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produced on two rolls. Richard Myers prepared the introductory material for both publications.

freedmen's labor contracts. The assistant commissioner directed the policies and programs of the Freedmen's Bureau in North Carolina, whose activities included the issuance of food, clothing, and medical supplies to refugees and freedmen, establishment and maintenance of schools for freedmen, supervision of freedmen's labor contracts and indentures, investigation of freedmen's complaints, and rendering assistance to black soldiers and sailors in filing and collecting claims for bounties, pensions, and pay arrearages. Jack L. Best prepared the editorial material and arranged the records for filming. The Negro in the Military Service of the United States, 1639-1886 (M858) consists of five rolls that reproduce seven volumes of records collected for intended publication by the Colored Troops Division of the Adjutant General's Office. This compilation, made under the supervision of Elon A. Woodward between 1885 and 1888, consists of copies from U.S. government and Confederate records in addition to a few original documents. Most of the coverage pertains to the Civil War and in particular to the organization and service of U.S. Colored Troops. Minimal coverage has been accorded to the revolutionary and prerevolutionary periods, War of 1812, and post-Civil War period, and none to the Mexican War. Jack L. Best prepared the editorial material.

Microfilm publications relating to the history of the Confederacy have been published. Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Confederate Organizations (M861) consists of seventy-four rolls. The carded records were compiled by the War Department Records and Pension Office, beginning in 1903, from original Confederate and Union records in the custody of the War Department. For each unit the cards relate such information as its stations, movements and activities, and sometimes its organization, composition, strength and losses, and disbandment. Geraldine N. Phillips prepared the editorial material.

Papers Pertaining to Vessels of or Involved with the Confederate States of America, Vessel Papers" (M909) consists of thirty-two rolls reproducing several thousand alphabetically jacketed files. The “Vessel Papers” were artificially assembled by the Archives Office and its successor, the Confederate Archives Division of the War Department, during the late nineteenth century from Confederate records that had passed into U.S. government custody. Most of the files reproduced herein pertain to privately owned shipping that carried passengers or freight for the Confederacy. Some files, however, pertain to vessels of the Confederate navy or government and to nonConfederate shipping, which became militarily or commercially involved with the Confederacy. The files include such documents as vouchers pertaining to the transportation of passengers and freight, correspondence, receipts, invoices, requisitions, papers pertaining to claims, contracts, bills of lading, passenger and crew lists, shipping articles, muster rolls and payrolls, accounts of proceedings in Confederate prize courts, decrees of condemnation and sale, and lists of foreign vessels entering and leaving Confederate ports. Robert H. Gruber prepared

Two microfilm publications concerning the service of volunteer soldiers who served during the Cherokee Indian difficulties of 1836-39 are available: Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served During the Cherokee Disturbances and Removal in Organizations From the State of Georgia (M1907), reproduced on one roll, and Indexes to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers IVho Served During the Cherokee Disturbances and Removal in Organizations From the State of Tennessee and the Field and Staff of the Army of the Cherokee Nation (M908), re

the editorial material and arranged the records for filming.

Register of Confederate Soldiers, Sailors and Citizens Who Died in Federal Prisons and Military Hospitals in the North, 18611865 (M918) reproduces on a single roll a volume compiled in the Office of the Commissioner for Marking the Graves of the Confederate Dead. The typescript register contains alphabetically arranged burial lists that give the name, rank, company, regiment, date of death, and number and location of grave for each individual interred. Robert H. Gruber prepared the editorial material.

predominantly to the recovery of sums of money due under various forms of obligation or promise, such as nonpayment of promissory notes, personal injury, contested title to real estate, or infringement of patents or copyrights. Most of the equity cases related to alleged infringement of patents. Mary Joe Minor prepared the records for microfilming and wrote the introductory remarks for both publications.

