongest feelings of regret, and to view can scarcely fail sooner or later to be the in them the moral debasement of a race portion of him, who is conscious of having who, I cannot help thinking, are capable of neglected opportunities of rendering benefit better things ;-whose susceptibility, pato his fellow-creatures. From considerations tience, and mildness of character, render like these, it has been, that I (although them worthy of a better destiny. Under born a Brahmin, and instructed in my youth these impressions, therefore, I have been in all the principles of that sect), being tho. impelled to lay before theia genuine transroughly convinced of the lamentable errors
lations of parts of their scripture, which inof my countrymen, have been stimulated to culcates not only the enlightened worship of employ every means in my power to improve one God, but the purest principles of motheir minds, and lead them to the know. rality, accompanied with such notices as I ledge of a purer system of morality. - Living deemed requisite to oppose the arguments constantly amongst Hindoos of different employed by the Brahmins, in defence of sects and professions, I have had ample their beloved system. Most earnestly do I opportunity of observing the superstitious pray, that the whole may sooner or later puerilities into which they have been thrown prove efficient in producing, on the minds by their self-interested guides; who, in de- of Hindoos in general, a conviction of the fiance of the law as well as of common rationality of believing in and adoring the sense, have succeeded but too well in con- Supreme Being only ; together with a comducting them to the temple of Idolatry; plete perception and practice of that grand and while they hide from their view the true and comprehensive moral principle-Do substance of morality, have infused into
unto others as ye would be done by.' their simple hiearts a weak attachment for We should have embraced the preits mere shadow. “ For the chief part of the theory and detail into the merits of this eminent
sent opportunity of entering more in practice of Hindooism, I am sorry to say,
is made to consist in the adoption of a peculiar ferred doing so, because we hope erelong
man's performances ; but we have demode of diet ; the least aberration from which (even though the conduct of the to have more of them in our possession. offender may in other respects be pure and We understand he is himself, at this blameless) is not only visited with the se- moment, on his way to England, for verest censure, but actually punished by ex. the purpose of procuring information clusion from the society of his family and and countenance to assist him in the friends. In a word, he is doomed to undergo prosecution of the noble work he has what is commonly called loss of cast. “ On the contrary, the rigid observance
undertaken. May his success be such of this grand article of Hindoo faith is con
as he deserves! In the intimate knowsidered in so high a light, as to compensate ledge of our language and literature for every moral defect. Even the most
which he has evidently attained, he atrocious crimes weigh little or nothing in has command of an instrument such
NINE UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF
as no heathen philosopher ever before collections ought to be left, to our possessed. His own candid and manly great national depositary, the British understanding is, we have no doubt, Museum. It is but justice to Mr well prepared for the more full recep- D’Israeli, to acknowledge, that he aption of the Truth ; and in him, we pears to have been the first who disc would fain hope, Providence has at covered the peculiar talent of our letlast raised up one destined to work ter-writer; for, after rather a severe great things for India.
estimate of his literary character, he adds: “ His most pleasing, if not his great talent, lay in letter-writing: here he was without a rival.” We may consider this critical decision as a sort
of prophecy, which the large volume, The recent publication of Horace recently published, has most amply Walpole's correspondence with his verified. friend, a man of fashion, which soon We have just received some of these excited curiosity, at the same time letters, transcribed from their origihighly gratified public taste. That nals; but we observe, that none of exquisite letter-writer, in a manner them appear to have been those from quite his own, caught the Cynthia which mir D’Israeli offers so many of the minute;" events so fugitive, passages to shew “ how he delighted that they scarcely can be deemed e- to ridicule authors, and to starve the vents, and personages of such slight miserable artists he sn grudgingly appearances, that they would have paid;” and how “b juarrelled with proved impalpable under a less ethereal and ridiculed every man of genius he pen. With a truth of nature he has personally knew ;' and how“ he who communicated just that sort of inter- had contemned Sidney, &c. at length est which we cannot refuse him. More came to scorn himself.”* There must or less had been fatal : less, and all therefore remain behind these no inwould have been flatness ; more, and considerable number: the admirable he would have turned out that most one in our last appears to have been intolerable of all triflers, a serious one. drawn from the same source. There is a feminine delicacy in the character of our letter -writer, for Strawberry Hill, March 9, 1765. which we might distinguish him as DEAR SIR, I had time to write but the Madame Sevigné of men; but his a short note with the Castle of Otranabounding wit, his polished sarcasm, to. Your partiality to me and Strawa and the entire absence of all sympathy berry, have, I hope, inclined you to for any human being, has enabled him excuse the wildness of the story. You to prove at once his sex and his ori- will even have found some traits to ginality. But we must not forget that put you in mind of this place. When Horace Walpole was a literary charac- you read of the picture quitting its ter, and we regretted a deficiency, in pannel, did not you recollect the porthat volume, of his literary corres- trait of Lord Falkland all in white in pondence. We wish to see it sup- my gallery ? Shall I even confess plied, because we have reason to be to you what was the origin of this lieve the thing is obtainable. We romance? I waked one morning in the have already had specimens of this beginning of last June from a dream, nature, which have only whetted our of which all I could recover was, that appetite. These will be found pub- I had thought myself in an ancient lished about four years ago in Mr castle (a very natural dream for a D'Israeli’s “ Calamities of Authors.” head, filled, like mine, with gothic stoIn that work, among many other ry), and that in the uppermost banoriginal discoveries concerning those nister of a great staircase, I saw a giauthors who formed the subjects of gantic hand in armour. In the evenhis inquiries, we find the literary ing I sate down and began to write, character of Horace Walpole struck without knowing in the least what I out with great originality and truth, intended to say or relate. The work from a perusal of a considerable correspondence Walpole held for twenty * See the whole character, designed to il. years with the literary antiquary Cole, lustrate the pains of fastidious egotism,” who left his collections, where all such in “ Calamities of Authors.” Vol. i. p. 100.
