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Barrels and other containers for lime.
Barrels for fruits, vegetables and other dry commodities, and for cranberries,

SUBCHAPTER E-FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES

255

Fellowships in laboratory standardization and testing for qualified citizens

of other American Republics. Research Associate Program.

256

SUBCHAPTER AMEASUREMENT SERVICES

PART 200—POLICIES, SERVICES, (5) Advisory service to Government PROCEDURES, AND FEES

agencies on scientific and technical prob.

lems. Sec. 200.100 Statutory functions.

(6) Invention and development of de200.101 Measurement research.

vices to serve special needs of the Gov200.102 Standards for measurement.

ernment. 200.103 Types of calibration and test serv- (b) The calibration and testing activiices.

ties of the Bureau stem from the func200.104 Consulting and advisory services.

tions in paragraph (a) (1) and (3) of 200.105 Standard reference materials.

this section. These activities are as200.106 Critically evaluated data. 200.107 Publications.

signed primarily to the NBS Institute 200.108 WWV-WWVH-WWVB Broadcasts.

for Basic Standards. Its program pro200.109 Request procedure.

vides the central basis within the United 200.110 Shipping, insurance, and risk of loss. States for a complete and consistent sys200.111 Priorities and time of completion. tem of physical measurement; coordi200.112 Witnessing of operations.

nates that system and the measurement 200.113 Reports. 200.114 Use of results or reports.

system of other nations; and furnishes 200.115 Fees and bills.

essential services leading to accurate and 200.116 Description of services and list of

uniform physical measurements throughfees, incorporation by reference. out the Nation's scientific community,

industry, and commerce. AUTHORITY: The provisions of this part 200 are issued under sec. 9, 31 Stat. 1450, as

(c) The provision of standard referamended; 15 U.S.C. 277. Interprets or applies

ence materials for sale to the public is sec. 7, 70 Stat. 959; 15 U.S.C. 275a.

assigned to the Office of Standard ReferSOURCE: The provisions of this part 200

ence Materials of the NBS Institute for appear at 32 F.R. 21012, Dec. 29, 1967, unless Materials Research. It evaluates the reotherwise noted.

quirements of science and industry for $ 200.100 Statutory functions.

carefully characterized reference mate

rials, stimulates the Bureau's efforts to (a) The National Bureau of Stand

develop methods for production of needed ards has been assigned the following

reference materials and directs their functions (15 U.S.C. 271–278e):

production and distribution. For infor(1) The custody, maintenance, and mation on standard reference materials development of the national standards of

see Subchapter B, Chapter II, of this measurement, and the provision of Title 15. means and methods for making measure

(d) The provision of technical servments consistent with those standards,

ices to facilitate technical innovation and including the comparison of standards

industrial use of the results of modern used in scientific investigations, engi

science and technology is assigned to the neering, manufacturing, commerce, and

NBS Institute for Applied Technology. educational institutions with the stand

The principal elements of the Institute ards adopted or recognized by the Gov

are (1) a Center for Computer Sciences ernment.

and Technology which conducts research (2) The determination of physical con

and provides technical services designed stants and properties of materials when

to improve cost effectiveness in the consuch data are of great importance to sci

duct of agency programs through the use entific or manufacturing interests and

of computers and related techniques; (2) are not to be obtained with sufficient ac

technical divisions which provide serycuracy elsewhere.

ices in technology of more general ap(3) The development of methods for

plicability; and (3) the Clearinghouse testing materials, mechanisms, and for Federal Scientific and Technical Instructures, and the testing of materials,

formation which promotes widest effecsupplies, and equipment, including items tive use by the scientific community, inpurchased for use of Government depart

dustry, and commerce of current informents and independent establishments. mation in all fields of industrial tech

(4) Cooperation with other govern- nology. mental agencies and with private organizations in the establishment of stand

$ 200.101 Measurement research. ard practices, incorporated in codes and (a) The NBS Institute for Basic specifications.

Standards carries out the Bureau's functions in developing an adequate national related to the SI units by agreed-upon system of physical measurement, and in conversion factors. providing related callbration services. Its (b) The SI units for the six quantities staff continually reviews the advances in are defined as follows: science and the trends in technology, (1) In terms of a prototype object: examines the measurement potentiali- (i) Mass: The "kilogram” is the mass ties of newly discovered physical phe- of a platinum-irridium cylinder prenomena, and uses these to devise and im- served at the International Bureau of prove standards, measuring devices, and Weights and Measures in Sèvres, France. measurement techniques. As new re- Prototype No. 20 is kept at NBS; equivaquirements appear, there are continual lent prototypes are kept by other counshifts of program emphasis to meet the tries. most urgent needs for the measurement (2) In terms of natural phenomena: of additional quantities, extended (i) Length: The "meter" is the length ranges, or improved accuracies.

of exactly 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of (b) The basic research and develop- radiation in vacuum corresponding to the ment activities of NBS are primarily unperturbed transition between the funded by direct appropriations, and are levels 2p10 and 5ds of the atom of krypaimed at meeting broad general needs. ton 86, the orange-red line. The Bureau may also undertake investi- (ii) Time interval: The "second" was gations or developments to meet some long defined as 1/86400 of the time respecialized physical measurement prob- quired for an average complete rotation lem of another Government agency, in- of the earth on its axis with respect to dustrial group, or manufacturing firm, the sun. This, with daily corrections using funds supplied by the requesting from zenith transits of a star, is the organization.

basis for a universal time scale (UT). $ 200.102 Standards for measurement.