Law Case Files of the U.S. Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York, 1790-1846 (M883) and Equity Case Files of the U.S. Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York, 1791-1846 (M884) are the last of six microfilm publications reproducing most of the pre-1840 records of this court. Together the equity and law cases comprised most of the original jurisdiction civil cases before the court. The law cases, those in which a remedy was provided by common law or statute, related

The Internal Revenue Assessment Lists for Iowa, 1862-1866 (M766), Kansas, 18621866 (M767), Maine, 1862-1866 (M770), Maryland, 1862-1866 (M771), South Carolina, 1864-1866 (M789), and Virginia, 18621866 (M793) are now available on microfilm. The assessment lists were created as a result of the Internal Revenue Act of 1862, which imposed periodic taxes on manufactures, income, and personal property. The lists, compiled by district assessors, contain information on trades, occupations, financial institutions, insurance companies, and sales of livestock. They should prove especially useful for biographers, local historians, and researchers interested in public finance, banking, or specific industries.


To illustrate the varied research possibilities among the holdings of the National Archives, the presidential libraries, and the federal records centers, each issue of Prologue notes recent books based to some extent on records in the custody of the National Archives and Records Service. Authors, editors, and publishers are encouraged to submit books for future listing.

America's Lighthouses: Their Illustrated History since 1716. By Francis Ross Holland, Jr. (Brattleboro, Vt.: Steven Greene Press, 1972. 215 pp. Index. $15.00.) In two introductory chapters the author deals with European and colonial lighthouses and technical developments in lamps and fuels. A detailed chapter on the administrative history of aids to navigation in the United States is followed by sections on the duties and life of the keepers and the evolution of lightships, especially the development of the design of the vessels. But most of the book consists of histories of individual lighthouses in the United States and its possessions.

The author relied on the United States Coast Guard “Clipping Files,” general correspondence of the Light House Board, annual reports of lighthouses, Light House Service Bulletins, Light Lists, and published rules, regulations, and instructions of the board.

William F. SHERMAN Legislative, Judicial, and Fiscal Branch

Federal Land Series: A Calendar of Archival Materials on the Land Patents Issued by the United States Government, with Subject, Tract, and Name Indexes. Vol. ume 1. 1788 -1810. By Clifford Neal Smith. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1972. 368 pp. Maps and indexes. $20.00.) This volume calendars governmental correspondence and other archival material for the period 1788 to 1810, during which time the federal government issued thousands of land patents to individual settlers on western lands chiefly in Ohio. The author has calendared administrative correspondence of the United States Treasury Department, which was in charge of what became the General Land Office, as well as correspondence of the district land offices, surveyors general, surveyor of land south of Tennessee, boards of land commissioners, and territorial governors. Smith's introduction explains the scope of the work and includes a discussion of archival source materials, many of which are available as microfilm publications from the National Archives. The work is comprised chiefly of serial entries, which calendar the original documents, and name, subject, and tract indexes. All names of persons, and their addresses when given, tract descriptions, and subject matter are set forth in the serial entries.

Records of the General Land Office in the National Archives were researched extensively for this study. Among the records examined were the Miscellaneous Letters

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journal has been taken as the basic text, although, as the editor observes, the official text is really the manuscript journal in the records of the Senate in the National Archives. All variations in the textual forms, rough notes made during Senate sessions by Secretary of the Senate Samuel Otis, the manuscript made from those notes, and the final printed edition-have been carefully noted and listed in this volume.

In addition to textual variations, notes identify the various documents referred to in the text of the journal such as bills, committee reports, and petitions. Many of these documents, located in the National Archives or other repositories, will be printed in future volumes. Cross-reference notes lead the reader to subsequent actions of the Senate regarding the issues under consideration. A glossary of legislative terms and an appendix listing the bills considered in the First Congress are also provided. The vol. ume is attractively printed in a form similar to that of the original journal and is thoroughly indexed. Although more immediate interest may attend the publication of the later volumes of unofficial papers, the Senate Legislative Journal is a necessary and distinguished beginning to this documen

tary series.

Documentary History of the First Federal Congress of the United States of America. Volume 1. Senate Legislative Journal. Edited by Linda Grant De Pauw. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972. 775 pp. Index. $22.50.) This volume is the first of a projected eighteen that will reprint significant public and private documents of the first federal Congress, 1789 to 1791. The official records related to the Congress, defined by the editor as all documents produced by order of the Senate or the House of Representatives or directed to the Senate or House, are to be published as the first nine volumes. The concluding volumes will contain such unofficial documents as letters, newspaper articles, and diary entries.

