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He left the pamphlet to itself, having disowned it to Dennis', and perhaps did not think Pope to have deserved much by his officiousness.

This year was printed in The Guardian the ironical comparison 68 between the Pastorals of Philips and Pope?; a composition of artifice, criticism, and literature, to which nothing equal will easily be found. The superiority of Pope is so ingeniously dissembled, and the feeble lines of Philips so skilfully preferred, that Steele, being deceived, was unwilling to print the paper lest Pope should be offended. Addison immediately saw the writer's design; and, as it seems, had malice enough to conceal his discovery, and to permit a publication which, by making his friend Philips ridiculous, made him for ever an enemy to Pope.

It appears that about this time Pope had a strong inclination 69 to unite the art of Painting with that of Poetry, and put himself under the tuition of Jervas ?. He was near-sighted *, and therefore not formed by nature for a painter : he tried, however, how far he could advance, and sometimes persuaded his friends to sit. A picture of Betterton, supposed to be drawn by him, was in the possession of Lord Mansfield : if this was taken from the life, he must have begun to paint earlier ; for Betterton was now dead s. Ante, ADDISON, 65.

In The Tatler, No. iv, Jervas is Written by Pope. Ante, GAY, 4;

called the last great painter Italy post, A. PHILIPS, 20.

has sent us.' Walpole speaks of his “Mr. Addison did not discover Mr. wretched daubings. Yet he sat at the Pope's style in the Letter on Pastorals top of his profession. ... In general in The Guardian (No.40]; but then his pictures are a light flimsy kind of that was a disguised style. Spence's fan-painting, as large as the life.' Anec. p. 168.

Anecdotes of Painting, iv. 23. Warburton says (vii. 203) that it According to Pope he valued himwas taken for a serious criticism by self, not on his pictures, where he had Steele, and indeed by all at Button's merit; but 'on the translation of Don (ante,' ADDISON, 115] except Mr. Quixote without Spanish.' WarburAddison, who saw into the joke im- ton, vii. 232 n. The translation has mediately; and the next time he met great merit. See also ante, DRYDEN, Mr. Pope told him into what a ridi- 146 n. I; post, POPE, 106, 213 n. culous situation he had put his friends, Writing to Cromwell on July 17, who had declared their dislike of 1709, about a young gentlewoman, having Philips so extolled at the ex- who saluted him by name 'in an unpense of another of the Club.'

easy stage-coach,' he says:- I had 3 He began in the spring of 1713. never more reason to accuse nature Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), for making me short-sighted than vi. 7, 183, 186. 'Which gives you now, when I could not recollect I had the most pleasure, Sir, poetry or ever seen those fair eyes which knew painting?' Spence asked of him. 'I me so well.' Pope's Works (Elwin really can't well say ; both of them and Courthope), vi. 80. are extremely pleasing. Spence's 5 Betterton died in 1710. Pope

wrote to Caryll in 1713:—'I find my

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Anec. p. 23.

Pope's ambition of this new art produced some encomiastick verses to Jervas', which certainly shew his power as a poet, but

I have been told that they betray his ignorance of painting?. 70 He appears to have regarded Betterton with kindness and

esteem; and after his death published, under his name, a version into modern English of Chaucer's Prologues, and one of his Tales, which, as was related by Mr. Harte, were believed to have been the performance of Pope himself by Fenton, who made him a gay offer of five pounds, if he would shew them in the hand of

Betterton 71 The next year (1713) produced a bolder attempt, by which

profit was sought as well as praise. The poems which he had hitherto written, however they might have diffused his name, had made very little addition to his fortune. The allowance which

hand most successful in drawing of Paulo's free stroke and Titian's friends, and those I most esteem, in- warmth divine'somuch that my masterpieces have told Warton he did not think these been one of Dr. Swift, and one of artists exactly characterized.' WarMr. Betterton.' Pope's Works (Elwin ton, ii. 295. He was willing to bid and Courthope), vi. 193.

thirty guineas for a fan painted by Hawkins says that Johnson has in- Pope. He said that 'the skill with correctly reported the following anec- which it was painted was such as dote which he had from him :-'A might be expected from one who picture of Betterton, certainly copied only painted for his amusement, like from Kneller by Pope, Lord Mans- the work of a child.' Gwynn's Mefield once showed me at Kenwood moirs of an Eighteenth Century House, adding that it was the only Painter, p. 99. one he ever finished; for that the Johnson described lines 67-8– weakness of his eyes was an obstruc- Led by some rule that guides, but tion to the use of the pencil.' John- not constrains, son's Works, 1787, iv. 90.