With further correction for polar mo

tion, it becomes UT1, and with further (a) An international treaty, the Met

correction for annual seasonal variaric Convention, was signed by 18 coun- tions, UT2. Also, the earth's average tries in 1875. In 1893 the United States

daily rotation rate has been decreasing, established prototype No. 27 of the inter

thereby increasing the length of each national meter bar and prototype No. 20 year by about 6 ms over the length of the of the international kilogram as U.S.

preceding year. Because of this, and Prototype Standards for length and other larger random fluctuations, the mass. Representatives of many of the universal second thus defined is not a 40 nations now adhering to this treaty constant. Consequently, the 11th Conmeet periodically, in the General Con- ference (1960) ratified the definition of a ference of Weights and Measures, to con- second based on ephemeris time (ET): sider detailed proposals concerning in- "the fraction 1/31,556,925.9747 of the ternational standards for physical meas- tropical year for January 0, 1900 at 12 urement. Successive Conferences have

o'clock ephemeris time.” The 12th Connow agreed to adopt six units to serve

ference (1964) authorized the designaas a practical base for an International tion of a cesium atom transition as a system of Units (Système International

standard of frequency to be used temd'Unités, abbreviated SI)—kilogram, porarily for the physical measurement meter, second, kelvin, ampere, and can- of time. The 13th Conference (1967) dela. These are arbitrarily chosen but abrogated the 1960 action and decided precisely defined magnitudes of six phys- that: The unit of time of the Internaical quantities—mass, length, time, tem- tional System of Units is the second, deperature, electric current and luminous fined in the following terms: "The secintensity, respectively-which are

ond is the duration of 9,192,631,770 pesigned unitary value in the International

riods of the radiation corresponding to System. Because the system is coherent,

the transition between the two hyper

fine levels of the fundamental state of the expressions for the other quantities

the atom of cesium 133." of science and technology derived from

(iii) Temperature: The "kelvin,” the these six through the equations of

unit of thermodynamic temperature, is physics will also have unitary coefi

the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodycients. The units of the English system, namic temperature of the triple point of pound, inch, second, degree Fahrenheit, water. It was decided by the 13th Conetc.—and of other systems of units are ference that the same name, kelvin, and

as

the symbol K should be used for express- reau of Weights and Measures, through ing temperature intervals, dropping the international scientific organizations, or former convention which expressed & by direct arrangement. The operations of temperature interval in degrees Kelvin the International Bureau are supervised or as abbreviated, deg K. However, the by the General Conference of Weights old designations are acceptable tempo- and Measures, to which U.S. delegates rarily as alternatives to the new ones. are appointed by the Department of One may also express temperature in- State. tervals in degrees Celsius.

(f) Frequency and time comparisons (iv) Electric Current: The "ampere" within the United States are made by the is that constant current which if main- National Bureau of Standards, the U.S. tained in two straight parallel con- Naval Observatory, and other organizaductors of infinite length, of negligible tions which have an interest in precise circular sections, and placed 1 meter time and frequency standards. The data apart in a vacuum, would produce be- from worldwide astronomical observatween these conductors a force equal to tions and from standards laboratories in 2x 10-7 newton per meter of length. many countries are coordinated by the

(v) Luminous intensity: The “can- International Bureau of the Hour, which dela" is the luminous intensity, in the announces recommended approximations direction of the normal, of a blackbody for the rate difference between atomic surface 1/600,000 square meter in area, and universal time, as well as for epoch at the temperature of solidification of adjustments. platinum under a pressure of 101,325 newtons per square meter.