In issuing the Senate Legislative Journal as the first volume, the editor has begun with the most basic of the official records of Congress. Each house is required by the Constitution to keep a journal of its proceedings, which is a record of the acts of each house not a transcript of debates. The proceedings of the Senate in regard to treaties and presidential appointments are recorded in the Executive Journal, which is scheduled as the next volume in this series.

De Pauw states in the introduction that editorial annotation will be more elaborate in the volumes of unofficial documents and that the primary aim of the notes in this first volume is to establish an accurate text. The contemporary printed edition of the

CHARLES SOUTH Legislative, Judicial, and Fiscal Branch

The Papers of John C. Calhoun. Volume 6. April 1, 1821-March 31, 1822. Edited by W. Edwin Hemphill. (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1972. 826 pp. Bibliography and index. $17.95.) The sixth volume of the John C. Calhoun papers contains more than 435 transcriptions and 890 abstracts of documents in numerous repositories. Since the volume covers a portion of Calhoun's long tenure as secretary of war, a majority of the documents are from the National Archives. Each is described by record group number, series title, and, whenever possible, by item. Documents reproduced in the volume reflect the range of Calhoun's activities. At the behest of an economy-minded Congress, Calhoun presided over a major retrenchment of the army that involved reductions in military personnel and spending for fortifications. Since the War Department also administered the government's Indian policies, much of the correspondence is with officials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Of interest is another series of letters with Andrew Jackson, then governor of the recently acquired Floridas. Readers will find correspondence of a less official nature scattered throughout the documents, such as letters revealing Calhoun's political aspirations as the second term of Monroe's administration commenced and the Era of Good Feelings drew to a close.

ELAINE EVERLY Old Military Branch

port on the Department of the Pacific. The records of the Adjutant General's Office furnished post returns from Fort Orford, Oregon, a consolidated file of reports by Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Buchanan relative to his operations during the Rogue War of 1855-56, and Colonel Joseph K. F. Mansfield's 1855 inspection report on the Department of the Pacific.

ROBERT H. GRUBER Old Military Branch

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Requiem for a People: The Rogue Indians and the Frontiersmen. By Stephen Dow Beckham. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971. Maps, photographs, bibliography, and index. $7.95.) The Indian bands of southwestern Oregon, known collectively as Rogues, numbered about 9,500 in the early 1850s when whites began to settle in their country. Initially friendly Rogue-white relations soon degenerated into killings and warfare. Indian resentment at white encroachment led to attacks on immigrants and settlers, which in turn provoked white retaliation. At length, the Rogues were crushed by military expeditions conducted in 1851, 1853, and 1855-56 by U.S. and local volunteer forces. By the late 1850s, the Rogue population had been decimated by warfare, massacres, and disease. Most of the survivors were forced onto reservations.

Beckham did not use the holdings of the National Archives extensively, although he cites both cartographic and textual records. The records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers furnished maps as well as Captain Thomas J. Cram's topographical re

Brahmin in Revolt: A Biography of Herbert C. Pell. By Leonard Baker. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1972.


Illustrations, bibliography, and index. $7.95.) Leonard Baker presents a popular biography of Herbert C. Pell, tracing his brief rise in politics from Progressive county committeeman in 1912, to Democratic congressman from New York's Silk Stocking District in 1918, to defeated candidate for reelection in 1920. Pell's family relationships and friendship with Franklin D. Roosevelt are portrayed, and almost half the book is devoted to his diplomatic career which included appointments as minister to Portugal and Hungary and as the United States representative to the United Nations War Crimes Commission. Pell is sympathetically pictured as a man of high principles who played an important role in leading America from its age of innocence to its acceptance of the responsibilities of world leadership.

Baker used the Herbert C. Pell papers and the Franklin D. Roosevelt papers at the Roosevelt Library as well as the oral history transcripts at Columbia University and interviews with members of the Pell family.

DONALD B. SCHEWE Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

Hugo Black: The Alabama Years. By Virginia Van der Veer Hamilton. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972. 330 pp. Photographs, bibliography,

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