And finished more through happiPope designed 'the frontispiece to ness than pains 'a small edition of the Essay on Man.' as 'a union that constituted the ultiWalpole's Anec. iv. 25. It is the mate degree of excellence in the fine frontispiece to Knapton's edition of arts.' Johnson's Misc. ii. 254. 1748. The plate is inscribed with 3 Part of this anecdote Warton had Pope's name, and Feb. 6, 1744, as from Harte. Warton, ii. 158. 'The the date of publication. N. & l. internal evidence supports the con6 S. i. 135. See also ib. pp. 161, 225. clusion that Betterton composed the In the Catalogue of the Goods at translation, and that Pope merely Twickenham, taken after his death, revised it.' Pope's Works (Elwin is the following :—'In the Garrets. and Courthope), i. 160, vi. 157. For The room next the leads 17 drawings Betterton see Cibber's Apology, ch. by Mr. Pope.' Ib. 6 S. v. 363. For iv; The Tatler, No. 167; and Warton, other drawings by him see Spence's vii. 119 n. Anec. p. 336.

Ante, POPE, 9. 'In 1716. Pope's Works (Elwin Pope began translating the Iliad and Courthope), iii. 207.

in 1712.

Post, POPE, 88 n. The · Reynolds, speaking of 11. 37-8, following are the payments he reCaracci's strength, Correggio's softer ceived from Lintot down to 1716 for line,

his earlier poems:



his father made him, though, proportioned to what he had, it might be liberal, could not be large”; his religion hindered him from the occupation of any civil employment, and he complained that he wanted even money to buy books ?.

He therefore resolved to try how far the favour of the publick 72 extended, by soliciting a subscription to a version of the Iliad, with large notes

To print by subscription was, for some time, a practice peculiar 73 to the English. The first considerable work for which this expedient was employed is said to have been Dryden's Virgils, and it had been tried again with great success when The Tatlers were collected into volumes 6.

There was reason to believe that Pope's attempt would be 74 successful. He was in the full bloom of reputation, and was personally known to almost all whom dignity of employment or splendour of reputation had made eminent; he conversed indifferently with both parties, and never disturbed the publick with his political opinions; and it might be naturally expected, as each faction then boasted its literary zeal, that the great men, who on other occasions practised all the violence of opposition, would emulate each other in their encouragement of a poet who had delighted all, and by whom none had been offended?,

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19th February, 1711-12. Statius, rities he had invested. Pope's Works

First Book, Vertumnus and Po- (Elwin and Courthope), v. 150. mona. £16 25. 6d.

a 'Lord Oxford used often to ex21st March, 1711-12. First Edition, press his concern for my continuing Rape of the Lock. £7.

incapable of a place; which I could 9th April, 1712. To a Lady on pre- not make myself capable of without

senting Voiture, Upon Silence, To giving a great deal of pain to my the Author of a Poem called Suc- parents.' POPE, Spence's Anec.p. 305. cessio. £3 16s. 6d.

See also Warburton, iv. 69; ante, 23rd February, 1712-13. Windsor DRYDEN, 136 n. ; SWIFT, 32 n. Forest. £32 55. od.

Spence's Anec. P. 304. 23rd July, 1713. Ode on St. Cecilia's * Post, POPE, 345. The proposals Day £15.

were issued in October, 1713. Pope's 20th February, 1713-14. Additions Works (Elwin and Courthope), vi.

to the Rape of the Lock. £15. 1st February, 1714-15. Temple of Ś In 1697. Ante, DRYDEN, 147 n. 4. Fame. £32 55.

In 1688 Tonson published a new 31st April, 1715. Key to the Lock. edition of Paradise Lost by subscrip£10 155.

tion (ante, MILTON, App. N); and in 17th July, 1716. Essay on Criticism. 1691Wood disposed of about 415 £15.'

copies (out of 500] of his Athenae [Nichols's Lit. Anec. viii. 299.) Oxon. by subscription.' Malone's

* His father, in 1713, lost heavily Dryden, i. 234. by the partial bankruptcy of the Ante, ADDISON, 34. French government, in whose secu- ? Post, POPE, 217, 271 n.


199 n.