longs to them.
grew on my hands, and I grew fond one gossips when one is alone and of it.-Add, that I was very glad to quiet on one's own dunghill. Well, think of any thing rather than politics. it may be trifling, yet it is such trifling In short, I was so engrossed with my as ambition never is happy enough to tale, which I completed in less than know !
Ambition orders palaces, but two months*, that one evening I wrote it is Content that chats for a page or from the time I had drunk my tea, two over a bower. Yours ever, about six o'clock, till half an hour after one in the morning, when my hand and fingers were so weary, that
1769. I could not hold the pen to finish the “ Have you seen Granger's Supplesentence, but left off Matilda and Isa- ment? Methinks it grows too diffuse. bella talking in the middle of a para- I have hinted to him that fewer panegraph. You will laugh at my earnest- gyrics from funeral sermons would not ness; but if I have amused you, by re- hurt it. There are few copies printtracing with any fidelity the manners ed but on one side of the leaf. To of ancient days, I am content, and give my mortification, though I have four you leave to think me as idle as you thousand heads, I find, upon a rough please.
calculation, that I still want three or My bower is determined, but not four hundred." at all what it is to be. Though I It appears that Granger received write romances, I cannot tell how to only £100, to the times of Charles I. build all that
Ma- -and the rest to depend on public fadame Danois, in the fairy tales, used vour, for the continuation. “Walpole to tapestry them with jonquils, but as seems to have been doubtful of its that furniture will not last above a
success, from the small number of fortnight in the year, I shall prefer collectors then, though he hopes that something more huckaback. I have the anecdotic part of it will make it decided that the outside shall be of
more known and tasted.” treillage, which, however, I shall not After the death of Granger, he commence, till I have again seen some writes, “ Granger's papers have been of old Louis's old fashioned galanteries purchased by Lord Mountstuart, who at Versailles. Rosamond's bower, you has the portrait-frenzy as well as I; and I and Tom Hearne know was a and though I am the head of the sect, labyrinth ; but as my territory will I have no longer the rage of propagatadmit of a very short clue, I lay aside ing it; nor would I on any account all thoughts of a mazy habitation, take the trouble of revising and pubthough a bower is very different from lishing the MSS. Mr Granger has an arbour, and must have more cham- drowned his taste for portraits in the bers than one.
In short, I both know ocean of biography; and though he and don't know what it should be. I began with elucidating prints, he at am almost afraid I must go and read last only sought prints, that he might Spenser, and wade through his allego- write the lives of those they repreries and drawling stanzas to get at a sented. His work was grown, and picture t; but good night! See how growing so voluminous, that an a
bridgement only could have made it In a little volume entitled Walpoliana, useful to collectors."* edited by Mr Pinkerton, and probably containing some, perhaps many genuine things which fell from Walpole in conversation, he is made to say, “ I wrote the Castle of
Arington Street, Jan. 28, 1772. Otranto in eight days, or rather eight nights, Mr Mason has shewn me the relicks for my general hours of composition are of poor Mr Gray. I am sadly disapfrom ten o'clock at night till two in the pointed at finding them so very inconmorning, when I am sure not to be disturbed by visitants.” Thus are wonderful stories propagated in conversation by the vanity of the author, and the wondering of * An abridgement of Granger would only the literati, that serve for Anas ! or printed have been committing an injury with conversaziones.
Granger; but the desired object for the † To judge by the intolerable mediocrity mere collector, has since been obtained by of Walpole's own verses, one conceives how Bromby's “ Catalogue of Engraved Porsuch a man might be afraid to go and read traits,” a valuable book for its size and Spenser, the poet of