$ 200.103 Types of calibration and test

services. (c) Although the six base units, and others derived from them, are exactly (a) NBS has developed instrumentadefined, their practical use requires a tion and techniques for realizing standrealization through the development of ards for the six base units of the Interaccurate measurement standards. Meas- national System of Units, as agreed upon urement standards may be based on by the General Conference of Weights physical phenomena, specimen objects, and Measures. Reference standards have signal sources, or reference instruments. been established not only for these six Extensive theoretical studies and labora- base units, but also for many derived tory experiments are involved in their quantities and their multiples and subselection, design, construction, and oper- multiples. Such reference standards, or ation.

equivalent working standards, are used (d) It will be noted that a kilogram to calibrate laboratory and plant standmass standard can be calibrated only ards for other organizations. Accuracy is through a series of comparisons, starting maintained by stability checks, by comfrom the International Prototype. The

parison with the standards of other naunits for the other five base quantities, tional and international laboratories, and all quantities derived from them, are and by the exploration of alternative in principle independently realizable in techniques as a means of reducing posmany laboratories. In practice, however, sible systematic error. inevitable minor differences among in- (b) Calibrations for many types of instruments, environments, and operators struments and ranges of physical quantiare bound to introduce small discrepan- ties are described in the itemized service cies. Periodic comparison of standards schedules of SP 250. On those services and the resolution of these discrepancies for which fees have been established, the is required for compatibility among fees are also listed in SP 250. In cases domestic standards laboratories, as well where fees have not been fixed, services as internationally.

will be billed on the basis of actual costs (e) Within the United States, NBS incurred. (See $ 200.116 for details reconsults with the major industrial and lating to the description of service items governmental standards laboratories, and listing of fees.) Changes in services and cooperates with the Department of and fees are announced in supplements Defense and the National Conference of

to SP 250 and in the monthly NBS Standards Laboratories in conducting

Technical News Bulletin.' measurement agreement comparisons. Periodic inter-comparisons of NBS

1 For sale by the Superintendent of Docustandards with those of other countries

ments, U.S. Government Printing Office, are made through the International Bu- Washington, D.C. 20402.

(c) Special measurements not listed in SP 250 may be made upon request These might involve unusual physical quantities, upper or lower extremes of range, higher levels of accuracy, fast response speeds, short durations, broader ranges of associated parameters, or special environmental conditions. Such inquiries should describe clearly the measurement desired. Indication of the scientific or economic basis for the requirement to be satisfied will be helpful in determining future NBS programs. Fees for work accepted will be based upon actual costs incurred.

(d) The principal emphasis of the National Bureau of Standards is on those calibrations and other tests requiring such accuracy as can be obtained only by direct comparison with its standards. However, in order to maintain efficient utilization of specialized equipment and skilled personnel, NBS may when workload permits calibrate devices requiring lesser accuracy but suitable for working standards in plant or laboratory.

(e) Other services which may be obtainable include:

(1) Tests of measuring instruments to determine compliance with specifications or claims, when the evaluation is critical in national scientific or technical operations, and when suitable facilities are not available elsewhere.

(2) Referee tests in important cases when clients are unable to agree upon the method of measurement, the results of tests, or the interpretation of these results, but have agreed in advance in writing to accept and abide by the findings of NBS.

(f) NBS reserves the right to decline any request for services if the work would interfere with other activities deemed by the Director to be of greater importance. In general, measurement services are not provided when widely available from commercial laboratories, nor for organizations or individuals in foreign countries.

(g) Suggestions will be offered on measurement techniques and on other sources of assistance on calibration or measurement problems when the Bureau's own equipment and personnel are unable to undertake the work. The National Conference of Standards Laboratories issues a Directory of Standards Laboratories in the United States which perform calibration work (obtainable from NCSL Secretariat, c/o National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C.

20234). Those which perform testing are listed in the ASTM Directory of Testing Laboratories, Commercial and Institutional. (Directory available from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.) Similar listings appear in buyer's guides for commercial products and in technical journals concerned with physical measurement.

(f) NBS reserves the right to decline any request for services if the work would interfere with other activities deemed by the Director to be of greater importance. In general, measurement services are not provided when widely available from commercial laboratories. 132 F.R. 21012, Dec. 29, 1967, as amended at 33 F.R. 10627, July 26, 1968; 38 FR 17493, July 2, 1973] $ 200.104 Consulting and advisory serv

ices. (a) In areas of its special competence, the National Bureau of Standards offers consulting and advisory services on various problems related to measurement, e.g. details of design and construction, operational aspects, unusual or extreme conditions, methods of statistical control of the measurement process, automated acquisition of laboratory data, and data reduction and analysis by computer. Brief consultation may be obtained at no charge; the fee for extended effort will be based upon actual costs incurred.

(b) To enhance the competence of standards laboratory personnel, NBS conducts at irregular intervals several group seminars on the precision measurement of specific types of physical quantities, offering the opportunity of laboratory observation and informal discussion. A summer course in electromagnetic measurements and standards is conducted periodically by the NBS Radio Standards Laboratory at Boulder, Colorado. $ 200.105 Standard reference materials.

Often the performance of a device or structure can be evaluated at the user's laboratory by comparing its response to unknown materials with its response to a standardized specimen or a substance of certified composition, properties, or purity. Types of such specimens are listed in several of the detailed fee schedules in SP 250. For information regarding carefully characterized materials see Subchapter B of Chapter II of this Title 15. The Office of Standard Reference Materials in the NBS Institute for Materials

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