With those hopes, he offered an English Iliad to subscribers, in six volumes in quarto, for six guineas; a sum, according to the value of money at that time, by no means inconsiderable, and greater than I believe to have been ever asked before. His proposal, however, was very favourably received, and the patrons of literature were busy to recommend his undertaking, and promote his interest'. Lord Oxford, indeed, lamented that such a genius should be wasted upon a work not original; but proposed no means by which he might live without it?: Addison recommended caution and moderation, and advised him not to 'be content with the praise of half the nation, when he might be universally favoured 3.

wrote to Pope in 1715:—'If your subscribed for in Oxford and thirty friends the Whigs continue, you may in Cambridge. See vol. xv for List. hope for some favour; if the Tories ? Post, POPE, 91. 'He affected,' return, you are at least sure of quiet.' writes Warburton,'to discourage that Pope's Works (Elwin and Courthope), design; for so great a genius (he vii. 10. Writing to Swift in 1734 he said) ought not to be confined to spoke of 'that strict neutrality as to translation.' Warburton, iv. 69. See public parties which I have constantly also Spence's Anec. P. 304. observed in all my writings.' Ib. p. *Our Lord Oxford,' wrote Swift to 319. He might perhaps more justly Pope, 'used to curse the occasions have said with Johnson (Boswell's that put you on translations.' Pope's Johnson, i. 504) : I took care that Works (Elwin and Courthope), vii. the Whig dogs should not have the 49. Bolingbroke wrote to Pope : best of it,

* Prelude with translations, if you * In the list of subscribers are found please, but after translating what was the Libraries of ten Oxford Colleges, writ 3,000 years ago it is incumbent and the names of six members of upon you that you write, because you Colleges. There is no entry under are able to write, what will deserve Cambridge. Cowper, thinking it to be translated 3,000 years hence likely that in his Homer he should into languages as yet perhaps unbe patronized by Cambridge, wrote:- formed.' Ib. vii. 394. "I understand that on whatsoever Bolingbroke perhaps had in mind, occasion either of those learned bodies

How many ages hence thinks fit to move, the other always Shall this our lofty scene be acted makes it a point to sit still, thus o'er proving its superiority.' Southey's In states unborn and accents yet unCowper, vii. 2.

known!' Of the two-guinea edition of Prior's

Julius Caesar, Act iii. sc. I. Poems, 1718 (ante, PRIOR, 41), thirty- Johnson says of Young :'To seven copies were subscribed for in translation he never condescended.' Oxford and fifty-nine in Cambridge. Post, YOUNG, 158. See List of Subscribers prefixed.

Pope told Spence that 'Addison Of Thyer's Remains of Butler (ante, wrote a letter to him when young, BUTLER, 20), 2 vols. 8vo, 1759, sixty- in which he desired him not to list nine copies were subscribed for in himself under either party. “You," Oxford, twenty-three in Cambridge, says he, “who will deserve the praise and fifty-nine in Lisbon. See List of the whole nation, should never prefixed.

content yourself with the half of it.”' Of the edition of Swift's Works, Spence's Anec. p. 9. For the letter, 17 vols. 8vo, 1765, 106 copies were published by Pope as Addison's, see

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The greatness of the design, the popularity of the author, and 76 the attention of the literary world, naturally raised such expectations of the future sale, that the booksellers made their offers with great eagerness; but the highest bidder was Bernard Lintot', who became proprietor on condition of supplying, at his own expence, all the copies which were to be delivered to subscribers, or presented to friends, and paying two hundred pounds for every volume.

Of the quartos it was, I believe, stipulated that none should be 77 printed but for the author, that the subscription might not be depreciated; but Lintot impressed the same pages upon a small folio, and paper perhaps a little thinner 3 ; and sold exactly at half the price, for half a guinea each volume, books so little inferior to the quartos, that, by a fraud of trade, those folios, being afterwards shortened by cutting away the top and bottom, were sold as copies printed for the subscribers *.

Lintot printed two hundred and fiftys on royal paper in folio 78 for two guineas a volume; of the small folio, having printed seventeen hundred and fifty copies of the first volume, he reduced the number in the other volumes to a thousand.

It is unpleasant to relate that the bookseller, after all his hopes 79 and all his liberality, was, by a very unjust and illegal action, defrauded of his profit. An edition of the English Iliad was printed in Holland in duodecimo, and imported clandestinely for the gratification of those who were impatient to read what they could not yet afford to buy. This fraud could only be counteracted by an edition equally cheap and more commodious; and Lintot was compelled to contract his folio at once into a duodecimo, and lose the advantage of an intermediate gradation. The notes, which in the Dutch copies were placed at the end of each book, as they had been in the large volumes, were now

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